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D £ 


VOL. V. 



The URAIKEFT, or Book of OGHAMS, a Fragment, 

with 9) Tranflation and Explanation. 


TERMS of the BREHON-AMHAN LAWS explained, 

&c. &c. &c. 


Libera per vaccuum jpofui veftigia princeps, 
Non aliena meo preffi pede. Qui nbi fidit 
Dux, regit examen. 

————— aut tineas pafces taciturnus inertes, 
Aut fogies Uticam, ant vindhis mitteris Ilerdam. 

By Colonel CHARLES VALLANCEY, l.l.d. 

Fellow of the Royal Society, and of the Societies of Antiquaries of Leudon, 
Edinburgh, and Perth ; Mtmbcx of the Royal Iriih Academy, 
and of the Phil. Soc. of Philadelphia, fee. 



By JOSEPH C. WALKER, m.r.i.a. 

Printed and fold by R. MARCHBANK, No. xz, Dame-ftreet, 


- V8 












X TAKE the liberty of dedicating to your 
Lordfhip the following work, and hope I 
fhall not be thought guilty of prefumption 
in wifhing to draw your attention to its 

It wag written under the opinion of your 
Lordfhip's approbation, and under the 
fan&ion of your name it is to carry its 
principal recommendation to the world. 

To whom could a work of this kind be 
fo properly addreffed as to your Lordfhip, 
who poffefles a mind equally capable of 
the deeped fpeculation, as of the moil 
a£Hve exertion * equally converfant with 
polite literature, as with the more abftrad- 
ed ftudics, and whofe knowledge of the 



Northern and Oriental languages, is fcarce* 
ly credible in one of your Lordfhip's years, 
the better part of which have been fpent, 
with fo much honour, araidft the noife and 
confufion of arms. 

Imprefled with the warmeft fenfe of your 
Lordfhip's goodnefs, in permitting me to 
prefix your name to this Volume of the 
Colkftanea de Rebus Hibernicis> and deeply 
fcnfible of the honour conferred on me, 

I have the honour to be, 

My Lord, 

Your moft obedient and 

* 4 

Moft humble fervant, 


July 12th, 1790. 







T Page* 

INTRODUCTION, containing an hiftorkal account 

of the Southern Scythians from' their firfl fettlement in 

the Eqfi to their arrival in Spain and Ireland ', I 

Okaf. L TbeOgkam Writing r>f the ancient Iriflr ex- 

Chap. Hf. ' The Tree the Symbol of Knowledge of Nu? 
merdts ana of Literary fchara&ers - ' - I05 

Chop* III. . Ctf the. Origin * gf Numerals and of &lph§- 
betif writing ; - : . ,^ . l^y 

Chap. IV. Numerals ajjume the Powers if Htwary 
Characters » - - 158 

Chap. V. Of the Vfe and Application of the Calef- 
tial Alphabet y as an Agronomical Character ; and of 
the Origin of the Figures on the CaleJIial Globe - 188 

Chap. VI. Of the Eftrangol or Ancient Charatler of 
the Chaldeans - - 201 

Chap. VII. Selecl Terms of Law and Government, ' 
and other remarkable words % extracted front the Breith* 
amhan Laws, proved to be Arabic or Chaldaan 218 

Chap. VIII. Recapitulation t. Origin of the Feudal 
. Syftem of Government - - 300 

& THE Author, defirous of printing die Arabic words is 
their proper chara&ers, prevailed on. the printer to borrow iH 
the Arabic Typ* 8 » d" 8 ^7 afforded ; after all endeavours to 
compleat the alphabet, but one Kaf, and no final Nm f could 
be found, and feveral deficiencies in the points appeared. We 
were therefore under thtfneceffity of writing mdftof the 
Arabic words in Roman letters, adopting the found in the beft 
manner we could. 


1 N our laft volume, we gave a literal translation 
of the principal paflages of the ancient hiflory of 
Ireland ; wherein the errors of the former tranfla- 
tion were pointed out, and proofs were adduced, 
from ancient authors, that the Scutbai, from whence 
the Irifli are defcended, were the Cotti or Catai of 
the Eaft : that they were origijully Heated in Me- 
fopotamia, Shinar and Af taenia, and had fettled 
in Egypt, Paleftine and Phoenicia, from whence 
they emigrated to Spain, and laftly to the Britannic 

We are now going to treat of their learning, 
and their fkill4n Arts and Sciences ; and to prove, 
to ufe the words of Antiphanes, £*?« far •«*» « £k»6«» 
*Hfe«> that all this Scythian family were renowned 
for wifdom (a). 

Two very learned men have walked before me, 
in this path, very lately ; Mr. Bryant and Monf. 
D'Ancarville ; from thefe authors, we fhall draw 
fuch teftimonies, fupported by other more ancient 
authors, as will corroborate our Vindication of the 
Hi/lory of Ireland. This is a neceflary flep, be- 

B caufe 

(a) Apttd Athenaeum, L 6. p. 226. 

- 1 


caufe it appears, that there are yet forne, who 
chained down to the ideas they had formed of the 
Scythians, (from fuch Hiilories as are generally 
read at School,) having been a rude And barbar- 
ous people, find a difficulty in allowing, thofe of 
whom we have treated, to have been the firft or 
one of the firft nations in the Arts and Sciences of 
the Eaft : or that their descendants, h^d any id?a 
of the Arts and Sciences of the anci.eiits. ' 

Extrafts from Brvafit'* Mythology, . (i) vol. 3. 

p.'i 3 $,"&c. • ■ '-"- ; - : -r • 

*. • # « J * » * . /' 

" Scythta, fay*;tMs teatti^d author,- is. an un- 
limited, undefined ferm, tinder which Grecian 
ignorance {fceltered itfelfc-*to'hateVer was unknown 
northward, waa called^ Scythian— whereas, it is 
notorious, that this vaft track of country, called 
ignorantly Scyt&ia, wadpajfeffed by people effen- 
tially differing from one another. Mitttfi&ktes 
had twenty languages fpokefc within his territories, 
moft of which were ignotafttty efteemed Scythk. 
According to Timofthenes there we*e fto fefo than 


1 >i* c. • 

(fi) Anew Syftem or Analysis of Ancient Mythology ) a 
work in which the novel ingenuity of the. Analytic Syftem ; 
the penetration and judgment difpKyed in the refutation of vul- 
gar errors : with the new and ia^orWng light in which the author 
has placed a variety of ancient Jfo&s ; leaves the learned world 
only to regret, that this claflrcal writer had not, t<> Kisfmgular 
knowledge in Greek and Roman literature, added fome tincture 
of the languages and learning of the Eaft* Richardfop Dif- 
fertatjon, p. 104. 


three hundred, which had each their particular lan- 
guage : yet, we fpeak of the Scythians colte&ively, 
as of one family and of one language ; and this 
the Titanian or Celtic. The true Stuthai or Scy- 
thians were undoubtedly a very learned and intelligent 
people \ but their origin is not to be looked for in 
the north of Afia, and the deferts of Tartary : 
their hiftory was from another quarter — for, how 
can we fuppofe, one uniform language to have 
been propagated from a part of the world, where 
there was fuch variety ?— The greater part of thefe 
nations, commonly ftiled Scythic, were barbarous 
to the laft degree: there are no monuments or 
writings remaining, nor any upon record, which 
caji afford us the leaft idea of their being liberal 


or learoed-, . 

4f The Hum and Ovares were of thefe parts, who 
over-ran the empire in the fourth century i but 
their character had nothing in it favourable. Pro- 
copius fays, that they neither had letters, nor 
would bear of them : fo that their children had no 
iniitu&ion. Infhort all the Tartarian nations of 
old, Teem to have been remarkably rude : I fay of 
old, for there have in later times been fome in- 
stances to the contrary. 

" As we have been for fo many ages amufed 
with accounts of Scy thia : and feveral learned 
moderns* taking advantage of that obfcurity, in 
which its hiftory h involved, have fpoken of it in 
a molt unwarrantable mariner > and extended it to 

B 2 an 





an unlimited degree : it may not betunfatisfa&ory 
to inquire, what the country was, and from' 
whence it received its name. . 

* * • 

It is neceffary firft of all to, t^ke notice, that 
there were many regions, in different parts of the 
world fo called. There, was a province in Egfyt (V)* 
and another in Syria y ftiled Scythia (</). . There 
was alfo a Scythia in Afia Minor, upon the Ther- 
modon above Galatia, where the Amazons were 
fuppofed to have refided. The country about 
Colchis, and Iberia : alfo a great part of Thrace 
and Moefia : and all the Tauric Cherfonefus, were 
ftiled Scythic. Laftly, there was. a country of 
this name far in the Eq/l> of which little notice 
has been hitherto taken. It was fituated in the 
great Indie Ocean: and confifted of a widely-ex- 
tended region, called scythia lymyrica (*). 

But the Scythia fpbken of by the ancient 
Greeks, and after them "taken notice of by the 
Romans, confifted of thofe countries, which lay 
upon the coaft of the Euxine : and efpecially thofe 
upon the North and North-eaftern parts of that 
Sea. In fhort it was the region of Colchis, .and 
all that country at the foot of Mount .Caucafiis, as 


• - . > * 

* . ■ • - 

(c ) ZkiOmkh xP$*" Ptolcm. L. 4. c. 5. called alfo > Mjacark, 
for the very reaion that the low land of Kerry at the foot of 
Sliev Mifh is called the Macaries, figntfying a fertile arable foil, 
tmn charas aravit ttnrj© macharas arable ground. 

(</) Arriani Peripl. it was in the diftri& called Sacaia or the 
country of the Sacae — not far from Bethfan or Scytho-poffe. 
There was another Scytho-pojis in Libya. Steph. ex. Poly, 

(/) Ptolenu Geogr. I*. 4. p. 121, 



„ tyell as that upon the Palus Maeotis, and the Boryft- 
- henes, which was of old efteemed Scythia (f). 
. "J As the Greeks were ignorant of the part of 
the world, which lay beyond, or had a very im- 
perfect knowledge of It j they often comprehend- 
ed this too, under the fame denomination. Many 
however did not extend their ideas fo far; but 
looked upon the coaft above fpecified, to have 
been the boundary northward of the habitable 
world. Hence we read of extremum Tanaim, 
ultimam Scy thiam, and Caucafus the boundary of tb+ 
world. And although upon the return of the 
Greeks, who had followed the fortunes of Cyrus 
the younger, fome infight might be fuppofed to 
have been gained into thofe parts ; yet it amounted 
to little in the end, as no correfpondence was kept 
up, and the navigation of Bofporus was feldom 
attempted. Hence it happened, that, till the con- 
quefts of Lucullus and Pompeius Magnus, thefe 
countries were to the North-eaft, the limits of 
geographical knowledge ; and even of thefe parts 
the accounts were very obfcure and imperfed. 
Tet, however unknown they had lain for- ages, 
there was a time, when the natives rendered them* 
feives very refpe&able. For they carried on an 
extenfive commerce, and were Juferior in fcience 
to all the nations in their neighbourhood ; and this 


{J) The people were of the Cuthite or Scuthai original: a 
part of that body which came from Egypt. 

Aryvvrwv awotnot tiJ\t o» £xu&os ha, tvto km fuXaie^oof ftvTVf itro* 
**?*»».. Schol. in Pindar Pyth. Od. 4. y. 376. 

See alfo JEfch. Pormcth v. 1. 


was long before the dawning of learning in Greece : 
even before the c on/lit ut ion of many principalities , into 
which the Hellenic flate was divided. They went 
under the names of Colchians, Iberians, Cim- 
merians, Hyperboreans, Alani. They got 
footing in Paphlagonia upon the Thefmodon ; 
where they were called Amazonians and Alaro- 
nians ; alfo, in Pieria and Sithonia, near Mount 
Hcemus in Thrace. Thefe were properly Scythic 
nations ; but the ancients, as I obferved, often 
included under this name all that lay beyond them j 
whatever was unknown, even from the Cronian 
and Atlantic Seas one way, to Mount Tabis and 
the Corean Sea the other. The ancient writers 
of Greece (fays Strabo, 1. 1 1) ufed to include 
all the northern nations in general, under the name 
of Scythians and Celto-Scythians. 

u In this they went too far : yet the Scythic na- 
tions *were widely extended, and to be met with 
on very different parts of the globe. As they are 
reprefented of the highefl: antiquity, and of great 
power, and, as they are faid to havefubdued mighty 
kingdoms* and to have claimed precedency even 
of the Egyptians, it is worth while to enquire into 
the hiftpry'of this wonderful people, and to fift 
out the truth, if poflibTy it might be attained. 
Let us then try to inveftigate the origin of the 
people denominated Scythians, and explain the 
-purport of their names : 

" The folution of this intricate problem will 
prove of the. higbeftj importance y st& we (haU 

the* ebv 


thereby be able to cfcfcf up many dark circum* 
'ftances in antiquity. : 

To me then, it appears very m&ni&ft, that what 
was termed by the Greeks ***** &**** £*<&««, was 
originaHy Ctatha, Cuthai, Cuthica, and related to 
the faritHy <rf Chns. Ite Was called by the Baby- 
lonians aftd Chaldaiafis Cutb> and his poftcrky 
Cuthites femd Ctotheatie< The Countries where they 
at tifliefc fettled, wdre Uftiformly denominated from 
them ; bat What was properly (tiled Cutha, the 
Greeks .erprefled with A Sigtna preftaed^ which, 
howevefr iHflidg it may' appear, hat been attended 
with fftfri c<y*fequenc<*s; ; 

• As the Scythtc cbtowie* were widely difperfcd, 
I will take thorn in their turns, and ihiw that duty 
were aW of. Iheftv Cathie t that the people upon the 
Indtw were : of the fame origin a* thofe upoA the 
Phafe kiid thethloddti ; *a* that fiwflaihrfefc of 
Berffa* in RteHa^were tetetad td ioth;* Tharthe 
Boeotians *nd Athenians were in a great meafare 
Cti&iak, (hare endeavoured already ; to pitard* 
and wtot I «m* Cuthian, was by them smdaubti 
edtj^ ftj)^ Ikythiso/ ■ -■: % -r.v/.;. .y. : 

" Epiphanius, who has tranfmitted to usantdft 
curkW* fepfi^e^f the^dteScyrhk&iffory^ gives 
them (hi « Appellation.' fThtffe nariow, *>feys he» 
whkh rea<ih foutfewfrrtj from *hkt pa#t df dra world* 
where the two great eontttehts «rf~ Europe and 
Afia incline to each other, and are connected, 
were univerfally (tiled Scythae, according to an 
appellation of Ipng. ftaitffirig.' ThtfexUfcW^df that 




family, who of old ere&ed the great Tower (called 
Babel) and who built the city of Babylon (g), by • 
which we learn that the Scythians were the Cu- 
thians, and came from Babylonia. 

" They were the Ellenic or Cuthite Shepherds, 
who came into Egypt : many of them fettled in 
Armenia, and at Colchis, and alfo upon the Palus 
Maoris. Some of the fathers, from terms ill un- 
derftood, divided the firft ages into three or more 
epochas ; and have diftinguiihed them by as many 
chara&ejiftics. Barbariftnus, which is fuppofed to 
have preceded the flood : Scutbifinus, (of which I 
have been fpeaking) and Hellenifmus, or the Gre- 
cian period ; writing the word "iMwurp*, or Hele- 
nifmus, with an afpirate, and fo making it, relate 
to their own country. But how was it poffibfe for 
an Hellenic sera to have exifted before the name 
of Hellas was known, or the nation in being ? 

" Hefychius intimates that the name related to 
the fountain of day ; and in a fecpndary fenfe to 
the fountain of wifdom. The people Jiikd Hellenes 
aredefcexdants of Hellen f fan of Zeutb; and by this 
title are* denoted people of intelligent and enlightened 
minds. ■ * 

41 FrAm Babylonia the Hellenes came into Egypt ; 
and were the fame as the Auritae,' or Cuthite (hep- 
herds, who fo long held that' counjtry in fubje&ion. 
Hence we read of Hxa** *&***< and Bcur*»< j***»t?, 


• s • • 

(f) Epiphan. acta Hxrcs, L. i. p. 6, 

♦ i 




Hellenic fhepherds; and Hellenic princes, who 
reigned in the infancy of that nation. 

" The Cuthite Hellenes who came into Egypt, 
introduced their arts and learning : by which that 
country was benefited greatly. Hence the learn- 
ing of Egypt was (tiled Hellenic, and the ancient 
theology of the country*was faid to have been de- 
fcribed in the Hellenic charafter and language (A). 
This had no relation to the Hellenes of Greece ; 
being, as I obferved before, far prior to that na- 

" The Grecians fuppofed, that by the Hellenic 
tongue was meant the learning of Greece : and 
that the Hellenic characters were the letters of 
their own country. But thefe writings were in 
reality fculptures of great antiquity- : and the Ian- 
guage was the Cuthic, (tiled by Manethon, the 
facred language of Egypt (*)•"' 

Thu§ Mr. Bryant. Thefe Hellenes or EHenes were alfo 
called Auritx, and Hefychius has explained the former 
name to fignify men of learning "£tow«« •» *wo to a*o{ to '£A*«»of 
*« lfo»P*t vtqi *t^o», and by this title are denoted people, of in- 
telligent and enlightened minds. It is worthy of notice that 
in Irifli the word ai, aoi, airis, eala, ealahan, ealan, aolan, 
or aolain 9 has this very (ignification, and in the Irifli dic- 
tionaries, it is explained by Art, Science, Knowledge ; and 

elanacy or, aolanacb % is a ftudent : And in Arabic iyi ehl^ 
fignifies inftru&ed. wa^L ehliyet, flrill, experience, 
ii*^ j rooeutj knowledge, fcience. From whence, I think, 
the names AuriU and Ellenes f might polfibly be derived. 


(b) Manethon apod Eufeb. Chron. p. 6. 
(/) Jofeph, contra Apion, L. i. p. 445. 


V ' 


Of the various Colonies and Denominations of the 
,Cuthites. Bryant's Mythology, v. 3. p. 175. 

" We may, I think be aflured, that by the 
term Scutbai, are to be underftood Cutbai. They 
were the descendants of Chus, who feized upon 
the region of Babylonia and Chaldea ; and con- 
ftituted the firft kingdom upon the earth. They 
were called by other nations, Cufeans^ Arabians^ 
Oreita, Eruthrans Ethiopians^ but among them- 
felves their general patronymic was Cuth, and their 
country Cut ha (It). They were an ingenious and 
knowing people, as I have before obferved ; and 
at the lame time very prolific. A large body in- 
vaded Egypt> when as yet k was in its infant ftate, 



(i) I cannot agree with my learned friend that the Cuthai 
or Cathai, were fo denominated from Chus. Cutha, Ctrtta* 
Cotti, are names of rivers in the Eaft and in the Weft. In 
Ireland we have many . fo called wnu Cufchira, Cuthsei. 

Arab, gsj&n, Kutby.^- Fhlvios nomine Cuthi in Babylonia 
di&os memorat Jofephus, Relandius de Samaritanis, p. 67. 
— Ab ifta ergo Cutha, celebri Chaldicfe urbe prope Babelcm 
fita, di£i font Cuthaw* If I miftake not the Scutb* 2nd Gotti 9 
were fo named from their beiag the firft navigators — this 
is the, character given, of * the fouthern Scuthas by Dionyfius, 
as we fhall fhew prefently. However, certain it isj that the 
Hebrews gave the name of Chittaei to many nations, wh'icH 
furrounded them and gave them tfottbfe. Aiti afperttm>& tet ■» 
nfkum; idem nn «het et rttwi undc Chitta^denortiiaatif Horn* 
p.' 207* Now it is weH kaowa that the Jews named Scytho- 
polis, B*th-San % that is the houfe or city of the enemy, and at 
times had much enmity to the Scythians', becaufe they conM not 
drive them from thence. Beth- San, ex hoc oppido tribus Ma- 
siaAe, accolas priftinos non potuit expcllcre : nunc appellatur 
Scythopolis, urbs nobilis Palaeftinae, quam fcriptura nomiriat 
Domum San, quod in lingua, noftra,/ratopretatKf inhnitus. 
(Hieronymus, Eufebius, &c.) 


made up of little .independent diftritts, artlefs ai\d 
uninformed, without any rule or polity. They 
feized the whole country, and held it for fome 
ages in fubjeclion, and frpm their arrival, the 
hiftory of Egypt will be found to commence* 
The region between the Tigris and Euphrates, 
where they originally refided, was ftiled the coun- 
try of the Chafdim ; but by the weftern nations 
Chaldea. It lay towards the lower part of the 
Tigris to the weft, and below the plain of Sbinar. 
This country is faid to have been alfo called Scut ha ; 
and the author of the Chronicon Pafchale mentions 
Scutha m thefe parts, who were fo called even in 
his days. But he fuppofes that the name Scutha, 
was given to the region on account of I know not 
what, Scythians from the North. Jofephus ex- 
preffes it Cutha, and fpeaks of a river Cudja, 
which was probably the fame as the Cho&fpes." 


Without entering into the difpute between Mr. Bryant 
and Mr. Richardton, about the derivation of the word 
Cutha, or whether the Cuthites were the fons of Cufli or 
not ;- we (hall only here remark, that IrHh hiftory gives the 
name of Cofti and Aite-Cotti) to the anceftors of the Irifli : 
they chrim Mefopotamia arur the plains of Shtnar, as afet- 
tlemcnt long held by them. Pious men, devoted to reli- 
gions duties were by them denominated Culdee or Caliee : 
they fettled, they fay in Egypt, where Gadelae their leader 
(from that region) was born. It is alfo generally allowed 
chat thefe people were called Saga and Saca, and in a 
fragment of Cato de nvginitus, merit con is made of Scytbia 
Saga } which appears to have extended from Armenia to 
the Baftrians. 

There is an ancient tradition among thefe Scyth* t which 
perhaps gave caufc to other nations to catr them Saga and 

Caldai % 


Caldaiy — it is this. Berofus fays, that Noah left the Scy- 
thian Armenians his ritual books, which only priefts, and 
that only among priefts, might read, who were there-* 
fore called Saga, which fignibes a prieft, or a holy and 
devout man (/). 

One of the names of the Almighty in Chaldee is tnin 
Arit, and in Irifh Art, and the name of a prieft to this 
day in Irifh, Sag-art, or Sag-airt, fignifying the divine 
Saga. The Egyptians called fuch a perfon Calda, from 
Caldas, fan£tity (m), and thefe names I think agree with 
the fynonimous Chaldee word Chefdai, plural Cbefdim % 
fuppofed by Hyde and Walton to have been fo named from 
Chefed, fon of Nahor, brother to Abraham ; but this ap- 
pellative might have been given to Chefed, fignifying a 
Magus, or devout perfon, on account of his piety and de- 
votion. Certain it is, the Irifh hiftory fays, that, in that 
country the Scuthse allied with a people named Tuatha* 
Dadan, who were the fons of Cufh, and who attached 
themfelves to them, through all their emigrations, even 
to thefe weftern iflands. 

The old Egyptians called their country Ait and A'ttea or 
Aitribyirom the Egyptian word At or A it, fignifying a heart, 
and Rib fignifying a pear,, whence the Greeks lilcened it to a 
A Delta. Egyptiis £6 vel 40 eft Cor. Horus Apollo. By 
Ptqlemies tables, Ath-ribis, is in the center of the nome of 
that name, whence it was called Ath-rib, or the heart of 
the pear. Cor-pyri quia in medio pyri. Hence Leo Afri- 
canus writes the name Errif r or Al-ribh, and in Scripture 
nan Rahab often occurs for Egypt. Our Irifh Ata-Cotti, 
jftay therefore figuify the Cuthai or Scuthai of Egypt, or 
as I have explained the words Cuthai and Scuthai in my 
Vindication, Egyptian-fhipmen or failors, for Cotti in 
Irifh and Katai in Egyptian fignify mariners. We have 
many places in Ireland of this name. The river Ana- 
Cotti near Limerick, Beal-Cotti or Bally Cotton, a ftrand 
near Cloyne, &c. &c. 

tc Thefe Cuthites fettled at Colchis, in confe- 
quence of which it was called Cutaia : The extreme 


7) Berof. L. 2. 3 and 5. 

m) Nomenclature Arab. — iEgyptiaca-— at the end of this 



fettlment of this people was in Spain, upon the Btztis, 
near Tarteffus and Gades : and the account given 
by the natives, according to the hiftorian Ephorus, 
was, that Colonies of Ethiopians traverfed a great 
part of Africa (n) ; fome of which came and fet- 
tled near Tarteflus ; and others got poffeflion of 
different parts of the fea coaft. The name Ethio- 
pian does not fignify blacks, as if it were from 
«td* and •+ : it is not a name of Grecian original, 
but a facred term ; a title of the chief deity, 
whence it was afiumed by the people, who were 
his votaries and defendants. a*< *ntW aA*$. 
JEtbiops is a title of Zeus (0). 

Upon the great Atlantic, near the ifle 
Of Erythea, for its paftures famM, 
The facred race of Ethiopians dwell. 

Dionys. Perieg. V. 558. 
" And as the Scythae or Cuthites, were the fame 
people, no wonder, that they are reprefented as 
the mod ancient people in the world ; even prior 
to the Egyptians. Scytharum gens antiquiflirria 
femper habita. ( Juftin.)— But who were meant by 
the Scythae has been for a long time a fecret. 


" The Cuthites fent out many colonies ; and 
partly by their addrefs and fuperiority in fcience, 


Sn\ Scythopolis urhs Libyx. Steph. ex Polyhiftore. 
0) Schol. m Homerum Odyff. A. v. 22. The old Irifl* 
word tbabba feems to be of this origin, whence Dt-thabha the 
Almighty God. This explanation of the word Aithops, by 
our ingenious and learned author, agrees with the terms Sag*, 
Caldai, && given to the Scythians. 


• * * *m. ± 

and partly by force, they got accefs among various 
nations. In fome places they mixed with the peo- 
ple of the country, and were nearly abforbed in 
their numbers : in other parts they excluded the 
natives, and maintained themfelves folely and fe- 
parate. They are to be met with in the hiftqries 
of the firft ages, under different names and titles. ; 
being denominated fometimes 'from the, cities, 
which they buift, fometimes from the worfhip, 
which they profefled ; but the more general name, 
both of themfelves. and of the countries, which 
they occupied, was in the Babylonilh dialed Cuth, 
Cutha, Cuthia. ; 

After they had feized upon the province of Sufi- 
ana, and Chufiftan,they were in poflTelfion of the na- 
vigation of the Tigris downwards ; and probably 
commenced a very early trade. They got footing 
in India where they extended themfelves beyond 
Gedrofia and Qarmania,. upon the chief river of 
the country. The/fkvthor ,pf th^ Periplus takes 
notice of them under the name of Scythians : and 
mentions tho.fe places in the JSaft, where they re- 
fided, in ^thefe wprds. After . the country of Ora, 
the continent now* by reafon of the great \depth of its 
gulfs and inlets, finning Daft promontories > runs out- 
Ward to a gnat degree from the eafty and inctofes the 
.fea codft <f fkythia^ which Jits'- towards the north* 
~fbtit is 9 in the recefs of one of thefe bays ; is low 
,land and lies upon the- river Sinth'us : which is the 
- largefi river of any, that run into the Erythtrean&ea : 

" ' • and 


I 1 

i f 



and affords the greatefl quantity of water. — The 
Sinthus is the fame as the Siqdus or Indus. * They 
occupied alio that infular province, called in their 
language from, its fituation Gkz'trette or the ifland 
(p), They fettled alfo upon the prpmontory Co,- 
mar or Comarin j and were lords of the great 
ifland Pelaefimunda, called afterwards Serun-dive. 
They were (tiled the Southern Scythge, of whom 
the poet Dionyfius gives the following defcription. 

1^99 «r«g cvot*jao» fOT^t Zxvftai t 

AaQgoraTOt poov wxvr «t» wtw o^0or rfcoLVtvf. V. 1088. ' 

This country is likewife taken notice of by Prifciart, 
under the name of Scythia. 
Eft Scythia tellus auftralis flumen ad Indum. 
v. 996. (j). 
Together with the Oreita and Arabians of Diony- 
fius, are mentioned the Ara-chotL Thefe are un- 
doubtedly the fame as the Cathians above men- 
tioned. The Arachotians are (tiled* from 
their particular habit, whkh was linen. This cir- 
cumftance is a ftrong charadteriftic of thefe people. 

I believe 

lp) t w tt infula. k*iu Ar. gizfra. irrfufa. 

The Erythraean Sea is by mot writer* be 
the fame as the Arabian Gulph, or Red Sea. 

The nameLymyrica, is certainly a Scythian word, compound- 
ed of Laimri near, and oke water,, that is,, a region fituatcd 
near the water fide, as Lymyrica is defcribed to be, by the au- 
thor of the Periplus. The county and city of Limerick in 
Ireland are fa called from their fituation op the- banks of the 
great river Shannon. The . city carries on a great maritime 
trade, and fhips come up to the gates of the city: hence it is 
called Luimne in Irifh, that is, the Sea port. Lemne in the 
old Egyptian language is a fea port. ■ See the Egyptian words 
collated at the end of this introduction. 



I believe in every place where they fettled, they 
were famous for this manufa&ure. They intro- 
duced it in Colchis, which was celebrated for its 
flax and linen, fo was the country of Campania, 
where they fettled in Italy. The fame habit pre- 
vailed in Boetica, efpecially among the priefts. 

— velantur corpora lino, 

Et Pelufiaco praefulget ftamine vertex. 
I cannot conclude this account of the Scuthai, 
Scythae or Cuthites of India Lymyrica, without 
taking notice of the great charafter they bore, in 
the moft early times, for ingenuity and fcience. 
Traditions to this purpofe prevailed, wherever they 
fettled : and J have given many inftances of their 
fuperiority therein. They were like the Egyptians, 
divided into feven orders, of which the philofophers 
were the moil honourable. Each tribe kept to the 
profeflion of its family ; and never invaded the de- 
partment of another. 
. " It is very remarkable that the ppet Dionyfius, 

having defcribed all the nations of the known 
world, concludes with the Indo-Scythae j of whom 
he gives a more amplo, and a more particular ac- 
count, than of any, who have preceded. He 
dwells long upon their habit and manners ; their 
rites and cuftoms ; their merchandize, induftry, 
and knowledge : and has tranfmitted fome excel- 
lent fpecimeus of their ancient hiftory. 



Introduction; »y 

Dion. Perieg* v, 1088. 

tJpon the banks of the great river Ind 

The Southern Scutba dwell ; which river pays 

Its wat'ry tribute to that mighty fea 

Stiled Erythrean. Par remov'd its fource, 

Amid the ftormy cliffs of Caucafus : 

Defceftding hence through many a winding valej 

It feparates vaft nations* To the weft 

Th' Oritae, live and Aribes : and then 

The Ara-cotii fam'd for linen geer, &c. &c. 

To 'numerate all, who rove this wide domaM 
Surpafles human pow*r : the Gods can tell, 
The Gods alone ; for nothing's hid from Heaven: 
Let it fuffice, if I their worth declare. 
Thefe were the firfl great founders in the world, 
Founders of cities and of mighty ftates : 
Wbojhew'd a path through feas, before unknown \ 
And when doubt reigii'd and dark uncertainty, 
Who render'd life more certain. They firft view*d 
The ftarry lights, and forni \dthem into f chinas. 
In the firft ages, w hen the fons of men 
Knew not which way to turn them, they affign'd 
To each his juft department : they beftowM 
Of land a portion and of fea a lot ; 
And fent each wand'ring tribe far off, to (hare 
A different foil and climate. Hence arofe 
The great diverfity, fo plainly feen, 
Mid nations widely fevered; 

Such is the charafter given by the poet Dioriy: 
fius of the Indian Scuthae, under their various de- 

C nominations* 



nominations. They were femetimes called Pboi- 
nties : and thofe of that name in Syria were of 
Cuthite extra&ion, as I have before {hewn. In 
confequence of this, the poet in fpeaking of them, 
gives the fame precife char after, as he has exhibit* 
ed above, and fpecifies plainly their original. 

*Oi ¥ ata< *7?vf itFTff , fwwtopnp $omxif . 

Upon the Syrian fea the people live 
Who ftile themfelves Phoenicians. Thefe are fprung 
From the true ancient Erythrean dock j . 
From that fage race, who firft afiay'd the deep, 
And wafted merchandize to coafts unknown. 
Thefe too digejied firji thejlarry choir ; 
Their motions mark'd and called them by their 
names (r). 

'* That wonderful art of managing filk, and 
likewife of working up cotton, was undoubtedly 
found out by die lode-South© j an4 from diem it 
was carried to the Seres (j). 

^ To them alfo is attributed die raoft rational 
and amufing game called Chefs. We fire moreover 
indebted to them for the ufe of thofe cyphers or 
figures ', commonly termed Arabian : an invention 
of great confequence, by which the art of nume- 

(r) The Irith or Ibemo-Scyttuani difLingwifh many words of 
their language, by the Theban and Phenian dialects ; bearla 
Teibe and bearla Pheni i in the latter, they fey all the Brehon 
laws are written. We (hall hereafter give ppfUfve proof, that 
the ancient Irifh gave names to the Conftellations, and formed 
the B^es of . the Celeftial Globe, 


(j) Mela and Strabo* 

hum has been wonderfully expedited and im- 

*< When theft Scuthfl were ejefied from Egypt* 
tbfy retired to many parts 9 and particularly tQ thf 
ft$ft of Syria* which they occupied under the titles of 
Btlid6 t Qadmans and P#jenicE3. Froqa hence 
ttey wjpt to HftUtf, yjteMrife to Hetruria and Ibe- 
ria; sad tie caaft of tiie great Atlantic. Wherever 
they came they wre is every refpe& fuperior tQ 
the natives ; and as their fcttiements were made 
very early, the annals of each nation begin with their 
hifiory % and with the bijlbry of their forefathers , 
which was ingrafted upon it. They particularly 
cultivated the vim 5 they introduced Zuth or fer- 
ment, and taught the composition of many li- 
quors («). 

C a "The 

(t) Thf game of chefi wa* certainly imported from the Eaft, 
by tfce ancient lrifh, if they were not the inventors of it — 
this is evident by the lrifh names of that game being the fame 
in Arabic and Perfic. The Perfians fay it was invented by 
King Ardesjiri, whence they call it Nersjirm, (Gol. 2345)/ 
The J>ity call it btart^rucbf or the game of Ruch or of the 

Tewer, Egyptian bir, a game. Ar. £ J r *^> the tower at 
Chefs. Btart-nard, the game of nard. Ar. Oyi n drd. P. nurd, 
chefs. (Gol Richards). Taibbk-fchifjlt a chefs board in Irilh, 
is from the ¥»piih 9 chefs. — Cofrhac, a tribute* victory, triumph, 
it another name of this game. Ar. <s^fe &i£«£, chefs. 

There £sema to be much confufion in the Irifti and the Arabic 
in the names of this game. Nurd and Kaab, in Arab, fignify 
dice ; ia Chaldee Nardfhtr is the game of Dice or Backgammons 
That the ancient lrifh ufod the Indian numerals is certain, from 
MSS. in my own poiTeflion. See Collect, de Reb. Hib. No. 
12. PL 2. 

(«) Hence their leader Brouma, was named Bacchus by the 
Greeks and Latins. ErumeMa a Bruma dicebantar : quo 



" The region called Colchis was fituated at the 
foot of Mount Caucafus, upon the Pontus Euxi- 
nus : and was one of the mod ancient colonies of 
thefe Cuthites or Scuthai. One of the principal 
cities was called Cuta and Cutaia. Herodotus ob- 
ferves many particulars, wherein this people re- 
fembled the Egyptians ; in Jhort, fays he, their 
whole life and their language had a great refemblance 
(v). The Colchians, fays the Scholiaft upon 
Lycophron, are no other than the Indie Scytha. 
The Scholiaft upon Pindar, calls them Scythas. 
The Scuthse of Colchis, fays he, are a colony from 
Egypt ; they are of a dark complexion, they deal 
in flax, of which they make linen after the man* 
ner of the Egyptians (w). 

" As the land of Chaldea was fometimes called 
Sur ; fo there was a Suria on the Pontus which 
had the name of Chaldea ; and the people were 


nomine llomani Bacchum appellabaht, (Coel. Rodiginus). Brb 
is fire in Irifh, and Broma iignifies fprung from fire : hence he 
was called Pyrigene, ignegemtus, in the Hymns of Orpheus. 
The Brouma of the Indians is reprefented with fire in his hand 
—-and Bach or'Bac in Irifh is fire : it iignifies alfo ebriety. 
But Bake in Arabic iignifies immortal) the fame as AUktoom\ 
the Comh-dia of the Irifh. From this word Bake, the attri- 
butes of the Godhead* were probably pdid to Brouma. In 
the Sclavonic Boga, fignifies God, that is the immortal. 

(v) Herod. 1. 2. c. 104. See the Egyptian language collated 
with the Irifh or Iberno-Scythian at the end of this Introduc- 
tion : it is one of the ftrongeft proofs of the authenticity and 
verity of the Irifh hiftory. 

(w) The Irifh have been ever famous for the manufacture of 
linen and of woollen cloths. In a former number of the Col- 
lectanea we proved the names of every implement ufed in the 
weaving of linen, to be Oriental. 


ftiled C bald fans. They were the fame as the 
Alybes and Chalybes, who were fituated near 
Sinope, and extended towards Colchis. They are 
mentioned by Homer among the allies of the 


<c The northern Hyperboreans, who were the 
fame as the Cimmerians, were oqce held in great 
repute for their knowledge. Anacharfis was of 
this family, who came into Greece and was much 
admired for his philofophy. There was an Hyper- 
borean of great fame called Abaris. 

H They were people of the fame family, who 
fettled in Thrace, under the name of Scythae, Si- 
thones, Paonians, Pierians and Edonians. There 
muft have been fomething myfterious in the term 
Hyperborean : it muft have had a latent meaning, 
which 1 related to the fcience and religion of the peo- 
ple fa called. It did not relate to the North as 
Herodotus conjeftures, for Pythagoras, who had 
been in Egypt and Chaldea, and who afterwards 
fettled at Groton, was by the natives ftiled the Hy- 
perborean Apollo (#). Pindar manifeftly makes 
them the fame as the Atlantians and Amazonians 
of Aftic : for he places them near the iflands of 
the Bleft $ he fpeaks of them, as a divine race." 


** The two moft diftant colonies of this family 
weftward, were upon the Atlantic Ocean : the one 


(*) -Elian. Var. Hift. L. c. 26. 





& Europe to the n&tfo; the other oppofci* T at th* 
e*t*fcm« pfcrt of Africa* The to*mty of !h« Ifrtte* 
*as Maaritatiia, whofe irthabkaats *ere tfce Atlan- 
tic Ethiopian. Tbafe who fec*upfed the protitt<^fr 
of Iberia and B/etica on the other fide, W£ftt 
under the fame titles, and preferred the fame hifto- 
ries, as thofe we have mentioned before (j)." 


" But the noble chara&er of this people was 
greatly tarniflied by their cruelty, for which they 
feem to have been infamous in all parts,; and this 
not merely through degeneracy in later times ; 
though they did fall off from their original- merit j 
but from their rites and religion, which hud always 
a tendency to blood. The Scuthse upon the Meeotis, 
and in the Tauric Cherfonefus, are described as 
very inhospitable, and aU thofe in th^ir vigiaky 
were of a favage caft and guilty of great barbarity. 
Strabo, who lived in Poatus, fpeaks of the jlatkjfcl 
upon that coaft, as being given to horrid' cuftoros- \ 
forne of them* he fays, yrere fo brutal, as tb feed 
upon their own fpeeies. Pliny mentions the ftiae 
circur\iftance. The Sac.^ Indi, and fa^lo-Scyth*, 
were of the* fame family, a* the above, afcd they 
are reprefent^d by Mela as knifing m'thefi? horrid 


(y) And thofe from Baetica who fettled in Ireland and Bri- 
tain, preferved the fame hrftdfjv In the Vindication we have 
fhewn, that idoir annals faprt <i$th titer bifbffj muL&Ufrtht bif- 
tory of their forefathers^ where they treat of tranfa&ions done 
in Mrfjpotamia, Colchis, &c. Keating and others have igno- 
rantly placed in Ireland. ' 

t tf t ft o s v c t r o if. *z 

repafts. Tfe«ullia*i gfrte the feitte account of thte 
Cimmerian Scythe. Tte drttlkd that thefe praftices 
caufed among thofe, who lived within the verge of 
danger, has been the reafcro, , *hy the accounts 
ka*e been exaggerated; yet ^e may be if ell atfored, 
that there were ki ge&eral* tod good grinds for 
this imputation of cruelty. And however the great 
family of which 1 bltvef been treating, may in oth€r 
refpe&s appear beneficial and ftipcrior, they were 
in their ritet and religtin barbarous to the laft de* 

O* the S ACS. 

" We have ihewn, that one of the moft confi- 
derable colonies, which went from Babylonia, 
was th&t of the Indi or Sindi : they fettled between 
the Indus and Ganges, and one of their principal 
regions was Cuthaia, or Cathaia, They traded in 
linen and other commodities, and carried on an 
exterifive commerce with the provinces of the 

u A large body of them paffed inland towards 
the north, under the name of Sacae and Sacaians ; 
who ranged very high, and got pofleffion of Sog- 
diana, and the regions upbn the Jaxartes. From 
thence they extended themfelves eaftward, quite 
to the Ocean. They were of Scuthic race, and 
repr efented as great archers ; and their country 
was^ edited Sacaia and Cutha (*)• The chief city 
was Sarcaftan, the Sacaftana of Kdorus Characemis. 


(a*) taxat-ttfc £xt/0<K era fa<n. Stephen. Byzant. 
Scythartim p6pu!i — Peffe iflos Sac* in univerfum adpallevere. 

Plin. L 6. c. 1 8. 


Of their inroads weftward we have taken notict 
before; for they fept out; large bodies into differr 
ent parts ; and many of the Tartarian nations are 
defcended from them. They gpt pofifeffiop of the 
upper part of Cbijna, which they denominated 
Cathaia : and there is reafos, to tbiqk, thgt Japan 
was in fome degree peopled by them. Colonics 
undoubtedly went into this country bpth from 
Sacaia, and the Indus. 

" Th§ Chinefe were the ancient Sins, and 
Seres ; who were fo famous for their filk. There 
is in Paufanias a very curious account of this peo- 
ple, aftd of their manufa&ure. He then proceeds 
to give a minute, but inaccurate account of the 
filkworm, and the manner of its fpinning, which 
I omit ; and concludes with telling us, that the 
country from whence this commodity comes, is an 
ifland named Seria> which lies in a reqefs of the 
Eythraean Sea. I have been told by fome, fays he, 
that it is not properly the Erythraean Sea, but the 
river Sera, which inclqfes it, and forms an ifland, 
fimilar to the Delta in Egypt. In fhort, feme in- 
fill, that it is not ?tt all boui\ded by the fea. They 
fay alfo, that there is another ifland called Sexia : 
and thofe who inhabit this, as well as the jflands 
Abafa, and Sacaia in the neighbourhood, are of 
the Ethiopian race. Qthers affirm, that. they are 
of the Scuthic family, with q mixture of the In- 
die (a). The hiftory is in every part true. 

" Wherever 

(a) Y^w, iQpoq frtfiapt £xt/0«or. Scholia in Dionys. v. 7 c 2. 
Non dubitum eft quin a Scythjs ct Indis origineinprimam traxe- 

% nnt 


** Wherever this great family fettled, they were 
fuperior in fcience : and though they degenerated by 
degrees, and were oftentimes overpowered by a 
barbarous enemy, which reduced them to ajiate of 
(/bfcurity ; yet fome traces of their original fupet iority 
were inmqfi places tQ : be found. Thus the Turdetani, 
one of thofe Iberian nations upon the great weftern 
Ocean, are to the Iq/i reprefented as a moji intelligent 
people. They are well acquainted, fays Strabo, 
with grammar 9 and fcave many written records of 
high antiquity. They have alfo large collections of 
poetry ; and even their laws are defer ibed in verfe, 
which, they fay, are of fix tbouf and years Jianding (£). 
Though their laws and annals . may have fallen far 
fliort of that date, yet they were undoubtedly very 
curious, and we mull neceffarily lament the want of 
curiofity in the Romans, who have not tranfmitted 
to us the leaft fample of thefe valuable remains. In 
Tatianus Affyrius, and more efpecially in Clemens 
pf Alexandria, we have an account of thofe per- 
fona, who were fuppofed to have bleft the world 


rint Sinaifes : fed incrementum, cultum, Uteres, artes* ex 
Egypto et Phaenicii accepifle videntur. (Hornius p. 233.) 
Chon apud Egyptios Hercules ; in Sina Chon-fului, vel Con-Jul 
literarum & artium inventor. (Hornius p. 238). Conn-faola, 
was the firft author of grammar with the ancient Irifli ; others 
fay, S6m, (i. e. Hercules) was the firft author of grammar, 
and the inventor of letters ; and Chann-feola, republifhed his 
writings. See ch. 1. 

(b) The Turdetani arc placed by Strabo and by Ptolemy be- 
tween the rivers Anas and Baetis, exactly where the Scoti arc 
fituatcd by Orofius. They extended themfelves acrofs the coun- 
try to Cantabria. See Alfred's map of Orofius, in Forfter's 
Voyages in the North, 4-to. London, 1786. 


*6 IN T It O t>V C T I O K, 

with feme invention : and upon examination,, 
ahnofl: all of them will he fbuhd to have been ef 
Cu&ite or Scythian origin*]. 

" When thefe colonies came hi aftertiittes to be 
degenerated, there were fttH foifae remains of theit 
original fenfe and ingenuity here and there to be 
found. This vfas to be obferVed in the people of 
Bsetka, as I have (hewn from Strabo : and in the 
cha*a£er of Cotys King of Thrate. The like fc 
taken notice of by Curtios hi fpeaking of the 
Ponraic Scythe. Seythis non, ut caeteris barbarJs i; 
rudis & incondkn* ferifus eft : Quidam eorum Ik* 
pkntism caper* dieanttir, qaantxrmcutiqne gens 
capit femper artnata (<r). And the poet Cteerftas 
has given a etirfeus hiftoty of the Sacsean Scythae, 
of itfhofe attceftry he fpeaks trith great hoiionr; 
when he k defcribing the expedition of Alexander 
the Great. 

Next march' d the Sacae, fond of paft'ral tifc* 
Sprung from the Scythic Nowades, who liv'd 
Amid the plains of Afia, rich in grain. 
They from the fhepherd race deriv'd their fource, 
Thofe fcepherds j ^hoin ancient tfrnes were deemed 
The juffeft of mankind (rf). 

Yet we find, that the 8ac# by fame have been 
repr efented as Cannibals : from whence we- may 
perceive, that people of the fame family often! dif- 
fered from one another.'* 


(c) L. .7* •€• 8. 

(</, Apud Stifcboricm, 1. 7. p. 464. 

I N T R & f> V C T I O N. 27 

*« i*tt*iVer&fltf2lto*td, tiad frHKMftory, fuppoYtftity 
t^ft*«torities^rmaiiySpftttifea*tharB, confirms, that Ire- 
land and the adjacent lfles were colonized by the Scoti of 
Spaitt. Oroihis places the 1 Scdti of Spvtlti btttfrcefi the 
Atfss and Bsttii Ruters, whcit Mr . Brymt hat? brchigbt 
the .Oriental Scuthae, and where. Ptolemy places the Tur- 
detanf, the only lettered people? of Spain. . Ortefius place* 
tfte Seott In Caftfebf ia, at lerfl from thertee he brings th&A 
to Ireknd. Scott* quorum OroTnw, C&iutfirm^ 6c At**- 
mianus inter Latinos fcriptores meminere, Britanriiae in- 
itio fepterrtrionates pdputt, qui ex Hifpatrlx Cantabria 
OBjvjndi, atique .hide ,in Hibennkuit migrants!, tandem in 
Scotia fedem fixere. Ortelius- 


From an Enquiry into the Origin and Progrefe of 
the Arts and Sciences of Greece, by Monfieur 


• j » » » 

" This aufhdr pistes from hlftofy; that a great 
Scythian fctnpire did e*ift with the Atfyrten, if ndt 
before h — thatthefe Scythians extended their con- 
epiefts to the Nite* and retuffiifig from Egypt, 
empfcryed fifteen years in cdnqtifefihg Afia, tfhich 
they laid trader tribute; arid that' they hefd this 
Cbnijtieft, and tribute, far the fj>ace of 1500 years j 
till Nhttra the Affyfian king, found means to re- 
lieve his country frdm that import. Cf Horum 
(Scythiae r^fgum) magno poft tempore progenies 
*iYtate & J^elli attibus mfignis,' regimes nltTa Ta- 
aafen ufcfue ad Thraciam fubjetit. 'Verfis dtefnde 
ad alteram partem armis, ad Nirum iEgypti pet- 
venere : reda&iftjue in poteftatem quae hitenfce<ffcfc 
erant gCBtibus, ufyie ad Qrretom Octmtum^ & 



Cafpium mare, paludemque Meotidem impeiiumt 
protenderunt " Diod. Sicul. JJibl. 1. 2. " Scythes 

?h iEgypto paludes prohibuere, inde reverfi Afiam 
perdomitam veftigalem fecere. Quindecim annis 
pacandae Ms immorati, uxorum flagitatione revo- 
cantur. Juftin, 1. 2. f. 3. He then proves from 
Dionyfius Perieg. and his cotemporaries Trogus 
Pompeius and Diodorus, that by the Qtiertfal 
Ocean j is meant the Indian Sea, where Dionyfius 
places a colony of Scythians. 

" Such an army as the Scythians employed in 
thefe conquefts, laying a country under tribute for 
more than a thoufand leagues, implies, fays our 
author, that the Scythians, mud have had money, 
and the knowledge of arithmetical figures ; and 
accordingly we find Hyginu$ % giv$s the invention 
of money to the Scythians. Indus rex in Scythia 
argentum primus invenit, quod Erichthonius A^t 
nas primum attulit. (Fab, 274X A r gciUum in- 
venit Erichthonius Athenienfis : ut alii 4kcus, 
(Plin.) — By the word Argentum, both thefe a,u- 
thors mean money ', for the expreflion invenit, is 
always ufed by Pliny in particular, to fignify the 
firft difcovery of an art. It can be proved from 
hiftory that Scythian money was in ufe before this 
period, and that it was in the reign of Amphi&yqn, 
that Erichthonius went into Scythia and learnt ttjat 
art. Amphi&yon was grandfon of Deucalion who 
was a Scythian, and hence the connexion.: 

" The Scythians having at different times, very 
remote, poffefled various parts of Afia, their colo- 


tries having frequently changed their names, many 
loft the remembrance of their origin. Mailers of 
all the countries fituated between Caucafus and 
Egypt, they extended to the Eaftern Ocean, on the 
borders of which are fituated the Chineje ; and 
Japan is the greateft ifland on its coafts. 

€€ Scythopolis in Paleftine was alfo called Scy- 
thica Nyfla (/) ; it is faid to have been fo named 
from the death of a nurfe of Bacchus, who it was 
thought was born at Nyfla in Arabia. There was 
alfo a Nyfla in Gaucafus : that of Arabia was on 
the confines of Egypt, from whence came the Scy- 
thians — it appears therefore that the Scythee gave 
this name of Nyfla, to thofe countries where they 
refted, and left the ufe of money with whatever 
people they conquered. This may be proved, by 
the tributes they impofed before the reign of Ninus ; 
for thofe diftant nations that could not furnifli tri- 
bute in kind 9 were obliged to pay in money :— the 
refemblance of the forms of the ancient coins of 
the Arabs, Japanefe, Chinefe and Greeks, proba- 
bly was given them by the Scythians. 

" Money was in ufe in Arabia, when the book 
of Job was written, of which Mofes is fuppofed 


( f) Stephen. Byzant. Scythopolis, Palaeftinae urbs, vcl 
Nyffa Ccelo-Syri* Scytharum urbs. The author conje&ures 
that Nyfla in the Scythian language muft have fignified a boun- 
dary, or utmoft limits, and that thefe cities were fo called by 
the Scythians to mark the extremities or bounds of their con- 
quefts. Neat in Irifh and Nufb in Arabic, have that fignifica- 


to have been the tranflator ; for in Job, mention 
is made of a fpecies of money, called Kefttab. 
The feminine termination of this word in Hebrew, 
according to Bochart, implies a female lamb ; but 
he clearly ihews it was a piece of money fo caUod- 
In the time of R» Akfl», die Africans prefervfti 
this name for a coin. Cum per Africam peregri- 
narer, Obolum vocahant Kefitam (j;). The rm&£ 
being the feme, paoyes the idetaity of tfa* K$t$ 
of tb* wcjente ; and its form rork&g the identity 
with the h&rin of th<s Arabs, proves that com to 
have exifted in th$ time of Job, and even of Jar 
cob : above tfer ee centuries prior to ErichthoflMw, 
having given it to the Greeks, who afiuredly could 
not have communicated ckber with the IfraelUss 
or Arabs. 

* The invention of coin, or the fort of tnoftcy 
difcovered by King Indus in Scythia, muft there* 
fore have been prior to the Scythian conqueft of 
Afta, and x 500 years before the reign of Minus, 
the beginning of which is commonly placed 2x10 
years before the Cfcriftian JSra ; consequently the 
Scythian money was current in Afi* 3610 years 
before the birth of Chrift. 

• Before we proceed with this author, we muft here re- 
mark, that the Hiberno -Scythian or Irifli name for money 
is kce/b, tee/da, or kec/hta, and in Perfic ***A.g=fr keefeh) an.d 

(Jjfab Uta/b. The Jjrifh wo*d, I think, is derived from 
teas or has, ore, refined ore, or meUl : whence Q>-Kt4f, 
or the mountain Caucafus, remarkable for its mines- The 


(f) Bochart. Hierozic. v. 2. c. 43. p. 432. L 20. 


famous iron mines in Armenia, are called tl-Kufe/ by the 
Arabs at this day. The Chaldee nmp heftta in Job, 
was undoubtedly the Scythian name for refined ore, u e. 
money, and, as Bachtrt obferves, bad no reference to lamb 
or kid. 

" The date to tohich this enquiry carries us back j 
of the exiftence of money, precedes the inftitu- 
tion of an aftronomieal period of the Perfians, by 
four centuries only ; and at the period here men- 
tioned, the Perfian kings were tributary to the 
Scythians : that period commences 3209 years be- 
fore the Chriftian iEra (A), Aftronomy was almoft 
a; early known to the Chinefe, who preferve the 
u£? of the obolar coin invented by the Scythian 
Indujs f to this day. 

$€ Herodotus tells us, that when Scolotis or 
Scythes was prefented with a bow, by his father j 
he alfo gave him a girdle, with a clafp, ornament- 
ed with a vale or phiala of gold (/'). 

•• This hiftorical faft, preferred by fo many Scy- 
thian nation*, by people fo wry remote from each 
other, as fdme of them were, confirms the truth 
of the tradition. It is a dSmonftration, that, before 
the time of Scythes, his countrymen were expert 
in the cafting and working of metals, and many 
other arts dependent thereon — hiftory does hot 
funtifli another example of this kind* at that period. 
The difcoveries lately made by Monf. Pallas, of 


{k\ Hift. de l'Aftron. Anc. par M. Baifly, p. 355. 
{i) L. 4. C. 10. 


golden ornaments, utenfils,and fymbolical figures j 
in thbfe countries formerly inhabited by the Scy- 
thians, corroborates the affertion of Herodotus; 
With thefe phiala they made their libations to theii* 
gods; Xerxes ufed one, when he made his liba- 
tion to the god of the waters, calling it into his 
bofora at the conclufion of the ceremony. 

" The ferpent, the reprefentative of the Gene- 
rative Beings was a remarkable fymbol of the 
Scythians. Hence the (lory of Scythes being be- 
gotten by a god on the body of a woman, hall* 
human, half ferpent. This emblem they carried 
with them into China and Japan ; hence thofe 
monftrous figures of dragons and ferpents, we fee 
on the Chinefe paintings and on their edifices— 
hence the Chinefe (lory of Fo-hi and Fo-ki, their firft 
founder, prince and legiflatorj having been half . 
hiitnan, half ferpent; 

The word IHEtJHE or IEHCfif A, according to Rabhi 
Mofes, has this very fignification. Attende nomen qua- 
tuor literarum, prtiut ejus eft fcriptio, fie enim Hebraica 
litera fcribitur mm Jehpva vel Jheuhe* ipfum Deum 
generantem fignificare. Moy. Egypt, in Arc. Revel. 
And this was the Kerim^harte of the Hindi, Perfians and 
Arabs, and the Crom-cruaitb, ot God Creator of the Irifh. 
In the Hindoftan language me-hartae, lacio, t make; in Irifn 
kearde-me or keardafa: Pers. kurdej fa&orTtn charad 
in Chaldee, occupatus fuit. Keram 9 Arabice* eft ille in 
quo concurrunt omnes fpecies bonitatis & nobilitatis & 
virtutum. Opponitur Laem qttdd deriotat, geriere ignobi- 
lem, animb fordidum & avarum. Ceram vel keram % pro- 
fapia & animo generofus, nobilis, honorabilis, virtute praef- 
tans, munificus, liberalis : atque hac pracipue (ignificatione 
in communi loquendi ufu occurrit, quod nihil aeque ho- 


1-tf T ft O'U tt C f I ON. 


Vjorcm cohcOiet ac munificentia. Eft & ex epitbetis qtut 
Deo attribuere folent & turn valet benignum, bcneficum, 
largitorem,. ab eodem Themate fortitaeft yitis appellations 
"Carm (uti Hebreis oid Carim, Vinea) ideo di&um vo- 
liint (inquit Ebtiol Athir) quia vinum inde natum, excitat 
ad liberalitatem '& preftantes aftiones. (Pocock in Carmen 
Tograi, p. 105). Comh-dia> another Irifh name for God, 
fignifying. die immortal God, is an Arabia epithet of 
the Godhead.. Keiyam, eternal, immortal; Al-kewm % 
God.— -Richardfon, Gol. 

" In memory of their common origin all Scy- 
thian nations bore the ferpent as their enfign ar- 
morial. Signa Scythica funt dracones, conveni- 
ente longitudine pendentcs ex contis. Arrian. in 
Pr. Tad. p« 80. from whom we learn the Rontons 
borrowed it, and gave the name of Bratonarm % 
to the ftandard bearer (£). Of this name we have 
formed dragoon, fignifying a foldier who fights on 
hdrfeb&ck, or on foot, - after the manner of the 


N. B. The enfign armorial of the ancient Irifli was a 
ferpent twitted round a ftaff. See Vindication of the 
Hift. of Ireland. 

" The Sacas or Scythians were a wife and poli- 

w r 

tic people; having conquered Alia, they impofed 
a tribute, fo light, that it was rather an acknow- 
ledgment of their conqueft, than an impoft. Afia 
was then aiief depending on Scythia : It was the 
firft ftate governed by this kind of conftitutiqa, 
and here may be difcovered the origin of the 
FEUDAL SYSTEM, brought into Europe, by 
the descendants of thefe very Sacas* 

D ' , Bf 

(i) Vigcu a. 7. Amnuan. 16* 30. 

^ 1 

34 I H T fc Q D tf C T I O **. 

By the nom^ncl^tor, hereunto annexed* of the law 
Terms, ufed by tne ancient Iriih, the reader may fatisfy 
himfclf that MonfieurD'Ancarville is probably in the right. 
For the tarm^ ufcd far feud % and every other wpr4 apper- 
taining thereto f are Arahic, or Qhaldsean $ but chiefly tfye 

" from thffe Sacap arq defcended thi? Jap?.n£&. 
They ftill pre&rve the name in Sakai, one of their 
principal cities. The towns Nang-faki) Amanga- 
faki, i$a$k tfce origiu of this patio** :. aa do the 
Hin^ pf Q>^y mwn^aiftf, fiver** proving^, 

" Tl# ,§acag w^e the iftv^tor* qf arm&amj mil** 
t^ry ^ f$. Tfye flw^rt Jfaord q$#I >^ \>J the 
5a£W*% fifiwfif * #A f W d , qf *e Sacae : «*. *it|i 

i^veAted $t Btfonpe and ?ifto£$i The S^c^ by 
(pip? c4y, §aga^ b^ipg th$ i»v#a(torc of jeKgipija 
emblems, and the firft that offered horfes in facr%- 

fifi%» iwfefe&to tfc wf* far<m% fmKicim* 

ftucxdos. - Hence the Greek z£y«>, whence 2%m> 
the fliield, and the bag to carry it in,— hence alfo 
2»yo«, Sagum, the name of a military drefe with 
many nations— hence Saghta, a dart, an arrow ; 
hence Scuthae, archers ;— Scythes-^qui primus ar- 
eas, faghtarumque ufum fevvenHfe dtcitur. (Piin). 
'* If as warriors the* Sacs invented arms and 
military drefe, fo as fhepherds, at their teifiire, 
they wefra the authors' of raiific and of mufical in- 
— ' ftruments: 

'*• J7) See Scheuchzcr's hiftoty of Japan, and Vindication of 
Iriih Hift. p. 524. 




ftrumenw: the ife*ft»» of the Greeks derives its 
name from them (tf). 

But thefe Sada when they left Armenia, feem 
to have changed the mildnefs of their ancient 
manner* ; they were no longer the upright and 
jiift people to celebrated by the poet Choerilus : 
they now imitated the Treres and Cimmerians, 
who in the time of Midas, towards the lift Olym- 
piad, ravaged Afia* Thefe people, of the fame 
origin with the Sae&, were the Scytha of the 
branch of Agathyrfua. Thefe Sac*, following 
their example, defcended from Armenia into Cap*, 
padocia, and foiled upon that part of Pontus, 
nesreft to the Euxfaie fea (n)< Here they armed 
vefek* and became pirates as their neighbours had 
done before. 

'* Our author that proceed* to (hew, and clear- 
ly prora, that the mythology of the Egyptians, 
Btamin^ Ofcfaefe, Japanefe,.and all other Oriental 
nations, had that of the 9acg as their bafts." 

To thefe authorities of the Armenian origin of 
the ancient Scoti of Spain, who peopled thefe 
we&erft Hfends, we wiH add the teftimony of our 
own chronicles. 

Da The 

(jn) And probably the Sacca-buchc or Sackbut of the old 
Spatrhfrds r to wfticn we may add die Clar-Scac, or harp of the 
antfiertt MB& Cltr u a todrd arid mtfy fignirj the foundiag 
board ; unlcfs we dome it fronv CcoU mufia \ Ceol-ar-Sacse, 
tfte mflflc according to tSe Sace-<— from *bq cheli, dulcit. — 
Quare vocarunt Chaldaei tibfctt ChtfH j quia Ghek dukit erat 
ffous ejus. (Buxt) — hence alio we have in Irilh CtilUr, the 
finging of bird* • , 

(«) Strabb Gcog. L. u. p. 511. 


The Saxons, well acquainted with the people? 
they had fubdued, affert in their chronicle, that 
the firji fettlers of Britain^ came from Armenia ; 
and that they feated them/elves in the fouth-weft of 
Britain. The fame Chronicle fpeaks of Ireland as 
fettled by the Scoti, about the fame time. It next 
records the arrival of the South-Scythians byfea alfo 9 
in long ships, whom the Armenian Scythians would 
notftiffer to land 9 and they then went to the Scoti in 
Ireland , who alfo declined receiving them, but ad~ 
vifed their fettling in Scotland^ which they did 9 and 
afterwards the Scoti of Ireland intermarried with 
them, governed them, and gave the name to Scot- 
land. In all this account, the chronicle lays not a 
word of aily peopling from the continent of Eu- 
rope, but fays afterwards, that the Bolga and other 
tribes from Europe came by force, and fettled on 
many parts of the fea coaft, and it was thefe tribes 
who firft gave Julius Cscfar intelligence of this 
ifland ; but it alfo fays exprefsly, that they came 
from the continent, and were not what they (the 
Faxons) efteemed Aborigines. 

It was with thefe Armenians, that the Phoeni- 
cians came and traded for tin, and we have at this 
day many places of Phoenician origin in their names, 
both in Devon and Cornwall. And in the fouth- 
weft of Devonihire, there is ftill a river called 
Armine 9 and the town and hundred is called Ar- 
mlne-ton to this day (0). So likewife there was 
the Scotium Mons in Armenia. 


(0) Letter from Sir Geo. Yonge to the author. 


If none of thefe authorities had exifted, the 
language, and the mythology of the ancient Irifh, 
would fufficiently prove, that they defcended from 
thofe Armenian Scythians, who conquered Egypt, 
and afterwards fettled in Baetica in Spain, under 
the name of Scoti, and from thence came to Ire- 
land and to Britain. 

he langue d*une nation eft toujour* leplus recon- 
noifable de fes monument : par elle on apprend fes' 
antiquitezj on decouvrefon origin* (p). 

This was the opinion of that learned Imguift, 
and great hiftorian, Monfieur Fourmont. 

Father Georgi, during his residence in Thibet, 
finding their mythology was Egyptian, and that 
the Thibetans were defcended from the Southern 
Scyths, accounts for it in this manner. " Scythae 
in facris Egyptiorum inftru&i ab exercitu Ramfis, 
qui jam annos ante Sefoftrim circiter centum, Li- 
bya, Ethiopia, Medis, Perfis, Baftris & Scythis 
potitus dicitur — but left objection fhould be made 
to this iffertion, he udds—tfuerunt Colchi Scytbx, 
Egyptiorum coloni (y). 

Deities common to the Egyptians and to the 
.ancient Irifh or Iberno-Scythu 

There was no deity better known to the Irifli 
than Thothy the fuppofed author of letters, geo- 
metry, arithmetic, &c.— The ancient kalendar of 



» * 

(p) Mem. de litterat. T. 7. p. 497. 
(q) Alphabetum Tibetanorum, p. 38. 


the Irtfi, marks two festivals in the year to this 
deity, Que in May and one in Harveft, Di# 
Tait a*fa%hmr % j\ e. Tots day in Haryeft, known 
at this day in many parts, by the common people, 
by the nam* of £4 Swn> fab* t the foftivai day 
of Thotbt The harveft in this country b in Au* 
guft and September, correfponding with tho Egyp* 
tian month Tbetb* which begun on th* *j>th day 
pf Auguft, and contained 30 day* O). Th* 
Irifti word faolr* for a feftivstl, wat imparted with 
the deity 1 &tf and $w>* in Egyptian, fignifie* 

fejlum, ga.*4iu*h ffiwitet (*\ h#uc* tffcv the Ifife 

wordy*"*, a feaft* tranftawd a meal, hy tj# Irilh 

Jxxiqaniftfc The o&v fctft of Thcjtfc wa* i& 
oF*fcw* that is May j and >fi this month Uk Greek* 
and. Rofnana had a tradition that Mfrmry was 
born (/). Thotb* .Tath* w Tait* was; a name 
well known in fciftt h#c«y.> When the Egyptian* 
cxpejied tba Scotf fc<?pfc Egypt, 5r#, with his 
Scythian colony, failed from the Nile ft Cws» 

and the fifth generation from Sru, waa Tait (w). 

In the firft chapter we fhall prove that th& Egyp« 
tian Thoth was the Fenius Fearfad of the ancient 
Jjrifli. • 

Be-bai/lr y the gocktefc of moiflure : the Moon. 

c& wxAtafi the fame* both words fignify mQifture, 

. .. hufwdity. 

. (r) 'Kircher*s tables at the end pf the Egyptian-Arabic No* 

(j) Kircher. Woide, 

(/) Martial. 

(u) Mac Curtin's AafciqwtUft ei Irdimf, p. *& 

itf*rfeor>uc > rt6tt. 39 

humidity, Botha w Butha> moiftur£, another 
name for the moori. Btcta-fann, the temple of 
Buta, flood in the county of dork, now Butta- 
vant. Eac or Eag 9 another qame of this planet. 
Secundum JEgyptios, Luna pafcebatur aqua pa- 
luftri, & et fie pafta omnia nutrit fe fovet : crede- 
batur mater foHs.— ^Si quid refl£ judico, I/is five 
Luna, quando hovi apparebat, a facerdotibus 
Egyptioruih dicebatur Bubqftis ; ubi vero lucis 
pleriitudinem aflecuta fuiflet, Butt nomine celebra- 
batar (w). 

Tajfe, tiibiftufe, riiii, hepce idjhtor of the 
Perfians, the angel who prefided over rain : hence 
in Infli add Phoenician Baal-tis 9 the goddefs of 
moifture ; the moon. Re 9 the moon, ni* %rahb % 
Luha, quae t\Y) ratiih, refftgeret tef rae nafceritia, 
aettu, diutufno labefa&atr. This \i the Hebrew 
riaiiie of th£ m6on, and has the fame fignification, 

Neith dia catha agus Neamas a bheari fan. 
itfekh the god of tor, and JfesrtnaS his goddefs. 
Nath, wifdom, the goddefs of wtfdom. 

Nettha, mighuffi iEgyptforuifi & aiitiquiffimum 
numen : tlfaeci earn hori iriterpf etanttif Venerem, 
fed iWinervam.— Itfemdis jfe^ptiorumNum6n(#). 

Suiridh > Venus, a lover, a fweetheart. Sourodh 
vel Sour oi % domina amoris, et carri articulo 
Tfouroth, unde Aftaroth, quod Thefaurus nofter, 
JSgyjpttKArabkms, Venerea* interpf etat ; eft vox 
j&gyptlaca (y). 

Sois 9 

(-#) Jabloitikf, Patiftcwi iEgypt. (*) Id. 
(y) Nbmcicbttttra Egypto- Arabici. 


Sois, /. e. Nath. Qmnifcience, the God of 
wifdom. Sais 9 urbs Egypti facra Neith^e vel, 
Minervas. The Greeks here confounded Nath 
with Neith, t and made Minerva prefide over war 
and fcience. _ 

Qnn, Ong, fire, the fun. " An the fun : . trogh- 
ain, the rifing of the fun. Gri-an, the fun. 

On urbs Egypti antiquiffima, folem fignificat vel 
urbem foli dicatam. Graeci earn appellant Helio- 
polim, (JabJonfky). On Egyptiorum lingua dici 
folem (Cyrillus Alex.) In /the dialed of upper 
Egypt, fuppofed to be the mod ancient, it ia pro- 
nounced aein. It is the Arabic j& An. . In Gene* 

fis xli. 45, it i? written ]tf An, but pointed to be 
read On. 

Sam? the fun, it W3$ «Jfo,a npe of Hercules, 
who was alfo called Seona, to whom they faqrificed 
for plentiful crops the enfuing year (z), hence 
Seona-Saobha or Hercules's pictures, with which 
the priefts ufed to predift in Pagan times, \y& 
Saba, pi&ura, pi&um, coloravit. 

Soma, .Hercules, learning, eloquence.. Soma, 
i. e. faibhreas ealadhna (Yet. Glof. Hib.) that is, 
Soma fignifies the effenc^ - of fcience or wifdom. 
Somouor dfomou has the fame meaning in Egyp- 
tian; whence ir^ Exod. i. v. io.. the Coptig has 
*■ » « • * . « ». . 

mar en* 

(z) Seq Colle&aneade Reb. Hib. No* ia, deitribing the 
facrifice to Sheona for a plentiful crop, XftN vel. Chon, dicunt 
Herculem, lingua Egyptiorum Chon vocari-^fhiges ad matu- 
ritatem debitam perducentem, (PaiTerus. Jablonfky) Chonapud 
JEgyptios Hercules, quanquam Seldenus dubitet. In Sina^ 
Con-ful literarum & artium inventor. (Hornius, p. 238.) 


maren-dfomoUy drcumfcribamus illos, let us deal 
wifely with them— hence with the Egyptian article 
Oti, OudfomorOughiom, was the name of Her- 
cules. The letter Giangia being the firft in the 
word Gjom or Dfom, is fome times pronounced 
as S, DS. DTS. and fometimes as G. as in the 
Egyptian gt$m a book, is evidently from the Chal- 
dee NOtt goma, a bull-rufli, becaufe on the leaf 
of that fhrub they formerly wrote. In like man- 
ner Jablonfky derives the Greek Gigon, another 
qame of Hercules, from the Egyptian Che-ghiom, 
or ghom, written alio with the letter Giangia. 
r»>*>, Pataceus ; quidam vero volunt fie dici iEgyp- 
tiorum Herculem : this is a proof that the word 
was pronounced dfom, ghjoiq^ and gom : whence 
the Irifli Ogam, Hercules. JablonQcy derives the 
name from dfom, or ghjom, /: e+ virtus, robur, 
potentia. The Irifli derive it from gum, or gumh, 
wifdom : The Tibetans write the word giam 9 i. e. 
fapientia. Giam-jang, Deus fapientiac (a). The 
Irifli gum, or gumh, wifdom, is preserved in the 
vulgar Engliih gumjbin : as you have no gumjhin, 
u *. na wifdom. Hie Arabic guman, cogitatio, 
is not very foreign to both. However we (hall 
find in the following chapter, that the Irifh called 
Hercules both Ogam, and Som. Som, Sem, et 
Chom JEgyptii vocarunt fuum Herculem. (Jablon- 
(ky.) Eft ab Hercule feraecorum plane diverfus, et 


(a) Alphabet-Tibetan um, p. 280. Hervas VocabuL Poly* 


Hercule Grsecoruin multo antiquior ab ipfit Graecit 
agnofcitun (id.) Secundum Egyptios in fote pdfi* 
tus : ent fymbclum temporis* stat patios Soft, 
qui tempus efficit. (&)-*»hencd in Itith* Ja/«, the 
Sun. But Smu in Irifh* . fignifies vtifidom, fctence : 
Hence Sopar Soma, L e. Tobar eoiai$ i that fc, fopar 
fom* implies tbe fountain of knowledge, Th* well 
of Soma. In Arabic Zeltia figattous, wife, prude&t* 
Zem or Zem-Zem is the muiM of t famous weft 
in Mecca^SMQr zamim, coghatit, cogitation 
hence the Irifli compound faot-fotriy a pbildfopber* 
/. *• learned as Som^-he wte tbe Cam-fal of the 
Chhuefe* and tbe C&nm+faok of the ancient Itifk j 
tbe bead of ^il fciencc. Sec tbe note preceding. 
Auibmas teib uft that tbe Egyptian* catted die fin 
Ofiris, but in tbe iffend of Ogygia* they ftaohed 
that planet Bacchus (£}. Nov both, bocbt* back, 
bacham, buac* bagb, are obfotete words in Iriflt, 
fignifying fire y heat, tbe fun. Crios-bocht, or the 
bett, circle or girdle of Bocht (the fan) is ail irifli 
name of tbe Zodiac When thePcrfians Gtmqw&r* 
ed Armenia, the mountain oft whicfc they ligjbted 
the perpetual fire was tzlkA Bagfcaite** from 
Bagh the Sun and aven a mountain (c). Hence 
the firft chriftian irtiffionaries into thofe cdnatrfea,' 
where the Sun was worshipped, nateed the ferfe 
worshippers Baganach and Paganacfr, whtfftce tbe 

word Pagan (rf). 


(£) Epigr. 30. 

(c) Mofes Choronenfis, 1. 2. c. 74. 

(</) No Eaftcrn nation were greater devotees td tft* woVflrip. 


DirMfon que let Irlandoit out empruntf des 
Roroatnft Ito mots qui lew font communs avec 
qiix» lorfque ces jnott fe retrourent dam le* tangoes 
<k U haute Aiie, dans le Fef fan le plus anciens et 
aux Ihdet ? Le prtttndre ce feroit montrer le d6* 
vouement le plus abfurde pour des fyftcmes dgnucs 
de tout fondaneni j ce feroit fe refufer a toute 
lumiere a toute raifon. Thefe are the words of 
Monfieur Gebelin, (/) allowed to be one of the 
moil learned men of this age. 

If an affinity of Unguage (hall be admitted as 
a criterion of the truth of the Irifh hiftory, and 
of the ancient Irifli being defcended from thofe 
Scythians who had conquered Egypt, and thither 
carried their language, arts and fciencer; there 
cannot be a ftronger proof than the following lift 
of words common to both \ it is the opinion of all 
learned men, that fuch x proof fhould be admitted 
with ftrong evidence. 

The Egyptian language is certainly one of the 
mod ancient in the world, and in all probability 
an original or mother tongue, formed at the con- 
fufion of Babel — it is in a great meafure preferved 
to our times in the prefent Coptic ; its ftru&ure 
and conftkution^ differ fb widely from alf the 


of the Sun, and of fire as its emblem, than the aaeieitt Irtftu 
National cuftom* prevail-in all countries, but it is extraordinary, 
that the Eaflern refpe& for fire, Aould continue fo long after 
the eftabli/hment of Chriftianity, as it does in Ireland : at this 
day, the female peafants nerer light a fire, or even a candle, 
without croflxng themfelves, and faying a fhort grayer. 
(0) Origine du language, p. 3*12. 


Oriental and European languages, that it is im* 
poffible to conceive it derived from any of them (/). 
Thefe words, are taken from the Nomenclature 
Egypto-Arabica, publifhed by Kircher, and from 
the Coptic Lexicon of the learned Dr. Woide. 

Egyptiace. Lat. 

ath, partic. neg. 
aiai, adauftio 
al, lapis 
amoi, utinam 
amre, princeps 
amre, piftor 
an, partic. neg. 
ani, pulchritudo 
anoni, luxuria 
aoun, m mole/la 
aouo, ^/g/w.r 
aouon, aperire 

zreh 9 Jervus 
areghj, terminus 
aghjan, y/fli? 
ariki, querela 
afo, indulgentia 
as ebol, indulgere 
ad, prapos. neg. 
bol, folutio 
bol ebol, mitigare 



ath, ut in ath*rioghadh 



mai Horn, <t/W hi* 








uinneog j parva apertio. fe« 



gap. • • 


eas boloid, indulgent ia^ ah- 


£ eafboloid, abfolutio 


(/) Urn?. Hift. v. i. p. 512, 


Egyp. Lot. 

ban, fadus 
bots, bellum 
ouoi, perfona 
adooui, mane 
afh, crucifigere 
afhai, multitudo 
afhi, pendere 
baki, «r£j 

bari, navicula 
' bafhi, watt 

befnid, ararius 
b6l, djtfcz , 

beUebol, liquefcere 
b6fh, #fft/w 
bir, j^rte 
bighji, naufragium 
bok, fervus 
boki, iiki/Ai 
gallou, ve/pertilio 
ebol, tamfeorjim 
eioul, c*ruttf 



buathas, vifloria 


ar doi 

aifli, punitio 



bocan, ifofflftr 

bo&ain, adi/kium 


bois-ceil, y<Kfli fyhefiris^ 

Ceile, Jyha 
b6s, petunia araria 

? bial 


ban, bearra, beart 

bach, long-bach, long, navis 

beac, buacal * 


gallun, /^r 

ar abol 


cmi, fcientia % cognitio eamh, eamhainfi 
mok mek, Jtudium ezmanmacafcbolaycolkgium 


ar, refpondit 

dom-lac, i. *. baine claba, 
Arc coagulatum 


dod, flidftftf 
erous, refponjio 
dom, adbarere 


Egyp. Lat. 

erfei, templum 
erto, cubitus 
erihon, vejlis 
efie, elatiy fuperbi 


aifrion, Ch. fVHBW apbrim 

ottog, pollux, parvus cubitus 


cas, eaflabra, wrba fupttba 

Jigttum mionn, Jigmtm, 

crmeine, Jignare 
timeini, qftendere 
eida, pafcha 
ephleou, vanha* 
enouoi, currus 
ehrei, fupra 

tiomna, te/lamentum 

tiomana, tradere 

tody an-iod, an, panic* 


naoi, navis 

uas, w 


tiehrei, nobilh, proteftvr tria 

eghjeou, »^w uiga> uigh-inge, <r/4$r> 

thaibes, viftoria 

thai, rtjjifc 
tbekl* otci&s 
thaS, Jimilituth 
thoud, turbamcegere 
thou, w/tf&r 
thoud, congregare 

tho^y Jims j terminus 
thems, fe\ 

taibh, taibh real, Attfrttr 


teal-mac, paricidm 


toidme, /w&v cwfpiratw 

ftia, fora*, dei* **;*«</ 

teide, congrqpttifif nundina 

teide r aquavit*, apta mix- 
ta, AngOci toddy^ loid 
doid, pradiolium tomfitiu* 
turn, a joint form 

teim, flwr* 



Egyp. LaU Hib. 

iten, terra ith 

ibi, fttire ibb r fotus 

ioh, ioch, /««£ e^g 

iotj hor4e\im ith, tritkum 

pitch, 4&MQ pocan 
KA^MISj (7W«ff 2?££p- wafe Cadmus 

K ALD AS» 7^?i/^ keildei, ceildei fandus 

kame, mg-^r cama 

kelghje, angulus kealg 

todhe4» prudens keadfaoi t prudentia 

k«* fi<W$*V* keas 

fctt, fotelltftus keacht, intelligentia 

kel kil, tintinabulum keol, keqlin 

loghj, r^fcr* leig 

TOfe, <fot &te »>ai> mai dbuia^ db w£if 

met, negative with 

maniak-efpe, torques muinke 

mokh, afflifiio h*uc 

•*£ "*" ? naoib, Mrfr 

neph, #*{«« J 

n£b, dominus naobh, naomh 

'SKIDM* faptWf tQmam, baptizare 

pi-mounhou, r*£/0, ^i mtuhan, tf deas-mubaOj r*- 
5/? <^r/. £M aufiralis. Dcfcipiid. 

tua muhan, regti boreaUs. 

Thomaad. oir muhan, 

regio orientals*. Ormond. 

iar muhan, regio occiden-, 

talis . 
las, pilas, //jago* lis 



Egyp. LaU Hib. 

chukon, natura caichne, cainc 

6bch f luna 9 dominamaris eag 

ke, etiam keo 

\emne, porfus mar it imus Luimneach, vet Limerick, 

portus maritimus in Hi- 

bernia, $. e. Laimri-oike, 

juxta aquam (urbs) vet 

regio juxta aquam (g)* 

tomi, villa tuam 

rouchi, nox 9 vefper reagh, nox 

fobi, tlobi,fanfli eafcob, epifcopus. Sob-fgeiil 

hijioriafarida^ novum tef- 
tamentum, fg6ul hiftoria 

nead, regio a quo veritus neid, ventus 

niphoui, azlum neamh. Tibetanice, n&rtl 

niat, intelligentia nath, fcientia 

os, multus ' os 

oeifh, tempus aos 

nout, Deus nodh, fupremtis, nobili/fimus 

oueb, facer dos^ efoucb eafeob, epifcopus 

idem •■.'...... 

ouro, rex aire, princeps> Arab* haf 

ouoini, cithara ♦ aine . 

outouet, viriditas uatat, uathath 

ohi, gr*# aoi, £r*#, aoire, /^r 

rako, adftribere racam, fcribere 

ran, placere roinim 


ig) Lamon, lomon, lomne, lcmnc, are original words for a 
large body of water. 


Egyp. Lot. : Irifli. 

rad, t'rad, pes troid 

rafh, main , •*. , • reis, fpathalma 

reim, indigena, incola reim oilerac, indigena 
remnakat, fntelleflu, reimnacht 

res, tf*£/kr • reis, feptentrio 

re, So/ re, L««^ 

red, rod, GrtVi , Jfad, horizon, rad a dear- 

■> | gl u s> Aurora, /. *. ori» 

ens luminis rubicund* 
re, facere re, fattus 

red, idea, fpecies : '. ."• reit 
ribe, linter nauticus rab, raw&f 
rokh, incendium rog, ^yr&f 

fabe, fapiens, (bo,.rfoc- foib 

fai, plenituds fai -. . , _ 

fad, projicere faidoir , projector jagittarum 

fack, fcriba^ fachnbad,. fach, fcribete, 

antiquum nomen Egyptiacum, Greece ^^a*™? 
refpondens, videtur fuiffe. Sacb 9 quomodo in 
verlione librorum fcripturae Coptica, femper 
reddetur y$«f^«T&*, Scriba. Scripturse peritus 
Linguae Egyptiorum nabad defignatur v^w* /. e. 
fapiens : intellq&u pollens, dicuntur igitur 
itpypwajit qui effent, ut loquitor Julius Firmi- 
cus, Sacrorum literarum periti, i. e. fach-nabat 
(Jablonlky. Pant. Egypt. Prolegom. p.. ^civ.) — 
Hibernice Seach-nab. 

E fchai, 


Egyp. Lat. 
fchai, littera 

fe, tenia perfona 
feini, medicus 
foli, velum muliebre 
dako, ^w 
damo, qftendere 

feth, pot ens, validus 

deu, wo/us 
phachairi, veneficus 
phette, iratf calejlis 
phro, £y0ftr 
pheriou, fplendidus 
pholph, verberare 
phoir, /omnium 
phorgh, <#<t>^0 
oik, /w/wV 

(hai, j&j/i/x 


fee, littera fcerola, libellus, 
fed na geug, /ftfera ra- 
morutn. Vide cap* i. 


feanam, medicare 


deag, flier; 

oide, praceptor, dam-oide, 

faoth, £0010 generofuiy va- 
lidus, litter atus. Sethir 
fethreach, homo validus. 
Sith-be, <fr* 




fuar, frigidus 

forai na grian, pr/ttf y&//x 





6g. Sudog. jpa/itf expatio- 
nisy rfTD Sudah, Hebr. 


fai-run, jaj/kr, run, facies 
fai, fejium, Sahidici faoire, /a ySmr*, diesfeftivi- 
fdire, fejiivitas, gau~ tat is > feire, fcjiuto, pran- 
dium' dium 




Egyp. . Lot. 

{had, fecare 
flie, lignum 

iheebol, ekire 


fadoir, roster* 
fae, lignum, fac*» tarperita- 
. rrstr, i. *> fabricator //g- 


(bar, filius, ihein ftiior, yf- 
//kj «j/« maximusy ftiear- 

each, j£l!r or *ya* 
(hi, w/w/e Jhinim 9 facere 


fhfin, fen 
foe, rtf/fer 
flieod, adamantbus 

fliligh, fa/fer 
fluai, extenjio 

fliit, i)omitm 

fhala, /r j/?/j 

fhiol, £mr, ;w//0 

(hne, rate 


(hot, i/ana 

fliom, ^/?^j famh,y&/, famra, ^ta* 

eh an fhom, ^r. */m7/h/b famh fuinn, jfo/j aftaiis, 

ajlatis autumnus, ear an famh, 

v*r. initium ajiatis 
phikohi, cylindrus texto* figheach, unde y fighim, tex- 

ris are, fighedoir, textor 

phos, muhus effe fos 

phota, anus, podes putog, reftum 
chello, fenex cailleach 

chellod, vallis calladh 

ched-ched, invejligare cead, judex 


E 2 cheibi, 



Egyp. Lat. 

cheibi, tegmen 
choky militare 


caban, domus 

coga, bellum 
chem chem, confilium feim-loir, conciliarius 
hel, halai, volare eol-air, accipitor, ealan, 

cygnus, eit-ile, volatus 

feibti, qui judicata judex 

fihap, judicare 
chefh, eruciari 
hli, aliquis 
hop, chop, nuptia 
hra, chrz 9 fades 
hob, 0/#x 
hot, navigare 
hot, oportet 



coib, </or 



cot, £iraz not//; 


ghal, deponere apud ali- geall, pignut, *?M 

gho, anunciare 

ghaph, £yi#zx 
ghin, tf#/0 
ghinriau, i;j/i# 
ghoi, navis 
ghiphe, poffidere 
ghro, vidloria 
flak, fupplicium 
gratia, r*//g/0 

goch-aire, magi/ler ceremo* 

ghnim, agere 

fleacht, adoratio 
garait, fanttus 


The Nomenclator in Egyptian and Arabic, from 
whence moft of thefe words are taken, is often 


quoted by the learned Dr. Woide, in his Coptic 



t>i&ionary. It was found by Petrus a Valle, in 
the year 1615, near Grand Cairo, in the hands 
of fome peafants, who knew no* its value ; Peter 
tranfmitted it to Rome, where Kircher found it, 
and publiihed it with a Latin tranflation annexed. 
It contains, by Peter's account, many old Egyptian 
words, facred and profane, now grown obfolete 
to the Egyptians themfelves : but he can form no 
idea when it was compiled : it is a mod valuable 
monument of antiquity. For, we know as little 
of the Egyptian dial eft, as we do of their literary 
chara&ers, as Count Caylus obferves (g). Before 
the beginning of this century we were acquaint- 
ed only with the Hieroglyphic. Since that period, 
many infcriptions have been found on the bandages 
of very ancient mummies, written in a running 
handy or common charafter. One of confiderable 
length has been engraved by the Count. The ori- 
ginal is in the library of St. Geneveue at Paris, 
where I was indulged with the perufal of it. 

Of) Antiquities, v. I. p. 69. 



* - « . * 

A * *■* * 

■ V 

* f 

J< I I 

» f 

i : 


* < 


• » 




Of the Ogham writing of the ancient Irijh. 

1 HE word Ogham in Irifli, taken in 1 general 
fenfe* fignifies whatever is facred, myftejrious and 
fublirne : parity of diction, qlq>qaence> but is par- 
ticpl^rly applied to fared and myfierious writings. 


Tqlaofd fays* the word originally meant, Hx^fecret 
of letters f and from fignifying the fecret af -writings 
it came to fignify fecret, wrifing. But Ogham or 
Ogbma certainly fignified learning, eloquence* fu- 
blimity of (tyle \n compofitiop. Hence it became 
a proper name, in Irjfh, as Qgma Grianan father 
of King Dealbhagith) who yras one of the firft of 
the Dadanan or Chaldaean race. He is faid to 
have been a very learned man, hence his name 
Oghma ; he was married to Eathna a famous 
poetefs, who bore, befides. the forementioned 



monarchy Qairbre thq poet To Og mm was added 
the furname Grianan or Phebean. Dealbhaoih fig- 
nifies a painter, a carver, a maker of images, a 
writer of hieoroglyphics"; fo that learning attends 
all thefe names. 

O'Danell, archbifhpp of Tuam, was a learned 
man, and well (killed in the Irifli language : he 
was employed with proper affiftants, to tranflate 
the New Teftament into Irifli ; in his preface, 
printed in 1602, he fays, he enjoined his affiftants 
to write their part, according to the Ogham, and 
propriety of the Irifli tongue. The word ogham 
here, furely cannot imply the orthography, as 
Tolarid will have it; feut- the diftiori, ftiie, &c— 
Keyfler alfo in his Antiq. Celt, derives Ogmius> .the 
name &{■ the Hercules of «the ancient Gaul*,* from 
thelrifti ; Og fytrh, .tfeat is- eltfjtlence*/ TheTarwirian 
Hercliles was called m k)ghs 9 which is a tarruption 
of Ogham (A), fceno&'tbe titles of OgulJEh&n,' kc. 
The goddefs of Wifdom Wafc named &gg# by the 
Phaeniciaiisy according to' Euphdrian ; (ir). • ^.v 

Ogbaniy or Ogmkcs ^with a Greek 1 ttermftiiatlon, 
the Hercules, or gSd 'tit -eloquence of the aticient 
Gaujs, derives his name from a Galflifc Wr3; ac- 
cording to Lucian ; but;thfe language of ' the an- 
cient Gauls, like the ancient Irifli, had a great 
affinity with the 'Phaenidan, ftefils et Gallis 


{b) Hift. des Tartares. 
(ij Stcph. Byzant, 




aut eandem fuifle linguam, aut folo diale&o diver- 
fam : ita enira afferit Polybius (<:)• 

The Gauls, fays Lucian, call Hercules, Og+ 
mius — they reprefent his pi&ure in a very unufual 
manner : with them he is an old man, drawing 
" after him a vaft multitude of men, all tied by 
41 their ears, by cords uniting in their tongues : a 
" learned Gaul informed me, that the Gauls did 
" not fuppofe, as the Greeks did, that Mercury is 
" fpeech ot eloquence, but they attributed it to Her- 
" cules or Ogmius." 

As a chara&et it was never ufed but in facred 
Writings, unlefs' in an Epitaph for the deceafed by 
permiflion of thd Magi or Druids ; from its uni- 

* * * i * % 

form combination' of ftraight lines, many have was the fame as the ijnkno wn chara&ers 
of Per/epolisj and thofe the. learned MiUius thinks 
wfere facred and myfterious. iC Cum Zoroaftres 
placita fuacorils mandata, Perfanim Regi Giifli- 
tafp tradidiffet, ilia certo loco inclufit, eique 
facerdotfes prasfecit, prohibens, ne hsec facra vul- 
go manifeftarent : quare etiam facerdotum Per- 
farum, cultui divino vac3ntium labia, linteo 
" 'velata erajrit. Qui, de hodierno ftatu Pferfiae 
atque reHgione, fcripferunt, idem referunt. 
Quid, quod infcriptiones. Perfepolitanse, quae 
" adeo eruditos excruciaverunt, notae quaedam 
* Hieroglyphicae effe videntur, quibus Zoroaftres, 

« qui 

(J, Bochart, Geo. S. p. 758. 





" qui prop* Feitfepolin cultum fymbolicum condi- 
" derat, aliique Magi, praccipua cultus fui capita, 
'* profanum yulgus qelare ftudehapL" (/) 

That learned Orientaiift Sir William Jones, who, 
(from his knowledge is the Sbanfcrit, has been 
admitted into the order of the Br&mni) in his late 
difcourfe to the Academy of Calcutta, adverts to the 
wond Ogham : be proves it is a pure Sbanfcrit word, 
and means they acred or myjterkm writings or lqn+ 
guage, and that it is ufed in that fignUfcation* in the 
books of the Sbanfcrit — he alfo obferves, that the. 
Sbanfcrit language, was older than the Hiridu, was 
the language of Iran, and of pure. Chaldaic origin, 
He applies the ufe of this word Ogham, and the 
ancient traditions of the Irish, together with the 
authority of the Saxon Chronicle (quoted in this 
volume) to prove that thefe iflands were firfl: peo- 
pled by colonies from Iran, and that their language, 
their tujloms, and their religion, were the fame both 
in thefe iflands, in Iran, and. in Hindofian—hut — 

all originated in Ch aid sea (///). 


(I) Gratio dc fabulis Orientalium, p, 77. . 

(m) Iran and Iouran, the country of the Perfians, and of the 
Turks. Perfia and Oriental Turkey — applied by Eaftern^hif- 
torians to fignify all upper Afia, India and Cfyina excepted, 
(Herbelot — but the ancient Iran, I believe was of greater ex- 
tent : Sir William Jones, in the difcourfe above mentioned, 
proves from the books of the Bramins, the exiftence of a firft 
great empire (before the Affyrian) which he the name 
of the kingdom of Iran, from whence, he fays, a colony emi- 
grated to Hindejlan : the monarch of this great empire was 
Maba-Bsli, or, The Great Baal, who eftablifhed the worfhip 
-of lire and of the Sun, and encouraged the ftudy of aftronomy 



Iran in Irifh hiftory, is written Eirin, which is 
the Irifh name of this ifland : hence many miftakes 
arife with modern biftorians, as will appear in the 
fallowing (heets, and as I have fully explained in 
my Vindication of the Ancient Hiftory of Ire- 

Unlefs there had been fuch a connexion between 
the original inhabitants of Eirinn or Ireland, and 
thofe of ancient Iran, it would have been iropoffi- 
ble, that fo great an affinity could exift between the 
languages of the old Irifh and the Sbanjbrit. The 
mythology of the Bramins exhibits a full convic- 
tion of this connexion. Syon is their goddefs- of 
fleepr— her feftival is kept on the nth day of the 
new moon in June — fhe is 1 fabled to fleep for four 
months ; to fignify that the rainy feafon fetting in 
for four months, the care of Bi/inoo, the preferver, 
is fufpended as iitwnaterial, the rain fecuring their 
crops of grain* All this is an equivocation on the 
two Ir$* words Suan and Sainton, or, mor-foinim j? 
the firft fignifies found Jhep % the fecond great rain 
arid impefi ; ahd this again reverts to the Chaldean' 
flllflTTto Marbafon, a feafon fo called becaufe of 
the great rains, /. e. Hft bul> Ofiober nofter, prof* 
ter pluvias y (Oaftellus); 


and of the motions of the heavenly bodies. Hence we have 
in Irifh Beat the fun ; the fire worfhip : Beil-teine, Baal's-fire, 
the month of May or the month of Beal ; anc{ Btal-am a year, 
or the revolution of Baal, &c. &c. but Bed in the old Scy- 
thian dialect fignifies Jire f and is the root of all thefe words. 
BuTjut and Belef in Arabic fignify light, the Aurora, &c. 


Again, Lukee is their goddefs of all kinds of 
grain, her feftival is kept in the month of Auguftv ; 
Ltfgb-na/a or the anniverfary of Lubg is the Irifh 
name of the firft of Auguft, and we know not the 
derivation of the word. 

Unnunto the unknown (god) — Irifh, anaibinte 
Kartik, the confecrated — Irifli, Creatacb 
$ieb 9 the deftroyer, death — Irifh, Sab and Saib 
■ Gvfeyn, a magus,wifeman, a prieft— Irifh, gaofria f 


. The Irifh fcholar will find thefe and many others 
in Holweirs Hindoftan. r 

The fragment containing the Ogbam 9 is part of 
a work which bears the titles of Urekekt nan 9 gois 9 
Aurekekht nan heigis 9 Uirekecbt nan Eig/i 9 and. 
Uire-kepht nan Eig/j. 

The moft perfect copy I have feen contains but: 
twelve folio leaves of vellum ; they are in the book 
of Ballym&te : the lofs bf the remainder pf .thi$. ; 
work is much to be regretted. This fragment 
contains part : pf the Oghata and. the book of 
Fearkeartne. . The book of Lecan has part of the 
Uirekepht, but* wants the chapter on. the Ogham.: 
another copy in my poffeflion has the fame defeft.t 

The title AURAICEnT is; written in, I rift 
characters, except the CH in the laft fyllable, which 
is the Phoenician Cheth (n). The Irifh were well 


(«) Sec the Phaenician infcription explained by Fourmont, 
Tranf. of the Etrufcan Academy T. 3. Diff. 3.— — See alfo 
.Sicilise vet. infer, nova colle&io 1784, p. 316. 


acquainted with the Chaldean and Phaenician cha- 
racters, and frequently mixed them iti their ancient 
MSS. with their own, as will be feen in the fubfe- 
quent pages. Sometimes they ufed them folely, 
writing whole words in them. (See plate 3.) 

Uraiceachd, an Accidence or Primmer. Lhuyd's 

Uraiceacht, a book for the education of youth. 
O'Brien's Did. 

Uraiceachd, rudiments of education. Shawe's 

Uraicepht or Uraikepht. The fame. 

Forchernus apud Emaniam, Ultonias regiam 
prefeos, praecepta & varia carminum genera Uteris 
mandavit. Quem librum, Uraiceacht na n'eigios, 
#. e. praecepta poetarum infcriptum, & centena 
carminum genera complexum. Kenn-foela fiL 
Olilii, Donaldo rege Hibernian, multis abinde fae- 
culis interpolavit. O'Flaherty's Ogyg. p. 217. 

Keacbt and Kepbt 9 were the general titles of the 
works of the learned Irifh :—Kefaiat is an Arabic 
word, frequently ufed in the titles of books, mot 
Arabe quijignifie ce qui fuffit, lequel entre dans let 
titres de plufieurs livres 9 (Herbelot.) and kafet or 
kafeut lignifies rhyme, poetry. 

Urai 9 lignifies a matter or teacher of the firft 
clafs, it was an epithet of Thoth or Phine ; let 
A rates fe fervent de ce mot, qui ejl tire du Cbaldaique 
et du Syriaque Ouraia et Ouraio, pour Jignifier um 



martre ou dofteur de la premiere claffe ; tels qu'ont 
He Edris > Kheaher, Hermes, qui portent les titres de 
premier, fecond, &* troifieme maitres ou dofleurt de 
PUniver/e (Herbelot). 

Arab, g^l auri 9 Syr. auri 9 Heb. miH bora, 
indicavit, docuit, demonftravit, indie Morab, doc- 
tor, pedagogus, Syr. Auria, do&rina. 

m% iara, docere 5 inftituere, moilere, pracmo* 
nere. Accedet ad nn trava irrigare, ex iara certe 
tore, pluvia tempeftiva, & Tora doftrina, ihftitu- 
tio, lex. Horum quippe affinitatem indicat canti- 
cum Moyfis : concrefcat ut pluvia dottrina mea : 
JJuat ut ros eloquium tneum : quaji JHlla fupcr gra- 
mina. Ab hoc iara docere, fapere Morus, Mtffe, 
Gall. Meure, Mure, Murier, arbof fapientiffima, 
the Mulberry tree (0). From the fame verb Bates 
brings •"ffi iur or ivar, to fignify, zjhoot, or Jprig 
of a tree : to (hoot up : to teach. 

The latter part of the compound kekht is the 
Arabic iTJLa^ hu-kekut, or, hdcket, fignifying 
juft, right, true, a thing notorious, a fpeech with- 
out tropes and figures, advice, hiftory ; hykayet 
kitabi, a book of hiftory (/). 


(0) Thomafin. Gtoflar. Hebraic : hence Thoth, in Chal- 
daic and Arabic, Cadmus in Egyptian and Farfaid in Irifh 
hiftory, all fignifjr the inventors of letters, wife, learned men, 
and the Mulberry tree 5 fee next chapter. : His Latin name 
Mercurius might have been borrowed of the Hiberno Scythians, 
viz. Marg 9 a fign or mark, and Ural mafler or teacher. 

(p) Hence the Irifh Ceacht or Keakht, a leflbn. Dia 
n'Keakt, the God of wifdom, Hercules, Mercury. 


Nan is the article of the genitive cafe, eig, eigis, 
eigfi fignify wifdotn, wife men. Chald. and Phaca. 
•On begi A\ heji Ferf. Agehi^ mens, fagacitas, 
prudentia, Hebr. ptiH *#?*> meditari (q) 

The title of our Irilii book then, is, The True 
and Certain Praceptor, or, InjiruBfnr of Wifdom. 

The Uraikekht, as handed down to us, is appa- 
rently the work of different hands. The firft part 
or Ogham treats of the invention of literary 
characters and numerals : the author is faid to be 
Ogam 9 otherwife called Som, alias Kenn-foela* The 
two firft are Egyptian names of Hercules : The 
laft is the name given by the Chinefe, to the firft 
inventor of letters (r). 

We fhall here give copious extracts and expla- 
nations of the Ogham, referring the grammar to 
another time. 

Cid or anabairt Seom ? as heart na hughdar> ro 

badar remi uaire; if I Conn foe J arainig in leabar- 

Ja. 1. e. What is faid of Som ? authors fay, he 


(q) Arab. £*$X eft JnV leheg. fcmcl tantum Ecclet. 12. 12. 

proftans le&io, aliis meditatio, ftudium. Ab. run haga derivat 
Coccejus. Audi Arabes, dicitur khegh in re aliqua, de co qui 
multum de ea facit fermonem propterea quod earn amet & avide 
earn appetet. Ea eft vis fecundaria. Quid jam primittvum ? 
Latet id in denfo, fpiflb, concreto compa&o. (Schultens. Ha- 
riri. ConceiT. 2d p. 45.) 

(r) See the preceding paragraph from O'FIaherty. Cenn- 
foela, fignifies the fummit of learning : it was a name given to 
Hercules, and adopted by many others in after times. In Sina 
Confulus literarum & artium inventor. Horn, de orig. gent, 
p. 238. 


was the firft Voire or Praeceptor ; he was Kenn- 
foela, who frainig) explained this book (/). 

Ci bearla dunu di bearlaib 9 ro taifealbbo do Fe- 
nius Farfad itoifeacb ? — Bearla Feni~~agus ife bo 
SoSm dine Scoil, agus if I bearla toifeach rugud onti. 
i. e. What dialed was firft taught to Fenius Far- 
fad ?— The Phenian — and Soom was in the fchool 
from (dine) the commencement of it, and that 
was the firft dialed that was taught in it, or rather 
that was produced from it, for fo the verb rugud 


This fchool is called Gamar-Scoill, which Shawe 
tranflates, an univerfity, an afTembly of the learned. 
It is a Chaldean word NTOi Gemara, ftudium, 
dodrina, quae difcitur. ^\o$ Gemar, difcere, do- 

The Fenian dialed. This certainly relates to the 
language of Hercules, whofe Punic name was 
Nam-Phanio, or the Phenian Orator. Evander 
invokes Nam-Phanio to come with delightful 
poems. Nam-Phantom Punice Hercules. (Selden 
Prolog, de ling. Hebr. and Phaen. p. 16.) DN3 
nam, notat dida divina, eaque de legibus, dog- 
matis & prophetics (/)• QNDnaam, elocutus fuit 


(s> Ar. ranaka clarum reddidit. 

(/) Guffetiu8. Hence our Breith-neamh, (the title of the 
Brehon laws of the Irifh) might be called the Divine Compact ; 
— di6la divina. C32H naam, ad orationis delicias, & elegantiam 
faepe pertinet. (Boch.) 

O* THE AttCIENT IfclSH. 65 

^ScMndfer). Hence the Irifli neatnhtha, and th* 
Iffancfic /?#;»* dodiifcs, do&rrna, and hente Nami 
to a furnaitre grrai to the moft excellent Ara- 
bian jjoet Abul Abbas (Herbetot). from this 
word 1 Phonic probably iis derived the name Phoeni- 
cian and Putiick. Phane 9 Fauhus, were names of 
the Egyptian Thoth, arid Fenius is the Irilh name 
Off their firft grammarian (ti). They feem to be 
aft of the fame origin, thine was alfo one of the 
names of Thoth : Pherecydes calls him Oupbion, 
which is the fame name with the Egyptian article 
cu prefixed. The Ghron. Alex, calls him Faunus ; 
Mercurius feu Faunus, Pici Jovis iifius, and hence 
probably the Pheniari or Phaenician dialed, 

Jadkfon in his Chronology, v. a, p. 378% proves 
Thoth or Hermes (called Taaut by Sanchonisrtho) 
who was the fon of Mifor or Mizraimj ta have 
been a Phoenician : that upon the general difper- 
fion he went from Chaldea, where he was born, 
irate Phaefticia, #here he lived fome time, and 
went thence with his family into Egypt, and inha- ^ 
bited the country of Thebais. 

The Irifh have always ^iftinguifhed two dialers 
in their language, as feparate from their mother 
tongue, the Scythian ; thefe are bearla Pheni> or 

F the 

(u) Derived from the Arabick 3<j fenn, l^fe^j^ know- 
ledge, art j Jim, giving clofe application to erudition £ wfeence 
the Irifh jin-fgeal, a learned oration ; jm-edacb % wife*, fcc. i 

Fiioun was alio the Arabian name of the Herculis magna urbs, ' / 

in the Thebais, (Herbelot) whence It appears that oupHerculee f 

was alfo named fiioun by them. ( « 

. / • 



' '.I 


the dialed of Pbenius (who was a Phaenician) and 
bearli Teibi, or the Theban dialed, which they 
learned of the ^Egyptians when they were fettled 
in Thebais. (See the following remarks.) The 
Brehon laws, they fay, are written in the Phenian 
dialed, and truth is furely on their fide, when 
we find all the law terms are Phsenician, Syrian, 
or Arabick. — For the Theban dialed fee the In- 
trodudion, and the Egyptian names of deities 
fcattered throughout this work. 

The firft and mod fimple Ogham confiiled of a 
number of perpendicular ftrokes, from one to 
twenty. It is called Brinn Crann, or the Brinn 
Tree Ogham. We are told this Ogham originally 
was ufed as numerals, and that Fenius Farfad 
gave the Taob-omona, or human found, to each 

Brinnn crann Ogham. 


ib 2l 3f 48 511 6h 7<1 8t 

1. 11. 111. 1111. 11111. mm. mini. mum. 

9c ioq 11 m i2g 13 ng 

111111111. 1111111111. milium, iimiiiim. iiiiimmn. 
lmmuimi. miiiiiiimii. mimiimim. lmuiiiiuuiu. 

18 u 19 c 20 i 

111111111111111111. miiiiuiiiiiiuii. miiiiiiiiiiuiiiii. 

Under the word 3*0 BRN Caftellus gives the 
Arabic word brina, fignifying a citron tree. 

Taob 9 a found or" voice. The word is obfolete 

in the Irilh : Chald. rD^fl tiba 9 vox. Omona, 

human, from om t homo. 




We are next told that inftead of thefe numerals, 
Ogam invented others more convenient, as ex- 
f>refled in the circular alphabet, pi. i, fig. i, and 
this he called Yege jineamhan, or The Branchy 



That Fearcertne (or the wife man) turned this 
circular alphabet into a fquare alphabet, as fig. 2, 
and that Roigni Rofchad was the author of the Rot 

Ogham, fig. 3. 

Thefe three together go under the general name 
of Triagh Sruch Fearcertne, or, The three Vine- 
yards of the learned, or, The three mod excellent 
Vines of the learned. Srucb is here explained by 
fegejin, ,the vine branch : in Chaldee jnu; Sruk, 
in Arab. tJb,£ Sbureek, vitis generofa, quod bona 
vitis, ex antitheto labrufcorum. Fearcertne is not 
a proper name, but fignifies a philofopher, a 
learned man, as may be collected from a MS. 
gloffary in ray poffeffion : fearceirtne, i. e. fear, 
(a man) ceartaigh* na ealahna, (killed in the 
Sciences, or perfeft in the fciences (#). 

The author then proceeds by quell ion and 
anfwer in the manner following: 

Cid deanad an toifeach feo? 

Who gave this power to the characters ? that is, 
who gave the taob dmona, or human found, to the 
numerals ? 

F 2 Den 

(x) Hence in the plural o»«nn cfartum, magus qui intelle&u 
exceOit theoretic© a Perf. Tin chard. Scire. (Caflellip). 


Don Tebi. Ro tebid ijin gaedilg, uair ifi toifeach 
ar richt la Fenius, iar tiachtain din /coil (y). 

The Theban chief. He ftudioufly applied him- 
ferf to the gaedal (or Scythian dialed) when he was 
a chief in the government witl^ Fenius, after he 
had left the fchool. > * 

Cia din /coil dufcuaid gu fuide ?~ 

Who continued to take care of the fchool ? 

Gaedal mac Etbeoir, mac Toe, mac Baracbaim, 
do grecaib Sdtia(z). 

Gaedal, fon of Etheor* fon of Toe (ThothX 
fbn of Baracham, of maritime Scy thia, (or Scythia 
on the fea-coaft of Thebais). 

Cia tir irrugad Gaedal? ■ 

Where was Gaedal born? 

An Eigipt. In Egypt. 

Cia airm fonrudT 

In what particular place ? 

In maig Ucca, irrairm Iar i -fair righ^ defctrtaig 


(y) Don and Adon> a Lord, a Chief or Governor, as Don 
na ndul dom utaingy the Lord of the creation preferve me. 
Arab. Taba, nomen commune Regum Arabiae Felicis. Phaenice 
mft adouy dominus. Kvp; o A'ftm;. Hefych. — Hence in the 
Brehon Laws adonathae r Qdenpcd, fovereignty. Donn and dunn, 
in Irifh, fignifies alfo a teacher or preceptor. An ->U> daun or 

dan, a learned man ; dan't/b, learning. Irifh fear-taibid, an 
orator, rhetorician. Armen. ver-tabiet. 

(a) Tai and Toe is the corrupt pronunciation of Taith, 
Toth or Thoth. Tao, vel To, canis, cognomen Mercurii vcl 
Thoth. Plutarchus fcribet, canem Mercurii nomine JEgiptiace 
appellari. Menfae Iiiacae expofitio, Pignorii p. 8i.~Hence he 
is always represented with a dog's head. 


In the plains of Ucca,' in the aome or dtofioi* 
of Iare-tairrigh, ia the fouth of Egypt, (that is 
in TheUis). 

Ififeoa Uffac in leabarfea tar FetAm r agus iatr 
Matte, mac NenkOy 4gus htn 9 Gaedhai 9 mac Eibeti 
agtu iftn 4tmfir iancatar mic ifrael uili a Hegipt. 

That is, 

lit this wife ww this book begnin, fed by Feaitts, 
afterwards by Maire (ten of NemaX controlled by 
Gscdad (fen of Et!hor) v at the tame *ll the children 
tf Jfrafl cable into Egypt. , . 

- Cmrmnk an t Ogam I <ag*s tanas fuair amm ? (a) 

Who explained the Oghanr? and *hy was it fo 

Ogtitit * Ogitia, bfe Boim*in ieadm r i/e ramie 
an t Ogakn. 

Ggtuti tm fo called fitom ©garrt, who wafc aHe 
named Soiffi ; he pubfi&fed or .explained the 
Ogtiaw (£). i i- v 

1 • ■ * 

■ .. » ■ - » . ■ • • 

! * • R'£MA-fc£a; 

i * 

If, 'this; work is th$ compilation of monks, of 
the ninth an(d tenth centuries^ as the adverfaries 
of Itilh ftifbary pretend, thefe taofck* were well 
acquainted , widi £aftent gedgraphy itfid Eafterai 


(a) The verb mime fignifies to make known, to explain, 
to dilcoVcr j iti*<rf the lame, root with Arab* ransim curum 
reddidit, ... 

(f ) Soim, the Theban chief, otberwife called ' Qgaitt or 
Ogma. Sem, r. e. Hercules rex Thebacorum, EratfhoftKenes. 
See the fubfequent pages. -Remark the third. 


learning, and have (hewn much ingenuity in 
making lo perfeft a v concordance in hiftory. I« 
the hiftory of Ireland we are told, that Niul> 
(which fignifies the fon) the yourigcft fon of 
Fenius, efefred a fchbol at Piha-Chiroth, or Caper 
Chiroth (in Thebais) and during Jus refidence 
there, his wife brought forth a fon, who was 
called Gaodall. It appears alfo that Niul's proper 
name was Ethor, who was the fon of Toe or 
Taith, whoi was Fenius 'or Thoth, as we have 
proved in the preceding pages. • That part of 
Egypt called Thebais; was by the Scythians named 
Ucca (e) 9 whence probably TJchore\ or Uchbreus* 
a king of Egypt, derived his name : Sir Ifaac 
Newton thinks the Zkbore of Diodor. Sicul. was 
Maris. On the north of Thebais or. Ucca,\ was 
the land of Qoflieri, which was- allckted to the 
children of Ifrael;; their coming fo; Gofhert is 
particularized by all the children of Ifrael, to 
diftinguifli that period, from the coming of Jofeph 
and his family. Thebais was called Pathros, m 
the time of Jeremiah, and in that prophet's time 

* * • • • 

was inhabited by the children of Ifrael, Jer. 
xliv. i . " The word that came to Jeremiah con- 
cerning all the Jews which dwell in the. land. of 
Egypt, which dwell at Migdol, and at Taphanes, 


(f) There was a diftricYin Egypt, named Quach by tke 
natives, and ^Jl AUuah or. Eluah by the Arabs, where 
fkuated I know not. See Nomenclator ^Egyptiaco Arabicus, 
p. 211. 


ana at Naph, and in the country of Pathros." (d) 
And in Ezek. c. 24, v. 14, "I will bring again 
the captivity <rf Egypt ; I will caufe them to return 
into the land of Pathros, into the land of their 
habitation." Pathros, i. e. in Thebaidem* quam 
praecfpiie affiixerat Nebuchadnezzar. (Bochart. 
Phal. p. 276.) The authors of the Univerfal Hif- 
Jory prove alfo, that Ezekiel particularizes the 
routing of the Scythians from Scythopolis, in 
Judea, and that neighbourhood, by Nebuchad- 
nezzar. The prophet, thefe authors fay, fpecifies 
them under the names of Mefliec, Tubal and all 
her hofts, and that *hey were driven from thence 
together with the Phsenicians by Cyaxeus and 
Nebuchadnezzar. Syncellus fays our Scythians 
fixed themfelves in Uethfan or Scythopolis in the 
time of Jofliua ; others contend it was in the reign 
of Jofiah, king of judasa, and that the number 
that entered Bethfan was 300,000 men, befides 
women and children; This number we may fup- 
pofe was doubled in a few years ; no incon^ 
liderable force to affift the Phasnicians agaipft two 
fuch mighty conquerors. 

Ucca, like or Uige, fignifies a (hip, or a»y thing 
appertaining to the marine, a name properly ap- 
plied to Thebais, in which was the Egyptian port 
.of Piha-Chiroth, and many others* TJcca is the 
Scythian tranflation of ga iaph^ ora maritima, 
•and of roil Thebfl, navis, whence Taphanes and 


{d) So called from Fatlirtrfiiis, fon of Mtzraim. 


Ifbebais (*). There was a place near Bafra named 
JJkha by the Arabs* It is faid in our MSS. to be 
ia the divifion or name of yareJarrujg. Eiria, 
Eeria, and Aeria 9 were general names of Egypt. 
(See Steph. Byzant. aad SchoL in DionyC Per, 
Y- 439.) Tamugj in Irtfh, fignifies a beach on 
which veflels are hauled up, or from whence they 
are launched, as occafion requires ; circumftances 
correfpondiug to the fea-ports of Tbebais, on the 
borders of the Red Sea, in the fouthern Part of 

There is a curious pafiage in Diodorus Siculus^ 

preferved by Photius, relating to the departure of 
the IfraeUtes and the Shepherd Kings, as he calls 
them, from Egypt. " Some of theie enterprififtg 
" foreigners, fays he, were oondu&ed by Qanaus 
" and Cadmus, and a larg£ but lefs noble. people 
" retired to Judaea under the conduit of one 
" Mofes." Manetho calls the emigrants. wlw 
accompanied the Ifraelites from Egypt, Hycjbs* 
that i?, fays he, Shepherd Kings j but we never 
heard a word of their flocks, or of their track- 
ing with fheep. Hyc> fays Manetho, fignifies a 
King in the facred language of Egypt, mdfes de* 
notes a flxepherd in the vulgar language of that 

country $ 

(e) Ch. nan Thcba, Area Noae. Syr. Kibouta. 0f>Cu vel 
®v&a, quaJbenus x&mov fignificat, id eft, arculam, mutuati font 
veteres Graeci ab Hebrsea voce, -quod quidam eruditi notarunt t 
quod indc Thebas Baeotiae a Cadmo Phaemce di&as volunt. 
(Thomaffin)*— Alii Cadmum fibi fingunt urbem a fe conditam 
a ran Thcba nominafie, id eft, nave in formam area?, qua ii* 
Bseotiam lit adve&us. (Bochart). . 


eouittry ; tad, adds the htftoriaa, fotae &y they 
were Arabians* 

Sas, m the Sahidical dialed of Egypt, certainly 
fignifies a fiiepherd, and oc in IrUh, and perhaps 
hfc in Egyptian, denotes a king or a prince* 
But Jofephu* denies the appellative bye to figaifjr 
a king, and afiero, it implies captives. We have 
fcen that the Scytfciana were fettled in Thebaia, 
which they named Ucca ; and in the Scythian 
dkSkk&fes fignifies an abode or fettlement. X am 
therefore of opinipn, (bat the Hytfos of Manetho 
were the Uccafm or our Scythians, dwelling in 
Ucca (f) : and hence the bear la Teiki or* Theban 
dialed of the Iriih, and bear la Pbm or Pberuciarj 
dialed, a diftiaftiom of fpeech/vhutb has ever 
been preferred apd noticed by all Iriih writers. : 

Ogam or Ogma, alias Somus* alias the Thebaa 
Chief, published, made known, or explained this 



(f) When thefe (hephcrds were driven out of Egypt, Jofeu 
£hus fays they retired to Salem or Solyma, which was only 
eight miles from Bethfan or Scythopolis ; it is fuppofed they 
*lfo built Jerusalem, and Reland is of opinion they caMed k 
otanwv Jerufalem, or the inheritance of peace ; a proper 
epithet for a country where they could find a tranquil retirement 
after fuch a routing. In fine, wherever the hiftorians have led 
the Phenicians, we find the ftrongeft aflurances from hiftory, 
that our fouthern Scythians were either the fame people, or 
accompanied them in all their emigradons.— The laft of thefe 
fiiepherd kings was called Aftfht according to SynceJlus ; Jofe- 
J>hua names him Affis : hence might arife the name Mile/tus, the 
chief o£ the Scythians, at the time they retired- from Egypt. 
Mai or Mtly in Irifh, and Maala, in Arabick, fignifies a 
chieftain, a prince ; whence Mil-AJJu or Mtlefius : the name 
would certainly defcend with the family, and when they came 
to -Spain they denominated his heir Ma-Spain or Mile/pain. 


alphabet. Ogam is certainly, the Ogmius Her-' 
cules of Lucian, and Som or Somus was the 
Egyptian name of Hercules, as we learn from 
Jablonfky. We read in Plutarch, that about the 
time of Agefilaus there was dug up at Thebes, 
from the fepulchre of Alcmena, the fuppofed mo. 
ther of Herculfes, a brafs plate, on which were en- 
graved certain characters then unknown, but that 
appeared to be drawn from Egyptian types. 
Ghonuphis, the moft learned of the Egyptian 
philofophers, being confulted ; after three days 
fpent in examining the ancient records of Egypt 
for various chara&ers, he anfwered, that the in- 
fcription was written in the chara&ers ufed in the 
time of king Proteus, which Hercules, fon of 
Amphitryon (hufband of Alcmena) had been per- 
ft&ly inftriifted in. 

X * 'Afxf>«zv*n<& sxp*8«». (Plut in libello. de daemonio 
Socratis). Some have thought thefe muft have 
been Phoenician characters, becaufe, it is faid, one 
of the Hercules*s had Linus for his preceptor ; and 
Suidas is of opinion that Linus, and not Cadmus, 
firft introduced the Phaenician letters into Greece. 
But this is all conje&ure ; the infcription might 
have been in the Egyptian tree- formed chara&ers 
(or Ogham) defcribed by Apuleius, of which 
hereafter. It is true, that Thoth or Phine, the 
preceptor of Somus, (according to Irifli hiftory) 
was a Phaenician and fettled in Thebais (g). 


fa) Jaekfon Chron. v. 2. p. 2,78* 


Certain it is that Sam was a Theban chief or 
Egyptiorum fermone dicebatur Dfom, Sam, 
vel Cham vel Sem, id eft, Hercules (Jablonlky, 
Panth. Egypt, p. 186, 187). In the catalogue of 
Theban kings by Eratofthenes, the fifth in order, 
is called Sem-plm, and is faid to be the brother of 
Atoth : Jackfon places his reign A. M. 3363, bef, 
Chr. 2063, and adds, his name by interpret* t ; on 
is Heraclides or a descendant of Hercules. ne 
twenty-fixth king in the fame, catalogue is i&iped 
Sem-pbrucrates ; his name, fays Jackfon, figuified 
Hercules Harpocrates ; he reigned A. M. 3909, 
bef. Chr. 1517* The termination in Sem-pber, 
Jablonlky thinks is corrupted from the Egyptian 
Spho to beget, or the offspring begotten ; our 
Scythians would naturally call him Som-fios, or 
the wife Som or Sem. Phocrates or Fo-creat in 
the Scythian' (or Hiberno Scythian), would have 
the fame meaning and aire*fb-creat, would fignify 
no more than the learned prince of princes. Aire 
and/0 are titles of dignity and honour, nand cfest 
fignifies knowledge, fcience, wifdom*; ai *d lt a 'f° 
fignifies ay&*tf,~(cribrum), and it fignifies writing, 
literary chara&ers. It is very Angular, that in 
Horapbllo, the Egyptian fymbol of wifdom, fcience 
-and -. learning is a groupe of a Jieve, a bull-rufb 
{of which paper was made), and a ftylus or pefi; 
treat muft have had the fame fignifications in the 
Egyptian language, but phacb-rat, in. Egyptian, 
-and pocrat or boc-rat, in Irifh, fignify lame in the 

foot, and from the double meaning of the Egyptian 


f6 or THE OGHAM WRltlNG 

word, Jabkxnfley- obferves* that Harpocnrtcs is 
always represented lame : all thefe arc ftrong evi- 
dences of pur Scythians having dwelt in Egypt. 

The; time of tbfe School being eftablifced k* 
Ucca or Thebaic and of the invention of fetters 
by Fenhis, is placed by out author *bout the 
time of the coming of all the Israelites into Egypt, 
a period which agrees with the opinions of mod 
learned men &r the tffigai of alphabe&ick writing } 
as we ftaU feew in die next chapter.. 

Proteus according to Diodorous Sic- ,was Kwg 
of Egypt, Whom they called Cetes, *&d HtreUtfS 
jaakes him the fame as Mofes ; . others contend 
he lived 240 years after Mofes. Herodotus fcjys, 
he fucceeded P heron or Pharaoh, . that his teiApte 
was at Memphis in his time. The Phoenicians from 
Tyre, lays he, .durett it*, the neighbourhood, and 
from thence h is called the field of die Tyriaas. 
AH .this brings the fcene of this Hiftory and the 
difeovery of letters about the jferjod we have 
'fcffigned. . 

The Oghaaii, Alphabet being bow reprinted 

under the fymbbtiof the vine, we are told, that to 
plant vines in regular order was exprefled by the 
•verb trafananiy which fignifies to adjuft, to put in 
order ; whence crofemachd canto to Signify any fpe- 
•cies,o£ poetry y or metre : this is derived from the 
Chaldean nn cbaraz, ordo, feries certafum rerum 
sordine & numero colleftarum ; apud gxamraaticos 
eft Rhphmus ; oratio Rhythmica ; 3HFI tbartzan ver- 
fificator, poeta rhyrthmicus. Arab* o*/V*' forks 



fecuit vkem, dixit carmen. (Gol. p. 5.) (h). 
When the vine was fuffered to run into coafufion 
and dSfcrder, entangling its branches through each 
other, it was called Tom or Tomus, thai is, a buflr, 
hence it fignifies a riddle or paradox. Arab +2 
tarn, a plant full of vigorous (hoots, whence tim> 
Urn to fpeak in a confuted manner. (Gol. 394). 

Of the Ogham. 

This part of the fragment appears to be the 
work of another hand : it is replete with iaterpo* 
Jation&» The bard or copied, zealous for the 
honour of his country, makes the Theban Chief, 
to be an Irifhman, and the firft invention of letters 
he gives the honour of to Ireland. The word 
in the original was certainly Eirin,. that is, Iran 
or Perfia, for the Irifh knew not the name Hibec~ 
nia, till after chriftianity, but Eirin being alfo 
the name of Ireland, perhaps from the coloniza- 
tion of it from Iran in Perfia, (as obferved by Sir 
William Jones in the beginning of this chapter) 
the tranfcriber has foifled in the Latin name 
Hibernia. This vanity is common to all ancient 
nations : but the theft is here too vifihie not to 
be dete&ed, for we are firft told that Ogam was 
called Soim, which is the Egyptian name of Her- 
cules, and this is again repeated in the fequel. 


(h) The Irifti crofanam feems to fignify to prune the vine 
rather than to plant it, which would agree with the Hebrew 
word fignifying verfe or metre : of which hereafter. The Irifh 
termination nam or nim fignifies to make or do : the fobiequowt 
paragraph juftifies this translation. 


Caidelocj agus aimfir, agus pfa, agus fath airinif 
in Ogam ? 

Where was the Ogam invented, by whom, at 
what time and for what ufe ? 

hoc do Hibernia. infola q. not Scoti inhabitamus, 
in aimftr Breas mac Ealahan rig Eirin do frith. 

In Ireland, the ifland we Scoti inhabit, in the 
reign of Breas fon of Ealahan, then king of Ire- 
land. (Eirin) (i). 

G^am, dinnafear ro eolach amberla agus a filideft, 
is e rainic in t'Ogam. 

- gam or Ogma, was learned in languages and 
in philofophy, he explained or invented the 

Cuts airic derbad aintletla, J combead inbeafnafa 
ic .luff in eolus fo leadb, fech lucht na tirdachta 7 
na buicnedla. 

The reafon of the invention was for fecret figns 
to ftand for fpeech, underftood by the learned, 
and to be kept fecret from the ruftic vulgar. 

Canasfuair anim iarfund 7 ret int Ogam ? Caide 
mathar 7 athar in Ogam ? da anim ro fcribtar tri 
Ogam, 7 ciafid in ro fcribtar^ 7 cuis ar ro fcribtar 
7 cia dia ro fcribtar ', 7 cid ar armet 9 7 bedi ria 
each ? 

From whence were the names of the Ogham 
figns taken i What is the rule of the Ogham? 
Who was the mother and father of Ogam, and 
what name was firft written in three Ogham 


ft) Breas Chald. m Bras a prince, J>*?m Braftin the fame» 
like the Irift Shakh and Shaklan a king. 


(chara&ers) ? Wh&t tree was it written on, and 
for what reafon ? Who taught to number by the 
Ogham, and to write it in books with precision ? 
(that is, to ufe it as a literary chara&er). 

Ogam Ogma (fuo iuventore primo &c. Interpo- 
lation) im Ogum, guaim, i. e. o guaim do bait na 
JH 9 fsinjil, trid air ris fri feadaib toimfitir gaedelg 
ic na Jtl. Atair Ogaim, Ogma ; matbar Ogaim f 
Lam> no Scian Ogma. 

Ogham is derived from Ogma (its. inventor). 
Poets fay, Ogum is derived from guaim (that is, 
wifdom). The Oghams were named from trees. 
The father of Ogum was Ogma, his mother's 
name was Lam, or Scian Ogma. 

If ft Som in ceadna : fe r$ fcribtar tri Ogam 

■■■■ H \ •% In beithi ro fcribtar 7 do bret robaidb 

do Lug mac Etlem ; rofcrib. imdala anma na ritfba 

uada hi ifidaib, i. e. fecht bethi in aenflefc do 


The fame is called Som: he wrote his own 

i name in three Oghams, thus i m \\ \ on a birch 

tree, and explained it to Lug, fon of Etlemen : 

he wrote many names of his tribes in feven verfes 

on one fieafc (fheaf or faggot) (£). 

Cis lir fogla Ogaim 7 caiteat? 

How many divifions of the Ogham ? 

A 1111. Betba a v. Uath a v. Muin v. Ailme v. 
feada olcena. 


(k) The fytnbol of the tree is carried throughout ; each 
division of the alphabet is compared to a fieafc, bundle or 


It lias four divifions, Viz* 5 tn (the divifion or) 
B.- 5 in H. 5 in M. 5 iri A ; all hare the names 
of trees. 

Cis lir aicme Ogaim?'(k) 

How many fpecies or degrees of. them in the 

A 111. ie. 8 n * airigh feada ; 8 n'athaigbfeada; 
% fid lofa. 

Three, vi^. 8 of the airigh trees j 8 of the 
athaigh trees ; and 8 of the lofa trees. 

Oft nairigk eettu fit. Dur, Goto, Mmn, Gort, 
Stratf, Onn, Or ; Oft naiihigK Deitbi, Luis, Suit, 
Nhn, Huatfo 9 < Tine, S$uert 9 Aircuit, a feda; is 
athar feda fid lofa olcena. 

The .8 airigh trees, are the Elm, Oak, Hazell, 
Vine, Ivy, Blackthorn, Broom, Spine; the 8 
athaigh, are the Birch, Qaicken, WHlow, Afh, 
Whitethorn, Fig, Apple, Cork-tree; the Lofe 
trees are alfo athar trees (/). 


We are here told that the investor of letters, 
or of the Ogha,m, was Ogam, fon of Ogma, other- 
wife called Soim (otherwife Kenn faola r or Cenn 
foela). The two firft are Egyptian names of 
Hercules, the latter of the inventor of letters 
according to the Chinefe. We are told,, that 


(i) The word atoms fignifies order, degree, &e. la the 
Hindu it is hatmab. 

(I) Irifli authors differ as widely abput the names of trees, as 
the Hebrew Lexiconifts. 



Ogam is derived from guam, that is, : taifdom* ' 
Soma in Irflh has the &ipc fignification ; and Cenn* 
faoia, in Irifli, lignifies, bead of the learned : but 
I -fufpeft Cem in this name is a corruption of > 
C hotly which xfras another Egyptian name of Her- . 
culcs* written alfo &0jm by the Irifli. xhn Chon: 
dicunt Herculem lingua Egyptiorum Chen vocari 
— fruges ad maturitatem debitam perducends : , 
(Jablonfky Egypt. Pantheon) and to-Seona or 
Shoney the Stota of the Weftern Ifles facrificed, 
for the fame purpofe in thethne of Martin, (m) 

The Egyptian name Ghjonu, is written with the. 
letter Genga ox*Giangia and is fometimes pro* 
nottnced hard ?s our G before A and U ; fome- 
times fcft as GH, foftietimes $s DS^DTS, and 
fometifnes as S,. whence , Jabjoafcy conjeftures 
Ghjotn aqd S^/*, ate the fame wo/d* 

.We have been told, that Og^m or &oim was 
Da» .Tbebi* Lord of King, of Thebes. In Era* 
tofthenis jcatalogo ' regum Thebaeorum* femel 
itenwnque nomen illud ipfum effer tur 31**, Sem, . 
cujus difcrepantiae caufa alia nulla eft, quajtt quod 
jam monuiy litera Egyptiaca, Giangia, quam Graeci 
n&& uno modo, Uteris gentis fuse propriis, expri- 
mere folent. Rex in catalogo illo vigefimus fex- 
tus, nomen habet Xipfgw^Tut ubi legendum cenfeo 
i»f*^x^T»K^ idque Eratofthenes interpretatur Her* 
culem Harpocratem : nempe £•> Sem vei Som 3 vel 
Somus eft nomen Herculis (Jablonfky, p. 187). 

G With 

(m) See hia Weftern Ifles, and No. XII of cror Colkdane*. 


With the Egyptian article OU, prefixed, the 
name was written Ougbjom, Oudfom, Oudjlon, as 
the proper name Enepbras, was written Wi^, 
Ouenephres, whence the Latins turned it into Ve* 
nephres. (Eufebius in Chron Sealig. p. 1 4) (n) 

Sam or Sorn, fignifying the fun, and being the 
Scythian and Egyptian name of Hercules, much 
confufion has ariten by miftaking the Philofopher 
for the God, and vice verfa. (p) 

Som in the Hiberno-Scythian, fignifies wifdom. 
Soma vel Som-aoi 9 i. e. faibreas ealabna ; Soma im- 
plies the effenfce of wifdom. (Old Gloff. in my 
poffeffion). Somou written with giangia, has cer- 
tainly the fame meaning in Egyptian, for in the 
Coptick, Excrdus.i. 10, we have maren-fomou, let 
us deal wifely with them (circumfcribamus illos). 
The Tibetans havegjdw, fapientia, and Giam-jang, 
the God of Wifdom. (Hervas. Voeab. Polyglots) 
Dei filium, quod mox narrabat S. Auguftinus, 
Manichaei tanquam . fapientiam in Luna ponebant. 
Non aliam fedem Manichaeorum pedifequi Tibe- 
tani tribuunt Deo Sapientiae, s Giam-jang. Cujus 
etiam nomen interpretantur/ifc*w;w cantum. fGeor- 
gius Alphabet. Tibetanum, p. 280). Hence the 


(n) Hence probably the prefixed O, OU, UA, to the 
great family names of Ireland ; particularly to the elder branch 
as O'Connor, O'Leary, &c. as much as to fay, The Connor, 
The Leary, &c. 

(0) From the Arabic cf *U* Same, ^jU* Sune, high, fupreme. 
The Hebrew ow Sown componere, ftatuerc, conftituere, eat* 
Son nomen whence the Chaldaean Scmoucha t Vir magni nomi- 
nis & magnae famse, are all applicable to our Soim. 


Nam-Phanio of the Phsenicians, of which here- 
after. « 

Gum or Gumb, in the old Irifh or Hiberno 
Scythic, fignifies wife, wifdpmj learning; hence 
O'gbam, learning, eloquence ; but this word has 
the Egyptian article prefixed ; it is therefore pro- 
bable that gbjiom ox dtfom (ignified wifdora in that 
language. The Arabic iUiC guman cogitatio, is 
not very different (p). Jablonfky derives this 
name of Hercules from gjism ot dtfirn, fignifying 
virtus, robur, potentia. 

Conn-faela or Cann-foela 9 implies the learned 
Cann 9 or, head of the learned. Chon 9 z% we have, 
feen before, was the Egyptian name of Hercules, 
and Canoe was the Egyptian name of Thoth or 
Mercury. Chon apud Egyptios Hercules, quanquam 
Seldenus dubitet : in Sina Confuius iiterarum & 
artium inventor. (Hornius de Orig. Gent. p. 238). 
— Canoe alterum Mercururii nomen, pXl Chanoc 
vero eft a pn Can lcb 9 erudire, injlruere, docere 9 (y) 
quod officium Mercurio tribuebatur. (PaiTerius 
Lex, Egypt. Hebr. p. 56). 

His Punic name was Nam-phanto^ whom Evan- 
der invokes to come with delightful fongs or 
poems. Naom-fonn, in Irifh, fignifies melodious 
fongs or poems ; form is a fong, poem, &c. it 

G 2 " alfo 

(p) The old Englifti word Gumtion, fignifying wifdom, art- 
ful, is from this root. See Di&ionary of Cant .words. 

(q) Phtne was an Egyptian name of Tboth or Mercury Phe- 
rccydes calls him Ou-Phion. See next chapter. 


alfo fignifies wifdom ; foin-Jgutl a wife ftory. Ara- 
bic i^xfenii^ fcience, learning, knowledge, &c. So 
that all thefe'narties for Hercules only implied the 
fame thing, namely an eloquent and wife man, 
and fuch was reprefented to have been the ffer- 
cules Ogmius of the Gauls ; and there cannot be a 
doubt of the Gauls having borrowed this deity of 
the Phaenicians or of the Hibernians. Bochart 
is of opinion this Gaulic Ogmius was the Phoeni- 
cian Hercules ; it is probable he was, for we find 
his Punic Name is Scythian likewife, and Ogam is 
faid to have learned the Phentan dialed in the 
fchool of the Scythian Fenius. Hence Fifoun, 
the Arabian name of the Herctdis magna urbs in 

Our Ogam is faid to have taken to wife a wo- 
man of the name of Lam : this name implies a 
foolifh, wicked woman j it is a well known Punic 
name. Lamia nomen effe Punicum- — Lami^ 6nim 
mulier Africana fuiffe fertur, Beli & Libyae filia 
(j). The name, in Irifh, fignifies any thing 
horrid and dreadful, and is the oppofite to Crom 
a name of the deity, ^ laem, in Arabic, has the 
fame meaning : hence Euripedes fays Lamia was 
an infamous name, dreadful to mortals; (he is 
faid in our hiftory to have bttn/ci-an Ogma 9 the 
helpmate of Ogam : SDO Secan or Sekenet, adju- 
trix : whence the Egyptian Scbi and Schimi a wife. 
(Nomenclat. Egyptiaco- Arab, p. 8 1 ). 


(/) Bochart Gcogr. Sacr. 589. 



But this helpmate was named Lam or Lamia, 
which fignifies a horrid, dreadful monfter ; hence 
muft have arifeii the Grecian ftory of Hercules 
having begotten Scythes, the progenitor of the 
Scythians, on the body of a monfter, half woman 
half ferpent. A fable which gained ground 
wherever the Scythians went — from Scythia to 
Tartary, China and Japan (/)• 

I think the paflage is entirely allegorical, and 
that the fenfe of it is, that Ogam or Hercules 
Ogmius, the God of eloquence, efpoufed m\.» 
Sukhan, or JlX&i Kulam, that is eloquence. 

I would now afk my readers, if they think it 
poflible or probable, that fuch a compofition 3s the 
foregoing preface to the Ogham, could have been 
fabricated by monks of the 9th and 1 oth Centuries, 
the date the opponents of Irifti hiftory bring all 
Irifli MSS. to. Is it poflible they could have fuch 
a knowledge of Egyptian hiftory, as to have fe- 
le&ed thefe names of Ogmius ? or to have brought 
into one fhort fcene fuch a coincidence of names, 
of perfons, and of places, conformable to Eaftern 

I muft now draw the reader's attention to the 
flop or Semicolon (.*.) at the end of the Ogham 
writing of the name of Som. The Tree is adopt- 
ed for tie emblem of literature by Ogkm, ^very 


(*) D'Ancarvilk Tkcberch. fur Toriginc des Arts de la 
Gr6cccL. 1. C. 2. 




letter is named from fome tree ; the branches are 
words y the leaves letters \ to prune the tree or 
vine, in uniform order, fo as to leave the branches 
of equal length on both fides, or to interweave 
thefe branches in uniform order, fignifies to com- 
pofe ver/esy and the Irifli words, implying the one, 
alfo exprefs the other, of which in its proper 
place, where we fhall fhow the fame emblem to 
have exifted with the Oriental nations. The tree 
then, being the emblem of literature, the vine 
was chofen in preference, and the bunch of grapes 
was adopted for a period or ftop. This ftop is 
reverfed by the Jetfs and Chaldeans thus v and 
is called b^W Sacal and ^OD i. e. botrus, the bunch. 
Vocalis trium pun&orum, quae formam botri re- 
fer unt apud Grammaticos, in legendo Segol i. e. 
botrus, facit Semicolon. (Buxtorf,) by& Sacal, 
orbari, hinc Efcol, botrus* bacca, & Sacal intelli- 
gere, erudire, inftruere. Sekel intelle&us, pru- 
dentia — hinc Scaldri, antiqui Danorum poets, 
a Sacal intelligere, erant enim etiam philofophi— 
hinc Sax, Sagol, fuftis, Aides, quafi magiftra artiumf 
fit virga ; ut a izfr lamad, docere, erudire, eft 
Malmad ftimulus, qui & ipfe bobus magifter eft 
arandi — item Sax. Scale, minifter, fervus, ad res 
bene & fcite gerendas hinc Gall. Mare-fchal, Sene- 
fchal. (Tomaflin. Gloff. Hebr.) 

Fig. 3. is called Rot Ogham or the wheel 
or circular Ogham ; by others Ogham Coll 9 or, 
*he Ogham of Mercury, the author of poetry- 


it is a Seale of Profodia, but how ufed we are 
not informed : it certainly has a great refemblance 
to the Arabian circular fcales of Profidia, which 
may be feen at the end of Pocock's Carmen Tograi', 
publifhed by the learned Dr. Clarke, Oxon. i66t, 
one of which is reprefented at fig. 4. Reitet in 
Arabick, fignifies a circular tent compofed of one 
piece of cloth, and with the Arabs the fymhoj of 
the tent is ufed in their profodia. 

From the wheel the Irifh Grammarians carried 
the idea to the Cogs of the wheel ; at fig. $, is 
reprefented an alphabet called Ogham Snaite, or 
the Cog-Ogham. The metaphor of the wheel 
was applied by the Chaldaeaixs to a man who fpoke 
with fluency, as in Prev. xxv. 11. Verbum due- 
turn fuper rotas faas:: whence we have in Irifh 
Roitbra, literally, fpeaking on the wheels, to fignify 
a prattling fellow, who talks as faft as a wheel 
turns round. (See Guffet. Lex. Heb.) (u) 

From the circle, the alphabet is next reduced 

to ftraight lines, as in PL 2. fig. 1, 2, 3. The 

author then tells us that Beith, was always the 

leading letter, becaufe Ogam firft inferibed his 

name on Beith or the Birch tree. This manner 

of forming all the characters, it is laid, amounts 

to 150; iuany of which are evidently of modern 

invention (w) 


(») ChalcL niw Sanat, a tooth, a Cog, phir. Sanateth, denotes 
qiiales flint in rotis, horologio &c, 

(w) There is an error in the Ogham alphabet of !i*y Inftji 
Grammar, the Engraver has placed the ciafs of M where the 
dafs of A mould be. 




As the Jews had an alphabet, they named the 
River Alphabet, becaufe they fay, it was given 
to Abraham at the paffage of the river, when he 
departed from Chaldea to go to the land of Ca- 
naan, fo the Irifh had an Alphabet called Ogam 
buaider for Amhna^ or, Ogam victorious at the 
River. See PL 2. fig. 4. 

The next alphabet worthy of notice is the Ogam 
tun na Fian, or the fecret military character. See 
PL" 2. fig. 5. 

They had alfo a fecret way of writing by tranf- 
pofition of letters, which is called Ceann or umaill, 
or topfy turtey ; thus, four ftrokes flood for B 
inflead of on* ftroke } and one flrofce flood for 
N inftead of four for B \ but the change went no 
further than the Jleafc or faggot, that is, n&t 
beyond one divifion marked in fig. 3 ; as is ftewn 
in PL 2. fig. 6. 

The Jews did the fame, making the tranfpofi* 
tion throughout the alphabet ; this they called 
Atabas unnw, a word of no fignificatioa, but 
compounded of N, which flood for n, that is, 
the firfl letter for the laft, ttf for 2, and fo on in 
this manner. 

t n n n J a »* 
K 3 <s ? n 12; n 

The Jews had another change of words or 
letters expreffing numerals, of fome note ; this 
they called Gemetria. It fhews pretty clearly that 
literary charafters were firfl intended for numerals, 


Of THft ANClfcNT IRISH* $9 

Agreeable to our Irifl> MSS. reprefenting the Og- 
ham, and on which we {hall treat more fully in 
the next chapter. When a certain number was 
to be, exprefled by numerals, they often fubftituted 
other letters or numerals, whofe fum total was the 
fame, but the letters different. For example, the 
word METKATON, in Hebrew, rceckoned 314 ; 
inftead thereof they fubftituted the word SHADI, 
the fum of which was the feme as in the following. 

» - 

T 40 

EJ - 

- 9 

m - 

— 300 

1 - 

— 200 

n - 


- 3 

to - 

- 9 

•» - 

— 10 

1 - 

- 6 

3 - 

- 5° 



And in fome cafes, thefe words became part of 
the language: for example, in Chaldaic Sana 
and Neieries fignified certain periods of time, 
only becaufe the words formed by thefe letters,, 
taken as numerals, make up the periods ; and 
in Egyptian the word Neilos 9 fignified a year of 
365 days, and Lebnos a year of 360 days, for the 
fame reafon, as will be proved in the next chapter; 
which (hews clearly that numerals were invented 
before letters, and, I think, as clearly that thefe 
numerals were adopted for letters. 



In the explanation of this Ogham we have the 
chara&er fubftituted for the Ogham A ; it is 
thus reprefented \V, and under it is written ohv ; 
this is the vlopb or A of the Phoenicians. In the 
third divifion of the Uraicecht, called the book of 
Fearceirtne, this chara&er is thus represented 

■ HS? QT ; the firft occurs often in the 
Egyptian infcriptions (*), it is the Punk A ; the' 
laft is the exa& form of the Chaldaean A or Eftran- 
gelo Aleph, (fee chap. 5), and that in the middle 
is nearly the form of the A in the infcription, 

P 1 - 3- 

Thefe are not the only inftances of the Irifh 

having ufed the Chaldaean and Phaenician cha- 
racters. Mr. Burton Conyngham has now in his 
poffeffion one of thofe double-cupped patera, de- 
fcribed and engraved in the 1 3th number of the 
Colle&anea. The instrument is of gold, was 
found in the county of Mayo, and weighs about 
fix guineas. On the outfide of one cup is an 
Ogham infcription j on the outfide of the other 
an infcription in the Phaenician or Eflrangelo cha- 
racter. See PI. III. where the cups are reverfed 
to ihew the infcription. The Phaenician word is 
compofed of the letters Ain 9 Lamed^ Tau, Aleph, 
i- e. NJl!?y, i* e. Alta or Olta y fignifying an holo- 
cauft. This confirms my former opinion, that '- 


(x) See the Egyptian infcription Pi. II. £g. 7. from Pig- 


thefe inftruments were ufed in facrifices (j). The 
Ogham chara&ers are UOSER, Uofer, OJir, or 
Vfar, the Sun, the principal deity of the pagan 

The names Aefar^ Aofar, frequently occur iii 
ancient lrifh MSS. which are always tranflated 
God. The Etrufcans wrote Aefar and Efar. 
'Arabes, tefte Herodot. in Clio, Solem dixerunt 
Urotalty id*eft, lucis Deum; itemque Dufarem, 
id eft, perluftrantcm Deum. Arabice compofitum 
«ft Dai-Ufar^ & funplex U/ar, id eft, perluftrans 
Deus. Sol, in Hetrufca etiam lingua Efar vocatus 
eft., (El. Schedius de Dis German, p. 108). 

This infcription (hews that the Ogham was 
written fometimes in detached chara&ers, and 
probably in columns, from the top to the bottom, 
as the matter line of each character is here per- 
pendicular, agreeable to the rule laid do\ra in my 
lrifh grammar, ad edit. 

Du/aresy Suidam qui Deum Martem interpre- 
tatur, quafi ex «^k ,& Sri< compofita voce, halluci- 
natum effe monet nobil. & do&. Seldenus : nomen 
originis Arabicae effe, non Graecae, ac Dufarem 
Bacchum effe noh Martem % Quid ergo apud 
Arabes fonat ? num fplendidum vel torufcantem ? 
£Pocock fpec. Hift. Arab. p. 104). 


(y\ Itnbv holocauftum, r6p has the fame meaning ; hence 
the lrifh Ulla, a place of devotion. Olat a hill on which facri- 
fices were performed. 

• (*'. Egyptiorum plerique videntnr id nomen pronuntiafle 
Oifhiri, Oifiri, & alii Ufiri ; diverfa ejufdem aominis pronun- 
<ciatio. Jablonfky, p. 152. 


From this laft learned author we learn, that the 
ancient Arabs worfliipped Venus, under the name 
of Al-zuhary, which is the Irifh Stare. See Intro- 
duction, p. 39. The moon, under the name of 
Cenanah, in Irifh Cann. Many other examples of 
this kind we (hall give in the proper place. 

The Phaenician infcription appears to be written 
in the facred chara&er; Ammuneae Phacnicium 
facra literae quae templis peculiares, cum lis quae 
reperta funt in adytis repofita, arcanis ammoneorum 
Uteris* quas non funt omnibus notae. (Philo). 
Babylonios quam iEgyptios & iEthiopes colligimus 
facras habuiffe literas. (Bochart Phal. 1. t. c. 17.) 
The Ogham chara&ers have a great refemblance 
to the Egyptian facred characters given in PL 2 . 
fig. 7. copied from the Men/a IJiaca of Pignorius, 
Tab. iv. Egyptiaco charadere afcriptum eft 
Magnus Iaoy is all the explanation given by this 
author. In the Egyptian chara&ers of the firft 
' line, I read HORI or HORE, an Egyptian deity, 
fon of Ofiris, whom the Greeks denominated 
1AO (a). The Phaenicians alfo worfhipped Orus, 
Ifis and Ofiris ; their copper coins, with thefe 
^deities on the reverfe, are ftill dug up at Malta. (£). 

The Oghafti alphabet is called ABgiter or 
jlbgitir, that is, the form or figure of Ab % or, the 
sree. Ch. ^roi gitir forma, figura. (Buxtorf.). 


(a) See Jabloirfky Egyptiorum Pantheon, L. 2. C. 4. Dc . 
Horo Egypti deo, apud quofnam Graeciae poptdog, nomen ha- 
ibucrit IAo. 

(£) Tuivcls in Sicily and Dc N jh. p. 277. 



Voffius having fliewn the error of Paufania* in 
deriving the word arbor 9 a tree, from robur, and 
that of Ifidoms in deriving it from arvo y fays, 
non difpliciat origo ab 2N AB, id eft, arbor, in- 
ferto R. ut Herba a Ch. K3N Aba, itidem R in* 
ferto. Thomaffin gives the fame derivations in 
his Hebrew gloffary. The Iriih Abgitir 19 evi- 
dently Chaldaean, viz. , "|to>3N, id eft, the form 
or figure of the trees, correfponding to the idea 
given of it in the beginning of this chapter. 
In Arabic beja fignifies a irce and the alphabet, 
and hejra a tree running into luxuriant branches, 
metaphorically, trifling converfation. > 

The Egyptians had an hieroglyphick character, 
fp the Irifli had an hieroglyphick alphabet : inftead 
of trees they gave the names of animals to the 
letters of one alphabet ; of birds to thofe of 
another ; of colours to thofe of another ; and of 
fcientifick terms to another. Example : 

£n t or 

Dan, or 

Datk 9 or 

Bird Ogham. 

Science Ogham. 

Colour Ogham. . 












Sodath . 























Mb raft 















. Irfind, 


They had alfo a Ship Ogham, or alphabet of 
nautical terms, as we may colled from the fol- 
lowing pafTage : 

Neming nuaill bretaigh dian Ogham, ni dan 
nim raigea ro Solumni ; dirigh dian indfeib gan- 
irrKin. Ogham an aichnid iceaftib coirib : com* 
airoi ar is crann fa loch ler ceartach. Ill nogham 
ri larda do rada fri huair, irrfcrudain Ogham n 
Eathrac, i. e. Bare fri Beithi a V. Long fri Huath 
a V. No fri Muin a V. Curaeh fri Ai!m a V. 
aendib ar in c. fid ado ar infid tanaifte coroifeda 
V in fid deiginac fecip nac aicme. 

Neming, a famous judge of Ogham writing, 
made an irregular panegyric extempore; it was a 
poem in nature of an enquiry into right and pro- 
perty, in which he expreffed himfelf gan-trAun^ 
without whining fatire. Inftead of trees in his 
Ogham, he took the metaphor of nautical terms 
for characters : they fay he made 1 50 of them, 



applying throughout the nautical Ogham. For 
Beit hi, B, or the birch tree, he took bare (a boat) 
and fo through the fleafc or divifion of B. Long 
was ufed inftead of Huatb, and fo on in the 5 
letters in that divifion. No begun the third divi- 
fion of M or Muin, and Curacb was fubftituted 
for A, &c. 

Bare is -a boat. Long, a (hip. No or Naoi, a 
(hip, and Curach formerly fignified a large (hip ; 
it is now applied ' to boats made of wicker, and 
covered with hides. 

This is juft fuch another interpolation in the 
book of Ogham, as the affair of the wen growing 
upon the cheek of an unjuft judge in the Brehon 
laws. I have tranferibed this interpolation on 
account of the oblblete expreffion irrMn: irr 
fignifies a fatire or lampoon: lun (pronounced as 
the Englifh loon) originally fignifies melancholy, 
lamentation, and is the oppofite to lonn, joy, mirth j 
whence the adje&ive loinneaeb, merry, jovial: 
lon-dubh, jthe black chorifter, i. e. the black bird. 
Luirmeag (read lonneqg) a chorus, a .highland 
catch, (Shawe) ; it is the Arabick i^J lebin, me- 
lody, tone, modulation j luhin, a fong. 

But lun properly fignifies lamentation y it is 
fynonymous with torah and goile 9 (the keehaun> or 
weeping over the dead) the ^ J turuh and guleb 
of the Arab's, which fignify melancholy, lamen- 
tation : lun is now never ufed in lrifli but to 
exprefs the ft ate of a perfon in the nxelancholy- 





mania : it is the Hebrew and Phxniciaji 3f? lun % 
in Hiphil 3*?n helm, which fignifies to complain 
or lament : whence the Greek Linos, a;^ : 
The Egyptians, Phaenicians, Cyprians, and 
other nations, fays Herodotus, ufe a fong 
" which is called by different names, in different 
" nations ; but all agree that it is the feme with 
" that which the Greeks fing and call linos. As 
" I have wondered at many ufages of the Egyp« 
" : tians, (b more particularly, whence they came 
" to call this fong linos,, the finging of which has 
". been! always ufed an^prtgft them. But linos, in 
" the Egyptian language, is called Maneros ; and 
" the Egyptians relate, that Maneros w$s the only 
€< fon of their firft king, and that having died an '■ 
untimely dtfath, this fong of lamentation was ever , 
after fung by the Egyptians in honour of him j 
" and that this was their Jirft and only fong of the . 
" kind." 

. Euftathius in his commentary on Homer's Iliad 
x. v. 569, 570, has. a large account of this fong 
Linos. The Greeks, according to cuftom,. feigned 
a.ftory concerning the old Theb^n poet Linus, and 
derived it from him j but they borrowed it of the 
Egyptians, Phoenicians or Scythians. The Egyp- 
tians fung it to lament the death of Ofiris ; and 
the Phoenicians on account of the death of ddonis. 
Paufanias, Euftathius and others, miftake .the 
words of ^Horner : 

■ 1 ■ Aito» y viro itaXoy ittn 




Homer in this place is representing not funeral 
mafic and tinging, but, on the contrary, the jovial 
taq fie and fcngs in which the young man and 
virgins joined with dancings in the time of vintage. 
So- rfiat 4*'»" there means joy* and is the fame 
as the Irifli lonn, and Arabic Ubin, as before \(c% > 
To return to our Nautical Ogfeani As our 
Hibefno Scythian* applied the hng (hip> or houfe, 
to pro/hdia, fo did the Arabs apply the/Tent which 
was fhejr dwelling. Ex Uteris motis, &quiefcen- 
tibus fiunt Arabes, Chords & paxilti ;. ob aaalo- 
gfcm q^andam inter tentorium k verfum, eoruni- 
qpe parjes, ita difta : nam ut illud B0fto y jhari y l e. 
d^miis pilorui^ ita & hie Bait<?Jherij domus ver- 
fujupi appellatur, & proj#(}e qupdlibet hemiftichium 
tnefraon, janua. Ex pedittys Wfce, five partibiR* 
in Qrfxm jdifpqfitis, fiunt qjiinque dvwayero* i. e. 
Ciraili, totidw fumw c^rminum geawaijutabitu 
foo cprnpledentes, quofufs* fijlgiulay .excepto uUi- 
mo, in ^Ii^ 4enuo fubdividu&tiir v nt unfiterla fiy nt 
quindecitBf— — vocantur anient ginefcaii vocabulo 
bohuron a bahron quod Mare denotat* (See Dr. 
Clarke's profodia of the Arabs, at the end of Po- 
cock's Carmen Tograi). Hie reader will judge 
what analogy there can be betwixt a tent, its 
cord$ and poles, and the fea : Baito Jheri is the 
Chaldean •nu? r»3 beth Jheri and the Irifli beit-JJiear, 
iignifying the ver/e of a poem or Jong. 


(c) See Hcrodot. 1. i. c. 79; Athenafiis Dtfpros, I: 14. 

jp. 629. 




PL IV. contains fome whimfical alphabets and 
fome figla or figns for words ; thefe are evidently 
the inventions of modern bards, intended to per- 
plex the reader : here and there are interfperfed 
fome characters refembling the Egyptian facred 
chara&ers in PL II. fig. 7* 

In the Urakeaft are two alphabets tailed Abgi- 
iir Eigiptiy or Egyptfctn Alphabets. See PL V. 
The fecond column is a copy of one of thefe 
alphabets, which exa'&ly cortefponds with the 
Palmyrean Alphabet taken from medals by Gebe- 
lin. See column 3. The 4th colutiln is ah Egyp- 
tian Alphabet by Abb6 Barthelemy (taken from 
the Encyclopedic). Column 6 arid 7 are Egyp- 
tian Alphabets from Ambrofitts. X o an Egyptian 
Alphabet from our book of Oghams. 

This fragment oil the Oghams concludes With 
another whimfical alphabet called Ogham Druin- 
neacb or the Embroidered Ogham. See PL VI. 
fig. 1, and with qther figla or figns for words as 
in fig. 3, all which I look upon as the invention of 
modern times; 



When Apuleius was about to be initiated into 
the myfteries of Ifis, the Egyptian prieft reached 
down a book from the ihelf, and (hewed him the 
elements of letters, in two different forms j one 
in Hieroglyphics, fuch as we find on the obelifks ; 
another written in circles : u et inje&i dcxtera, 




&F TfcE XNOIEkf ifeisrit. $) 

fenex commiflimus, ducit me protinus ad ipfas 
Fores aedis ampliflirria \ rituque folemhi apertionis 
celebrato minifterio, ac matutino peratto facrificio 
de opertis adyti profert quofdam iibros, Uteris 
Sgnorabilibus prsenotatos; partim figuris ciijus- 
cemodi animalium, concepti fermonis compendiofk 
verba fuggentes ; — partim nodq/is, et in fnodum 
rota tortuqfis cdpreotatimque condenfis apicibus, a cii- 
riofa profanorum le&ione iriiitata (<£). Cic6ro & 
La'&antius, Meituribs quinque pfer ordiiieiq fuifle 
volunt, quintumqlie fuifle ilium, qui ab Egyptiis 
vocatur Theut: hunc affertint authores Egyptiis 
praefuiffe, eifque leges ac litems tradidifle. Lite* 
jrarum vcro chara&eres in aiiimalibm» arborumqut 
figuris inftituifle (e). , 

. The reader is, defi'red to compare the Egyptian 
infcriptiori, PL II. fig. 7, (taken from the Menfk 
Jfiaca of Pignorius, Tab. iv. fig. 3) with the Irifli 
Oghairu IJgyptiaco chara&ere afcriptum eft Mag* 
nus Iao. The Similarity of the thara&ers with the 
Ogham is vfery finking: . 

If one of oui\Irifh philofophers had opened a 
book of Ogham's, ihd given a tranfient view of 
the circular alphabets in PI. I ; or the alphabet in 
PL VI. fig. 4, how could the beholder have found 
better words to defcribe them, than thofe ufed by 

Ha Apuleius 

t m • 

- (d) Apul. Mctamorph. L. XI. p. 2$8. Viti capriolus pro- 
prium. Thcophr. hifb plant. Capreolus, a tendril of a vinej 
a fork for a vine. (Ainfworth). 

(*) £1. Schedius de Dis Germ. p. 109. 


ApUleius, efpe<»ally \f he tad caft his eye on die 
titles Triagh Sruch, i. e. the Three Vines, and 
Fege Ftrwamhain, i. e, the Branchy Vine? 

The ancient Scythians, hiftory informs us, ufed 
Hieroglyphics. I am of opinion the ancient Irifli 
did the fame ; becaufe moil words figaifying an 
image, do alfo fignify a letter of the alphabet; 
a$_ mion or mmn 9 an image, a letter. Hebr. y\fi 
motify imago, fimilitudo (forte, hinc Monik ei 
enim apponuutur figna & imagines (fay the Lexi- 
conifts): but we have in Irifli muin 9 the neck, 
whence imince* % collar, an ornament for the neck; 
stnd }n Arabic u&k* mainak fignifies a horfe with 
a fine neck, and ^ua j** maamkut is an ornament 
for the neck. Ch. NpD^jo miinika, monile, brae* 
hiale ornamentum, NO*»3D minica, torques ; from 
Our mion an image, a letter, perhaps the Arabic 
jL+ mirtat, fignum, nota (Gol. 2187), Irifh Ske, 
a letter, an image, Ch. Nfcw Sekia, imago, pic- 
tura, effigies, &c. Egyptiace/foA fcriba, fcribere. . 

That the Egyptians had a running alphabet is evi- 
dent, from the iftodern difcovery of Count Caylus ; 
and I think k is as evident that this alphabet was 
formed from their Hieroglyphics, which (it is 
very probable) originally ftood for numerals (f) j 


(f) The infeription of the obelifk, which Germanicus 
caufed the Egyptian }>rjeft to explain to him, contained the 
number of men Sefoftris had in the city fit to bear arms, the 
tribute every nation paid : the weight of gold and filver, the 
ntimber of arms and horfes, the quantity of corn paid by every 
nation, &c. See Tacitus. Annal. L» 2* C. 60. 


becaqfe thefe are very different from thofe Hiero- 
glyphics compofed of figures of men and animals, 
of facred birds and infeds which appertained to 
their myftical Theology. Count Caylus had the 
good fortune to obtain fome ancient mummies, 
on the banderoles of which were infcriptions in 
a running hand. The Count - hating compared 
the letters with' the Hieroglyphics, readily per- 
ceived a great fimilitude in the characters. See PI. 
VII. of this work, and Vol. I. of the Count's anti- 

I have only to add, that the circular alphabet 

was probably formed from the word Og, which 
in Irifli implies a circle, it is the Arab ^^ aueg, 
curvavit, flexit ; whence we have in Irifli bo-ogha 
or bogha, a bow, from bo, wood, and ogha. Egyp- 
tian t>o 9 ligiium.- 


» » .->« 

Of the Chihefe UKIM, and the Perfepolitan 


unknown characters. 

Couplet relates that the firft Chinefe letters con- 
fided of Jhraight lines , which ran parallel to one 
another, and were of different lengths, and va- 
rioufly combined and divided ; Martinius fays the 
fame ; and they both give feveral fpecimens of the 
moil ancient manner pf writing them, Thefe 



letter-lines were contained in the book called 
Tekim, and was afcribed to Fo-HL who was a 
Scythian from Cataia. But although thefe were 
laid to have been invented about 2438 years, 
before Chrift, no body undertook, to explain them 
before Veng-Vang^ a foreigner, ai\4 a tributary 
princ£, who lived about 11 00 years before the 
Chriftiap JEra"; and above 500 years lifter him, 
the great Confucius undertook the interpretation of 
them, that is^ 838 y$ars after $e invention, ppuplef 
?dfo fays, that before the time of Fo-Hi> they had 
knots of lines ipftead of ftraight lines, for letters ; 
and chat Hoang-Ti was the firft who compofed 
the Chinef<? characters which were ever after 
ufed, ' ■ ' 

The kijpts of lines, and the ftraight-Un$ d cha- 
racters, were mod probably firft ufed as numerals, 
and, like our contracted Ogham, never exceeded 
five, the number of fingers on the hand. Bayer, 
in his firft volume of his Mufeum Sinicum, ob« 
ferves, that the common characters of the Chinefe 
confift of nine fimple characters, Jive of whjch 
were plaii* lines, and the other four ^re two or 
three of them joined together ; fo that it is proba- 
ble, that thefe' Chinefij characters or letters were 
originally fqrrn^d by various combinations, oat of 
the old lines of the book Tekim\ afcribed to Fo-HL 

•SI- • * » « 

the founder of the Chinefe empire. 

It is alfo worthy of notice, that the unknown 
grafters at ^erfepolis, qonfift of a number of 


. h 


ftroke* or darts (exa&ly the lame as our Ogham 
PI. VI. fig. 2.) and that the number never exceeds 
five, which made Mohfitur Gebelin obferve, there 
was a great refemblance between the Irifli Ogham 
arid the Perfepolitan unknown characters (g). 
Monfieur Bailly is of the fame opinion, and from 
the number of the combination, he thinks, all 
thefe alphabets were originally numerals. V Les 
chara£teres Irb^ndoifes, appelles Ogham, ne con- 
fiftent que dans i'unite rcpetie cingfois, & dont la 
valeur change, fuivant h jqaniere dont elle eft pafee, 
relativement a une ligne fi£Uve. II|s ont beaucoup 
de rapport avec ceux de PerfepqUs ; ces traits qui 
reprefentent I'unite font perpendiculspres : les Koua 
de Fohi font des lignes horizontals ; Leibnitz a 
cru y trouver fon arithmetique binaire. Les uns 
& les autres femblent appartenir a une langue nu- 
merique, fbndee fur cinq ou fur deux nombres; 
rune eft dcrivee du nombre des doigts de 1^ mail) 
l'autre qui n'emploie que deux nombres, eft une 
redu&ion & une perfe&ion de la premiere. Ces 
caratteres conferves fur les mines de Perfcpolis me 
rappellent que, fuivant la tradition Perfan, Eftekat 
ou Perfepolis, a ete batie par le Peris du terns de 
leur monarque Gian-ben-Gian. Cette langue nu» 
merique done avoir etc l'ouvrage des Peris, les an- 
cetres des Perfans (£). u 


[g) Qxjgine de PEcrkurc, Vol. 2. 

(h) Letups d'Atlantide, p. 45a.— Vindication of Anc. Hift* 
of Ireland Fret p, i}iu 


: We/thtUcj now pfo6dcd,;!t6 .farbve that the. tirec 
vitedthfe Cymbal of :JMcr»fiin^i.^ith the. Qrieiitdl 
nstktos^ mflitelL as tf kh: tfe, Iriflv andirfefcadty 

» • r r 

.' r .Hi /til H ! ' < 

;. /:; . r \: ,r: • ;.rf* .>•- i*. "»... • i< » 

r. . 

.« << > 

• " > 

• » 

. • » 

i " 

1 1 


• * 

'«•]•*. >.* 

'. • r 

. • » 

• ' j ! *' 


i .... » • 

•Hi , . c « , • / \ » ♦ » — - 

t 4 • ' » • » » » ; . • 

I 1 

a * • » 

» ^ i .»-.>'* 

* ^' ■- * 

. .. « , 

• • • ? 


— • • / 

f -r 1 

• - • . -. ♦ »- . ■ 

i • ^ , '• » * . . 


t ««s 3 

»» • . . » 

C HA P. II. 

■ . i . * i i ' 



The Tree, the Symbol df Knowledge, of Numerals y 

arid if Literary Characters. 

■ * » • • 

HE Irifli or HibernoScythian language, like 
the Hebrew and other ancient languages, abounds 
in trope and metaphor. In the foregoing chapter 
we have feen that the Ogham tree was firft the 
fymbol of nunterfels, and from thefe numerals 
vert formed literary charcBers. The r«fon of 
the firft mi*ft ftrike eVery reader on infpe&ion of 
the <optrafted Ogham* PL VH. fig. 4 : each figure 
beare f efemblanCe to a tree ; hence it was natural 
to addpt the names of fuch trees for the names of* 


thefe. numerals, as appeared to have a fimilitude 
to the numerals in their luxuriance and branches, 
and hence arofe the fymbol of the tree for fcience 
in general* 

£0 tempore, quo Mofes natus eft, floruit Atlas 
aftiologus Promethei Phyfici : fritter » ac matefnus 
avus majoris Mercuric ct*jus nepoa :fai t-Mfetcurius 
Txifihegiftus. (Elias Sthedius de Di* Germ. 109, 
hoc autem de illo fcribit Auguftimis). Quanquam 
Cicero & La&antius Mercurios quinqiie per or- 
dinem fuiffe volant, quintumque fuifle ilium, qui 
ab JEgyptiis Theut, ' a Gracis au tern Triimegtftus 
appeliatus eft. Hunc afferunt authores *Egyptiis. 



io6 *he tree the symbojl 

praefuiffe, eifque leges ac literas tradidiffe. Lite. 
rarum vero charatteres in animalium, arborumque . 
jiguris inftituifTe. (Eli. Scheld. p. 109.) 

There was an opinion amongft the heathen phi- 
losophers, that the world is a parable, in which 
is an outward appearance of vifible things with an 
inward fenfe, which is hidden, as the foul under 
the body. (Salluft w^» 0m». c. 3.) (Clem, Alex, 
Strom. L 5). Sentiments and fcience were there- 
fore expreffed, by wife men of all profeffions, in 
ancient times, under certain figns and fymbols, of 
which the originals are moftly to be found in the 
fcripture, as being the moft ancient and authentic 
of all records in the world, and (hewing itfelf in 
the form of its language and expreflion. To the 
feholar, the Symbolical language of the bibk is fo 
ufeful (fays the pious and ingenious Mr. Jones) 
that every candidate for literature will be but a. 
fhallow proficient in the wifdom of antiquity, till 
he works upon this foundation ; and for want of 
it, adds this author, I have feen xp^ny childifh 
accounts of things from men of great figure among' 
the learned. ■ • ' 

The ufe of fymbols have extended to all times,, 
and wifdom hath been communicated in this form 
by the teachers of every fcience and profeffion. 
We might wonder if it were not fo, when God, 
from the beginning of the world, taught man 
after this form ; fetting life and death before him. 
under the fymbols of two trees ; and it is both ^ 
ingenious and fublime fentiment, in a certaia at*-: ' 




tjior, that the whole fcenery rf Paradife v** $f- 
pofed in an hieroglyphic fchool for the inftru&ion of 
the firft man, and that the fame plan, fo far as it 
could be. was afterwards transferred to the taber- 
nacle and the temple (a). 

The tree of the knowledge of good and evil 
t)as been thought, by all learned men, to have 
t>een the fymbol of fcience, of wifdom, &c. 
J^ic di&a, fays Grotius after Jofephus, quod daret 
UMlx &»»»«;, j. ? f qcumen mentis. 

The Egyptian wifdom delivered all things under 
fjgns and figures, fpeaking to the mind rather by 
vifible objefts than by words, and conveying in* 
ftru&ion linger a hidden form, which only the 
^yife could underftand, 

Mofes mud have been accuftomed early to this 
mode of delivering fcience by fymbols and hiero- 
glyphics ; and his whole law is, according to the 
feme method, not fpeaking literally of any fpiritual 
thing, but delivering all things under figns, em- 
blems, and defcriptive ceremonies, which they 
who do not ftudy are univerfally in the dark, as 
tp the wifdom of the Mofaic difpenfation (b). 

Plants are applied to explain the growth of the 
mind, with its different qualities and productions'^)- 
The Egyptians adopted the mulberry tree (kadmis) 
for the fymbol of wifdom, of fcience, and of nu- 
merals ; the vine for the fymbol of literary cha- 
racters. This method of espreffing things is called 


(a) Jones on the figurative language of the Holy Scriptures, 
(ft Idem- ( f ) Id, 


in Iriih Cnat or Kinat, a word ufed at this day to 
fignify an artful, fly man, one who fpeaks meta- 
phorically, with double meanings : the original 
fignifieation of the word is an allufioh, a metaphor, 
or a rhetorical figure, which is the true meaning of 
the Arabic word *J3<£ Kinayet. 

The Egyptians thus allegorifed the tree of 
knowledge: Ofiris hurnidum, IJis terra eft, cui 
mifcetur Ofiris, ex quibus Horus fpiritus omnia 
alens & faecundans, ex femine nafcitur. I/is ab 
inferis, Horum refufcitat, dum femen terrae com- 
miflam in plantam, arborem, folia, flores, fru&us 
pfotiilerat : aduftiva vero Typhvnis vi, & ficcitate 
Roro ihfidiuntei quod Autumnali tempore fit, 
Horus interimitur a Typhone, id eft^ fftittufc de- 
cidens, novam fementem, praeftat, quab condita 
terrae, denuo ab Ifide Anubidis, id eft, Merturiali 
Agricultbris induftria inftauratur. Hac fimili- 
ttrdme non taritura de generationis ac cotruptioni$ 
rerum viciffitudine inTemine vegetabili fe exerante, 
fed & de fenfibili^ imo, & de rational!, attque in- 
Mleftuixll ratiocinabahtur. Nam de femiile adnii- 
rationis, arbor exoritur rationalise quae fruftus 
parit admirationi fimiles, per elicitam fiquidem 
admiTationem, fimitem erigit, ralionis arborem. Ita 
ex femenali demonftrationis f>rincipio, inttllcftualis 
procedit arbor \ ex fe principia£ feminalia exerens, 
per quee intelleftualis iteruin arbor exurgi't (</). 

This allegory gave rife to the arbor fephiroth of 
the Cabbaliftical Jews, which they piftured, wind- 

(d) Kircher ObcL Pamph. Ideae Hierogly. p. 380." 



ing its branches refund the Egyptian letter Tau, 
facred to Thoth ; and this was called tfes intellec- 
tual tree, the tree of numbers and of fcience. 
Sephirotb implies, numbers, literary chara&prs, 
writing, a book, &c. hence Ariftotle, numeri &f 
Jigura notant ideas rerum. What has been taken 
for the Rod of Aaron, on the ancient Jewifh 
coins, was probably defignsd to exprefs this Arbor 

The Irifli had alfo their iatelle&ual tree, in the 
form of the Egyptian Tau> as I find by a mutilate d 
copy, in an ancient fragment, thus expreffed : 

Fcnn ^ 


• - •» 

The bafis or root of the tree is Fenn or Fitmi 
I. e. Science, Philofophy j in Arabic i<3fenn : frorfi 
thence proceeds the main ftem, No. i, expref- 
fed by the word modhathanath, id dt, natb, fci- 
entia, modbatb*, and under the word is written 
Etbica. This is the Chaldfean JTfTO midatb^ mo* 
res, virtutes. Sepbir be mtdutb, Liber Ethicus. 
This is the title given to a tranflation of Ariftotle' s 
Ethics into Hebrew, by Don Meir, in 1405. 

2. Toifedtby i; e. laidireacbt, fortitudb.--*Arab. 

J^S ibojh. 

3. £>//<?, -jfr//*, i. e. prudentla. Arab, lit akt, 

wifdom, ALaaL kbeial, the power of the mind. 

4. Suadbnacbt, temperantia* Arab. £iy£>» Su- 



» ^ . « * % • 

5. Ftre 9 juftitia. Arab. J>( j^ bufur, juftus. 
On the left. 6* Aighfieasy logica (it is the word 

ufed throughout the Brehon laws, to exprefs 
pleading in a court of law). Chald. jVOfi 
hegaion, Logica (*). 

7. Aurekepbu grammat. SeeCh. 1.. 

8. Sreabbdabbra, (Jnb&ra i: e. fpeech), diale&ica. 

Arab. ^Sya Surfed 
9* Con-Aighneas, diale&ica. 
i o. Caoille-meafaS) geometria. Perf. Kbilab % land, 

keilkirdun, to meafure land. 
11. Bineast i. e. CeoI 9 mufica. '^appi bem-bm, pe- 

ritus inufices. Schindlef at fla.— V?n Chatl 

tibiis canere. Me Cbdl^ Chorus. 


* • 

(*) Con-natagaty is another Irifh word for logic. Can, fenfe, 
reafon. s^xWj ttataka, articulatim 8c (ignificatem protulit vocem 

unde cJi'li^o mnntiky logica. 

OF KN6WLfeDGEi til 

\ 2. Reul eolas ; altronotnia, (eoks knowledge $ real 

of the ftars). 
13. Dana teibith, ars xnfcdica. Arab. £*j&> &&b 
donate tybbut. 

From the concordance of thefe fcientific terms; 
it is evident, the Oriental Scythians either taught 
thefe fciences to the Arabians, or learnt tbem of 
the Chaldseans and Arabs ; for. there is not the 
fmalleft refemblance between thefe Irilh terms* and 
thofe of the Greek and Latin. 

Norden has given us the drawing of an Egyp- 
tian monument, where the Arbor intelleflualis, 2& 
Kircher calls it, is finely exprefled ; it is the Arbor 
Sepbiroth of the Jews, and the Feadb of the old 
Irifii. See Norden's travels into Egypt. PI. LVIII. 
and PL VIII. of this work. 

Here is reprefented a tree, with an oval fcut- 
cheon placed in the midft of the branches. The 
oval and the circle were fymbols of fdence, as we 
learn from Horapollo. The Greeks miftaking 
Neitb die god of war, for Natb the god of wifdom 
and of fcience, united both in Minerva, as I have 
already explained. The. oval then became the 
Scuta Palladis — hinc tibi dat clyp6um fapientia, 
quod negat orbem (Martiaftnus Cappella). See 
Pierius Hieroglyph. Egypt, p. 450. 

On the oval are engraved in three lines fome 
Egyptian numerals miftaken by Pierius for Chal- 
daean numerals ; the loweft denoting Unit, the fe- 
cond Ten, and the uppermoft an Hundred. On the 



right hand of the tree* is feated Tbotb or Mercury* 
(the fuppofed author or inventor of Arithmetic) 
with his Caduceus in one hand, and with the 
other he is pointing to the numerals, intruding N 
a difciple ftaridiflg on the left fide of the tree (f). 

Above the numerals is an oval, which was pro- 
bably intended for a (lar or planet. We know 
that the Sabians dedicated certain ttee$ to certain 


planets, pretending they would be endowed with 
the virtues of the planets, and would reveal them 
to mankind by talking to them in their fleep — • 
, cum dedicator arbor ifta illi ftellae, atque iilius 
nomine piantatur, & fit illi hoc aut illud, influere 
virtutem fpfmualem iftius ftellae, in iftam arborem, 
ka, ut homkubu« fe revelent, eofque in forimo 
alloquantur (g)* 

• t Pierius calk thefe Chaldaean numerals: The 
Chaldasans had alphabetic numerals, of which 
hereafter. Thefe were undoubtedly Egyptian as 
Pierius himfelf acknowledges in another place, 
" apud Horum Niliacum invenias lineam unam 
w furre&am cum alia fuperne deje&a vel incum- 
4 * bente, decern ' linearum quae in piano ducendag 
" effent, hieroglyphicum effe ; puto ego feunc 
" exprimere voluiffe denarium humeruro/* (Pier) 


ff) Theut a Graecis Trifmigiftus appeHatus eft, hunc affc- 
runt authores Egypiiis prsefuifle, eifque leges ac literas tradidiffe ; 
Hterarum vera caara&eres ammaKum, arborumque figuris inffci- 
tiriffe (£1. Sched. 109). 

(g) R. Mofe. in Moreh. in Pocock Spec; Hift. Arab; 

P- 139- 


See PI. X. p. 1 . This plate from Norden, and 
the numerals from Pierius, have been engraved 
and lately published by that learned antiquary 
Mr. Pownall, in his Treatife on the Study of anti- 
quities ; who, without degradation, to the divine 
penman, or offence to religion, thus allegorifes 
the garden of Eden. — u If the antiquary Ihould 
" be allowed to proceed in this line of explanation 
" of the Mofaic antideluvian hiftory, as an apo- 
logue, he would certainly find, that the fecond 
and third chapters of Genefis mean to defcribe 
" the two dates in which man hath lived upon 
" the earth, concurrent with the account of the 
" progrefs of his depravation and corruption, and 
u the attendant punifiiment thereof, all accom- 
modated in the moral of the Mythos to the 
Jewifh inftitution. He is firft reprefented in 
" his fylvan ftate, which is reprefented as a ftate 
" of perfe&ion and innocence, living in the gar- 
" den of the world, on the fpontaneous fruits and- 
<c herbs of it, which were given him for food. 
" The mode of his life is regulated by fome po- 
" fitive commands of God, refpe&ing the diftinc- 
" tions of his food. There was one tree, the 
u tree of knowledge of good and evil, the fruit of 
" which he was forbidden to tafte. This is a 
" Mythic tree, a fymbol not unknpwn to the 
" Egyptians, as may be feen in Norden ; a tree 
" reprefenting, in the luxuriancy of its branches, 
" the wildnefs of men's opinion, and by its 

I «« tempting 





" tempting and poifonous fruit, the mifchievous 
" effe&s of being feduced by the vanity of falfe 
" learning, to become wife above the Ration pre- 
" pared for us." 

This may be a very juft explanation of the alle- 
gory of the Mofaic antideluvian hiftory ; but I do 
not think my learned friend has hit upon the ex- 
planation of the Egyptian monument before us ; 
it is certainly confined to the fymbol of fcience ; 
and the tree is the tree of knowledge, whofe leaves, 
fay the Chaldeans, were letters, and its branches 
words : 

itDttDD* mn»n ona* C3*sjtfnni pj p *ya hm \hxn 
"31 : nvman am o*^i a»pn o»aj* to 

Ihis paiTage is extra&ed from a Chaldeih, Rabbi 
Nahum, and it is thus tranflated by Kircher: 
Arbor magna in medio Paradifi, cujus rami, 
diftiones, ulterius in ramos parvos & folia, quae 
funt litera, extenduntur" — The great tree in 
the garden of Eden, whofe leaves were letters, 
and whofe branches were words. 

This paiTage fully explains the foregoing plate 
of the Egyptian monument, and the Irifli Ogham 
tree alphabet. This is not a whimfical imagina- 
tion of Rabbi Nahum ; the metaphor is carried 
on in the Oriental dialects, in all words and fen- 
tences relating to fcience and to literature, which 
we (hall proceed to prove ; and it is a metaphor 
which has come down to our own times, though 
unnoticed. We fpeak of a branch of fcience, of 

knowledge, of literature. " I have known a wo- 



*' man branch out into a long differ tation upon the 
" edging of a petticoat," fays Shakefpeare. 

The Jews and Chaldeans frequently ornamented 
the title pages of their books, with a profped of 
the garden of Eden, as an allegory of wifdom, 
and in the center of the garden was pi&ured an 
apple tree, or an apple branch, with fome proper 
motto, as the following : 

norm cdj^ Kin m«n »3i bmzb rjm aia »i 

that is, bicaufe the tree is good to be eaten^ fair to 
the fight > and dejirable for the under/landing. 

Philo, the Jew, allegorizes both trees of Eden; 
and Barcophan fays the tree of knowledge was fo 
called, merely frorh the devil's pretending it had a 
virtue to confer knowledge (F). 

The Jews thought this was aii apple tree ; the 
Chaldeans and Arabians (i) fay it was a vine ; 
hence the Fege Fineamhain^ or, branchy vine 
Ogham alphabet of the ancient Irifh. The Indian 
Fig has been adopted by fome, and what is molt 
extraordinary, Wheat, though no tree at all, has 
pht in its claim. The Egyptians took the Mul- 
berry tree, the arborum fapientifftma Morns— they 
had alfo the Vine. 

Egyptian hiftpry informs us, that the authot 
6f letters, of numeration, of aftronbmy, geome- 
try, mufic, and of fciences in general, was named 

1 2 Thotbj 


h) Barcophan de Paradif. p. I. c. 19. 
i) Maracc. in Alcoran, p. 22. 


Thoth, who was alfo called Phine. Pherecydes 
calls him Opbion, or, Ou-Phion; he had other 
names, as Armais, Bous 9 f annus, and fome think 
Cadmus was the fame perfon (£). But the learned 
Jabloniky clearly faw that Thoth was not the 
name of a man, but fignificd fcience in general. 
" Thoth non hominis, fed do&rinae nomen fuiffe, 
" totumque fcientiarum omnium vallum ambitum 
" defignaffe videatur (/)." 

In the fame fenfe the Irifli ufe the word Tak, as 
Taith4eoir, an ambafTador. 
Taith-Iiag, a furgeon, i. e. the art of healing. 
Taith-eolach, a vain-glorious fellow. 
Taith-tne r a player on the harp. 
Taith-eafg, a repartee, &c. &c. 
The name Thoth certainly appertains to the tree, 
the fymbol of literature, which tree with the 
Chaldaeans was the mulberry. 

Chald. Thoth, morus arbor — the mulberry. 
Arab. Toot, morus & morum. 
Syr. Tbotba, morus, botrus, racemus. 
Egyp. Kadmis, morus arbor, arbor fcientiac 
(Kircher). . 


(£) Phine, Fine and Faunus, are certainly the fame as the 
Irifh Fenius, the author of letters. &c. Armais fignifies in- 
vention ; in Irifh Bad- Armais the art of invention, the original 
inventor. Finn, wifdom ; fomedcach, wife. 

(/) Pantheon Egypt. P. III. p. 164. — Mifraimo in imperio 
fucceffit Mercurius feu Faunus, Pici Jovis filius, e ftirpe Cham 
prognatus. Chron. Alex. See Aran in the Arabic metaphor 
a few pages forward. 


The ancient Irifli, to the name Fine, have added 
Far/aid^ and this is an Arabic word of the fame 
meaning as Thoth and Cadmus, viz. «Xa*7 /( j 
farfidf morus arbor, vinaceus, & maxime prius 
morum (Golius). So that Thoth y Pbine, Cadmus* 
Faunus 9 Fenius Far/aid, are the names of one and 
the fame perfon, the author or inventor of letters, 
all taken from the tree, the fymbol of literature. 
Se,e the word pn* 1 ittra in the metaphors, a few 
pages forward (ni). 

Thoth fignifying a tree luxuriant in its branches ; 
a branch became the fymbol of the Egyptian 
month Thoth. (Horapollo, p. 14). 

The Perfians, inftru&ed by the Egyptians, car- 

ried the branches of fome tree on the feftivals of 

Thoth as fymbols of thought and fpeech ; in Mer- 

curii folemnitabus, Perfae, ramos cordis Iff lingua 

fymbala, &c 

The Egyptian Hieroglyphic of the name Thoth 
was a branch in this form (Kircher Obel. Pam- 
phil.), which may be alfo found in the Hiero- 
glyphic letters difcovered by Count Caylus. See 
PL VIL fig. 4. 

A * 

(m) Literarum, ver6 chara&cres in animalium, arborumque 
figuria inveilit Thoth (EL Sched.). 


At the top of this figure may be discovered the 
myftic branch, called Shumrakb by the Arabians, 
which always ornamented the Caduceus of Mer- 
cury. It is the Shamroc of the Irifh, which grows 
with three leavea united ; from this ornament the 
Caduceus is ftiled by Homer, the golden three-* 
Jeaved wand ; 

j+& Shemar, in Arabic, fignifies to prune a 
tree, and to be ftudious. £l,*# Shumrakb, fpadix 
feu racemus ac rarrius. In Irifh Sheamar fignifies 
a clufter, hence, clover or trefoil is fo called"; and 
Shamroc is the finaUer trefoil growing in thick 
bunches ; it is 4 tho orn&rnsnt of the feftival of 
St. Patrick. Dr. Qcy>k fuppofe^ the three leaves 
qn the Caducei^s t -y^s to point out th§ three great, 
principles of the foul's immortality, viz. a (late of 
rewards and puqiihuients after death, and a re- 
£ui citation of the body : it is laid St. Patrick adopted 
this plaint to point out the Trinity, to the heathen 
Irifh ; but with regard to its ufe, as an ornament 
to the Caduceus, I ant of opinion it was a fyrobol 
of knowledge and wUdom. 

The Etrufcans, who borrowed mod of their 
knowledge from the Egyptians, named Mercury, 
Miinalos, a word apparently compounded of the 
Egyptian matin fignum, chara&er (Irifh mion) and 
aloli, vitis ; for the vine and the piulberry tree 
vere equally fymbols of literature. 


The Egyptian word Sbolb fignifies a literary 
chara&er, and the tendril of a vine, Shol a vine, 
a grape, a vintage. 

The Chaldean )Ei gipben fignifies a vineyard, 
and with an additional vau, f 2VI gupben, it implies 
a literary chara&er : forma titerarum (n). 

Hefiod has recorded that Cadmus named the 
firft letter of the alphabet ft* bous ; it was the name 
of Tbotb 9 derived from bo, a tree, whence bats, the 
palm tree— palmes Egyptios vernacula voce appel- 
Xi&tbais. Pignorius, p. 10. — bat, vel cum arti- 
culo pi-bat, palma apud Egyptios. (Porphyrius), 

Unfortunately for fome authors bous 9 in Greek, 
and aluph, in Hebrew, fignify an ox ; and aluph 
approaching aleph, the name of the firft letter of 
the Hebrew alphabet, they immediately conceived 
that the n aleph was defigned to reprefent an ox's 
head : thefe authors could not have known, that 
this character was never ufed by the Jews before 
the time of Efdras, or by the Chaldeans, but as 
a numeral, as we (hall (hew hereafter. The learn- 
ed Gufletius ridicules this thought, for, fays he, 
N aleph duo cornua erefta exerere fatis non eft, 
ut conveniat cum bove, dum curvatura cornuum 
deed : dum nihil capiti vel corpori bovis refpondet: 
dum tot alia funt cornuta. (Comm. L. Ebr. p. 9.) 
and then he concludes— »0» videri liter as Ebraicas 
fumptas exjiguris ^.— We (hall account for their 

forms in the fequel, 


(a) Armcnice, Govin, vinum. Millius. 

* ,.. * • » ■ 


Sanconiatho tells us, that Taaut, who invented 
the firft letters for writing; was the fon of Mifor, 
the fon of Hamyn. And this Tboth or Taaut, the 
fon of Mifor, is faid r to have been a Chaldean. 
w Thoth, the Taaut of Sanchoniatho, fon of Mifor, 
was a Phoenician, or rather upon the general dif- 
perfion of mankind, went from Chaldaa, where 
he was born, either into Phsenicia, where he lived 
fome time, according to Sanchoniatho, and went 
thence with his family into Egypt, or elfe went 
direftly from Chaldaea, through Arabia Fatlix, and 
pafTed thence with his family into upper Egypt, 
and inhabited the country of Thebais." (Jackfon 
Chronology, V, 2. p. a68. See alfo Aftle on the 
origin and progrefs of writing, p. 34). 

The tradition of the .Jews, Arabians and In- 
dians, is, that the Egyptians were inftru&ed in 
all their knowledge by a Chaldaean, and that 
Chaldfcan they will have to be Abraham. Jofe- 
phus is pofitive that the Egyptians were ignorant 
of the fciences of arithmetic and aftronomy before 
they were, inftru&ed by Abraham. In the next 
chapter we fliall (hew that arithmetic or numerals, 
were the origin of alphabetic letters, and that 
thefe numerals were formed from certain figures 
representing the conftellations. 

But here it is to be obferved, that Thpth figni- 
fying the morus, or mulberry tree, the fymbol of 
literature, is a Chaldaean, not an Egyptian word, 



and in the Egyptian dialeft it is Cadmis, in Arabic 
Toot, and Far/aid; whence we may conclude, 
that Thoth, Cadmus, and Fairfaid (of Irifli 
hiftory) are all one and the fame perfon — the in- 
ventor of numerals and of alphabetic writing. 

And Iriih hiftory informs us, that this invention 
took place, about the time all the Ifraelites came 
into Egypt ; which agrees with the age in which 
Thoth, or Mercury is faid to have lived. Mercu- 
rius Trifmegiftus, author literarum, Moyfi coae- 
taneus. (Kircher Oedip, T. i. p. 95, &c). And 
this accounts very well for Mofes's having known 
letters, before the time of the Decalogue, and is 
the reafon that we find in fcripture no account of 
letter writing before his time* 

Having (hewn, that the tree was the fymbol of 
literature ; by fome nations of the Eaft the mul- 
berry ; by others the vine ; we fhall attempt a 
confirmation of this fymbol, by metaphors in the 
Oriental languages. 

The tree being the general fymbol* the Vine 
feems to have been adopted for verfe ; becaufe in 
the firft place it requires annual pruning ; fecondly 
when pruned it becomes a regular figure, with 
branches of equal lengths on each fide of the 
main Item ; hence it may be faid, by the equal 
number of eyes or buds, to have reprefented the 
meafure of verfe. 




Hebrew and Chaldean. 

The tree of Nebuchadnezzar's dream is ufed 
as an emblem of the underftandihg, and the cut- 
ting down thereof is interpreted by Daniel, to fig- 
nify the deprivation of human underftanding, 
(Dan. Ch. 4). Solomon calls Wifdom the Tree 
of life—" happy is the man that findeth wifdom, 
fhe is the tree of life to them that lay hold upon 
her" (Pr. Ch. 3), 

Libanus was a mountain, fo called from its tall 
Cedars. The Jews formed an alphabet called 
Catab Libona, fcriptura libonica ; thefe letters 
were flourifhed at the tops, with fcrolls like the 
tendrils of a Vine. Efra, fays the Mafpreth, cut 
off thefe Kot/im, i. e. fpinae, apices, (0) apex literae, 
fpinae inftar fupra earn impofitus. (Menach: 29. 2). 
An example of this fpecies of writing, was fram- 
ed. and glazed, and hung up in the Britifh Mufeun* 
fome years ago. 

The Jews would not have given the name of 
Libation, or Cddar trees, to thefe letters, or of Q^Kfp 
Kotfim, fpinae, apices, to the flourifhes, if the idea 
of a tree alphabet had not been in their thoughts ; 
and we (hall fhew prefently, that the names of moft 
of the letters of 'the Hebrew alphabet do alfp fig- 
nify certain fpecies of trees. 

\y ets, 

(0) Sevachim, fol 62. 1. 



yy ets, a tree, v The root, fays Bates, fignifies 


to take or give counfel or inftru&ion ; for all the 
actions of the mind are expreffed by words that 
ftand for, or give an idea of, fomething fenfible. 

When Jacob extols the learning arid penetra- 
tion of Jofeph, he fays, " Jofeph is a fruitful 
bough by a fpring, whofe branches overtop the 

ETO kerem, a vine, a vineyard, a ftudy, a fchooi 
or college. Jeremiah, Ch. 6. Super beth-kerem 
tollite figna — beth-kerem, i. e. domum vineae. 
(Targum, i. e. accademiae, cpllegiae). It was fo 
called, fay the Talmudifts, becaufe the children fat 
in rows, as vines are planted ! ! ! but kerem not 
only fignifies the vine, but the cultivation of it, 
the gathering of the grapes, and the liquor made 
thereof: — it is applied to other fruits as ftPO, 
kereman, malum granatum, vel, vinea decoris feu 
fortitudinis (Dav. de Pom.) hence k*0* 1 > k$urmi, 
potio vetus Hifpanorum — in Irifh Courm, wine, 
ale, ftrong drink.— Hifpanice Carmuji; Arabic 
Keram> Keramat ; Gall. Gourmet ; Hibernice Cu- 
irme, vini guftandi expertiffimus. ( Tomaffin Gloff. 

From kerem, to prune and drefs the vine, comes 
the Latin Carmen, a poem ; they borrowed it of 
the Greeks, with whom the firft Cantio was fung 
in Theatres, from a carr, covered with vine-bran- 
ches. Arab. Karmarah, to be prefented with rich 
fruits, to be extolled in verfe, 


*y3! Zamar 9 to prune, to fing, a fong. Zamar 
putavit, pfallere, cantus, cantio, fignificatioy^^/i- 
di in Zamar, pertinet fpecialiter ad vitem. Zamar 
eft fecare, fed ad rei perfedionem tendens, ut in 
vite 9 (ic in voce, quando hoc verbum ad muficum 
transfer tur. Ita Zamra in vite eft pars rami ma- 
nens quae putando colitur, non ea quae abfcinditur 
&perit. (Guffet). 

From Zamorj the Hebrews formed Mizmor, a 
mufician, and the Chaldacans Mezameria. the. 
pfalter. Hence the Spaniards formed Zambra^ a 
Moorifli dance j the Italians Zimara^ Aziniarre ; 
and the French Simarre> the rich dreffes of the 
public fingers. . The Arabs changed M into B, 
and. wrote ^ Zabar, putavit vitem, fcripfit, fcrip- 
tura, liber, intelligentia, idem eft quod *|»f. 

XiW Jhilaby propagp, dicitur de planta, arbore 

mittente ramos ; in Cal. ufurpatum reperio de 

fake, de libro, feu epiftola j — hence the Irifli 

Jhiolla, a fyllable, i. e. a fe&ion, a part gut off, or. 

a fhoot of the branch. 

1M £'**r f fecare, radix, fyllaba, Iiterarum com- 

TKSO Jhita, iinea, ordo, ftylus, modus & ufus 
loquendi, ftru&um verborum, confuetudo linguae, 
& fermonis in libro — Cuprtfus> fpina* optima in- 
ter decern cedrorum fpecies. Syr. Jbita, vkis. 
MTWjhuta, fruttus arboris, verbum, iermo, con- 
fabulatio. Shita, virgula, arbor, ahies, phrafis, 




verfus libri. Irifh, faoth, a man of letters ; faoib- 
email, learned, fkilful ; facth-faal, a learned hif. 
tory, a ftory in verfe. 

DV kisj lignum.- ITtO-OV kis-tor, fcriba, nota- 
rius. )0p kifan, folium arboris. 

TSSfo taarriy guftavit lingua & palato, cognovit, 
intellexit, habitus corporis totius, in fermone, 
geftu, forma, item interiori animi habitus, mens, 
animus, ratio, fenfus, cogitatio, intelligentia, con- 
filium, fententia, edittum — ratio, caufa, argu- 

Irifh tarn , vel taman ; gacb ni da mbeantar a 
ceann'; ro badar ag tamnadh feadba, i. e. ag 
gearradb feadha, i. e. tarn fignifies every thing 
relating to the mind ; it is alfo ufed to exprefs the 
a£k of pruning or cutting trees, (Vet. doff. Hib.) 

13QN amir 9 ramus, excelfus. Syr. amra, cant us, 
mufica. As a verb, fays Bates, to branch out as 


a tree, to fay, to command. Irifh, ambra, a poem, 
a fong ; ambar, mufic ; emir, a commander, a 
chief, plur. amra, nobles, chiefs. 

JTV» iora % unde niin bora, docere, morere, 
niTO more, doftor ; hinc morns, ^t» f Gall, meure, 
mure, murier, arbor fie di&a (Tomaflin) (the 
mulberry tree) ergo, quo tempore Latini ita 
morum nominarunt, turn intelligebant eo nomine 
dodrinam & fapiei\tiam (id.) (p). 


(p) We have (hewn, that Cadmis in Egyptian, and Thoth 
in Chaldsean, are the names of Mercury, and fignify the morus, 
or mulberry tree, in thefe languages— may not this More be 
the origin of the name Mercurius. 

i I 


•WSH bebaij fuperlatio fermonis, hyperbole, ab 
^N^in &obaij quod fpinam figtiificat, ut hyperbole 
fit quafi fpinofus fermo. (E. Buxtorf.) 

Irifh, aba, abah, abadk 9 hypetbole* fatire, lam- 
poon. Arab. *±A abida, romance, fable. 

INS par j ornare, decorare, ramus unius arboris 

JTW2J1 J1UJ 1 ? lingua five locutio ornatus caufa; 

UHUJ Shiri/h, apud Grammaticos, radix, thema, 
vox primitiva, unde voces derivatae inftar ramorum 

~\py ikar, radix verbi, und£ caetera nafcuntur 
ficut ut ex radice arbor, & omnes ejus partes 
quatuor radices, i. e. quatubr elementa.— Irifh, 
eocan Eocar fceath rCAfrionn, the root of the 
branch of the Mafs. The title of one of Keating's 
MSS: of divinity. 

2*0 n °b> fruaus arboris, fru&us linguae, verbum, 
fermo ; hinc ^2D nobia prophetae, fignificat etiam 
verbum iftud, germinare, fruQificare. (Kim. & 
Dav. P.) 

msnn *120 Sepbir he-iapbuah 9 i. e. liber pomi ; 
libellus forma dialogi confcriptus inter Ariftotelem 
& difcipulos ejus. 

NTID pora 9 i. e. ramus foecundus* libellus. 

WIS peret 9 racemus, acinus fingulam k rad. 
Chald. divifim aliquid fecit. Syriace fecuit; 
Hebraice modulatus eft. (Amos, vi. 5.J. Peret y 
acini decidui ; peretim modulantes ; vocibus in 
particular qu^fi concifis : hinc a pheret, pheretim, 



eft Gallice fredonsj fredonner. Eft etiam forfan 
& Gallicum fredenne 9 quod & alias Gallics vocatur 
quinte, quinte de minutiis ; hinc nominabantur 
etiam poetae Gallorum Bardi 9 quafi peretim, modu- 
lantes, particularifantes, de quibus Lucanus ait 
egregie. > 

Plurima fecuri fudiftis carmina bardi. 
exciderat pene nobis, quod minime oportuit, frU 
tinnire, cantus interruptus. (Tomaflin. Gloff.Hebn) 
iyj dabar, verbum, arbor mgna. trabs. Perfice 
dubir. Arab* dfubr, liber. Irifli, dubairt, he fpoke. 
n^STTi gruphisy ramus. Saul fuit ramus Syca- 
mori, i. e. rex, legiflator, fcriba. (Medf . Schem* 
Seft. 28.)— — Irilh, graibb 9 > a governor. " Germ* 
Land-grave.— -Irifh, graibb, an almanack ; graibh- 
criolacb, archives j graibbri, a title, fuperfcrip- 
tion, &c. ' 

ylyfo melin. Nux quercuum, literae, di&iones. 
tdtati ataba, lignus, teres, alphabetum nume- 

fob lahag, leftio, ftudium, tanta eft cognatio 
inter legere & colligere : hinc labag, verba, ra- 
tiones > inde her bas, fl ores, & uno verbo haec po- 

tuerint exprimi. (Tomaflin)* Hiber. Leagh or 
Leagadh, to read, to fpread, to prune, &c. 
. In fine, f]*Xt)Jiah 9 a tree, is derived homfoab, 
to ftudy, and 7f* ior, the fhoot of a branch, from 
m* 1 iara 9 to teach. \y ets 9 a tree, alfo fignifying 
to be wife, to give counfel, to inftruft. It is evi- 
dent that the tree was the metaphor, or fymbol of 



knowledge, prior to the formation of the Hebrew 

mi) foah, meditari, eloqui, prout animo, vel 
ori tribuitur, ad homonymiam. 

TPXDjiab, cogitatio, fermo, rami, arbor. Arbor 
arte culta dicitur Jiah y a nomine cogitationis, vel 
potius, cogitatio non fortuita ac confufa, fed cum 
aliqua arte ftudioque concepta dicitur fiah 9 quia 
fuo modo exculta eft, ad fru&us aliquos eoiittendos, 
praecipueque bonos. Et is fermo qui cogitationes 
iftius generis exprimit dicitur y?^, ut earum imago. 

Hence the Iriftifaoi, a tree, a man of erudition ; 
faor 9 a worker in wood, a carpenter. This word 
is pretty general in the Chinefe : Ji 9 tfi, tchi 9 a tree. 
Bafque fta y a green oak ; pera-Jia 9 a pear tree ; 
pko-jia, a fig tree ; aran-fta 9 an orange tree. In 
Siam, ft. In German, Jia-ud 9 a flirub. Hence 
the Irifh Jia-brog 9 i. e. Jia-bar-og 9 the chofen virgin 
of the tree ; the Hamadryad. 

The learned Guffetius in his Comment. Linguae 
Ebraicae, p. 838, brings multitudes of examples 
in the Hebrew language, where the tree is the 
metaphor of the mind. After the numerous exam- 
pies here given it will be needlefs to mention all 
this learned author has collected ; we fhall produce 
a few. ton amar 9 pro ramo oieae, fertilis arboris, 
ponitur. Efai. xvii. 6. derivatur a rad ibm fer- 
monem, ab homine tanquam fru&um procedentem 
defignante. ejtyD faiph 9 de arboribus frugiferis. 

Efai. xvii. 10. & de hominis cogitationibus. 1 Reg. 

' ••• 

1 xvin. 


kviii. 21— ita "■£ bar de ramis vitis faecundae, 
Ezech. xvii. 6. & de loquela hutnana* cum ovji 
quoque fmt verba commentitia, &c. 

Et radix yerbi inventa eft iri me, fays Job, 
xvixi 28, 

Thfe two firft letters of the Hebrew alphabet, 
taken together, fignify an apple tree : 32N abb 9 
or abeb 9 pomum, arbor pdmifera, and the name 
6f th£ firft letter, viz. n, A, is aleph which fig- 
nifies to teach, to inftrud, and it is alio the name 
of a trie with a great body* and fignifies alfo the 
trunk of a tree ; but 1 (Hall prefentiy fhew its po- 
rtion in the alphabet was not from this caufe, 
but from its being originally a numeral \ taken front 
a celeftial alphabet which marked the cohftella* 
tipng; and . beginning with the north pole, this 
letter Contained the four .ftars of the great bear. 
The name aleph, fignify ing alfo the trunk of a 
tree, very properly became the bkfis of an al- 
phabet, where the tree \yas the metaphor of li- 

Miny attempts have beeh made to (hew that 
the Hebrew letters were originally Hieroglyphics* 
and that N was Aluph, or the Ox ; 2 Beth, a 
Houfe, &c. Thefe attempts have been condemn- 
ed by learned men. Fruit-bearing trees were the 
Hieroglyphics of literature with the .Egyptians j 
hence 3N, AB, or the apple it ee, was facred to 
Hercules and to Apollo. Fru&iferarum arboruni 
plantation hieroglyphice in divinis Uteris accipitur 

K prd 


pro difciplina dt&orum. (Hefychius. Pierius de 
facr. Egypt, p. 576.) Quiji & Apollo mali coro- 
nam adamavit,.apud Paufanias legas ftatuam Apol- 
ini fujXwTn eredain. Tria lava manu poma continet 
Hercules*—e2i fignificare tres in Heroe virtutes in- 
^gnioresr— quid vero clava fibi velit, alibi explici- 
mus, cum illajn & rathnem & difciplinam fignificare 
qontenderemu$ (Pierius). 

. Had the original Hebrew names of trees been 
handed down to us, we make no doubt, we fhould 
have .found each letter of the alphabet fignified 
fome particular fpecies of tree ; many of them are 
{till preferred, and we here prefent our reader 
with the fruit of our refearches on this fubjeft. 
1 . *t Aleph. Alpha. Some tree, the trunk of a 

tree. (Talm. Erubin. p. $$. Targ. 
Jer. Num. 17). Aleph fignifies alfo 
to teach, to learn ; hence, fays Gut- 
fetius, it was the name of an Ox, 
becaufe he was taught to bear the 
yoke ; and the goad whereby he was 
fubdued, to receive this inftruftion, 
was called Itshfo from %*? lamad 
to teach, (Gufletius, Parkhurft)— * 
confequently Aleph was not the ori- 
ginal name of the Ox. 
1* i Beth. Some tree, properly a thorn tree. 

(Lib. Aruch. 23. Talm. IJeb. Mez. 
a 03). 



31 J GbimeL Trees that grow in moift ground^ 
1 canes, &fc. (Talm. Ceh 7. Sabbath. 


4. *7 Daleth) A vine, a tall vine, a leaf, % page 
J ' . of a book, a ilender branch, a plank, 

the firft hemiftich of a verfei (Aruch. 

44. Talm. Peuh. 7. Plantavita 766); 
g. n H** The pomegranate tree. (Aruch. 49. 

Tai. Sabb. 5©). ^ 

6. l Taw. The palm tree, the trunk of the palm* 


7. n Cbefb. A young tree, feme vefy finall tree; 

(Lib. Pefik in Deutron. ) 

8* •» jod. Ivy 4 the ftalk of fruit. (Plantavita* 

Schindl.) (?). 
9; i Lamed. A twig, a fmall branch, the trunk 

and branches of a fig tree, the fig 

tree. (Mifhnah. Cel. 1 a). 

to. 10 Mem. We find no tree correfponding to 

this name.*— Subftantia eft quae inten- 

ditur loquendo, quacumque Jit etymon 

logia no minis. (Gufletius). 

11. 3 Nun. Coriander tree. (Sabb; 140). 

12. jr Jin. 7 No trees of thefe names now to be 



13. S Tfade. J found. 

• K a ' 14* p 

, (9) .jWfignifies the band ; and the Ivy is called the five- 
finger-leaved tree. In Hebrew this letter ftands for the 
number teh, the number of fingers on both hand?. In Irifh 
Eadh or Iiadh, Ivy, and the word keeps its place in all numbers 
iacreafing by tens, wfaoi-iady twenty ; i. e. twice ten ; tri-iadi 
thirty or thrice ten, &c. 


14. p Kopb. A thick ftrong vine, (Planta. 184) 

a bullrufli, (Aruch 81) an old'vine. 
(Talm. Bibl. B. Mez. 1 09). 

15; -J Refch. The pine tree (SchindL) 

16. ttt Shin. 1 We can find no trees correfponding 

17. n Taii. 3 to thefe names. 

The above feventeeh letter* Bayer thinks formed 
the original alphabet. Kircher allows but fifteen. 
Walton,; Spanheim, H&rduin, and Kifhull agree 
with Bayer. Froelick gives eighteen; 

The following, Bayer calls additional letters, 
and thinks they were not in the original alphabet,, 
becaufe they are letters of the fame power ^ith 
others in the foregoing alphabet. In the toext 
chapter we (hall (hew that the original alphabet 1 
confifted of twenty-two letters, becaufe they were 
taken from an aftronomical alphabet, twelve of 
which were allocated to exprefs the conftellations, 
feven the planets, and three the elements, and 
that thefe kftronomical chara&ers ferved alfo as 
numerals, which were the parents of alphabetic 


The five fuppofed Additional. 

18. T Zain. A fpecies of flowering (hrub. (Mifch. 

P. 1 . Arab. il >j? ). 

19. tfl Teth, Toth or Thotb. The Mulberry tree. 

2c. i Caph. A fig tree, the palm tree, a branch of 

the palm. (Talm. Pas. 53)* 

ax. D 


21 a Samech. The apple tree. (Mifchna. Cel.i6). 
«a. 3 Pe. The cedar tree. (Mifch; Cel. 13;. 

Of thefe twenty -two tetters, feventeen are to be 
found the names of trees ; there can be no doubt 
' tut the remaining five were alfo of : ih6 fame clafs, 
but grown obfolete and forgotten. 

We fliall next examine tl)is tree metaphor with 
the Arabians. 



Amongft the n*oft learned of the ancient Ara- 
bians it was 3 provcrt*, tp fay, Va konta arafta 
uda Jhajaratyhe^ i. $, I kqow the wood of his tree 
before his fruit is ripened j I l&xayq his learning, 
genius, or eloquence, before he ha$ fppke, 

Feftiva allegoria ! Ego vero lignum ejui agnov.e- 
ram, ante quam maturuiffet fruftus ejus.. Earn fie 
enucleat Tebleb, dicere vult, fe .eum agnoviffe 
inter di&andum epiftolam, indicem eloquentiae 
ejus ; idque, antequam pi%t\x\iffetcarmwa, quibus 
femet indicabat, (Hariri Confeffus fextus, notis 
Schultens, p. 272) ; and in the fame Confeffus the 
following note occurs : — lignUrn fignat hominem 
ejufque conditionem internam, externamj pro- 
verbialiter diftum, non corruf turn e/l lignum ejus, 
pro non eft improbus, impurus, vitipfus. 

From the root ^ Jala, collegit, m^gnus & illuf- 
tris fuit, eminuit dignitate & majeftate, Golius 
derives ^ jalon, frumenti calamus & ftipula, 



juhn vtfaxjtfgtM, r^fiiwium da&ylororo,/*&i 

negotiant magnum & difficile ; m'jelaton, volumen, 

. folium in quo reconditiotU z\\qaidfcienti* infcrip- 

tum, liber, codex, "j 

Omaius liber frpientiac* apud Arabes m'jalat 
appellator, i. e. folium. (Erpinius), 

Fann, ramus, modus & ratio orationis. 

Afanum % racemus luxurians, fpecies do&rioae, 
varia ratio orationis (lri(ki fenn, fonri). — Feanan y 
diverfi generis carman. Qxifhfonn). 

Fan, ramus, pars art is vel do&rinae ; funum, 
rami, fcieritiae. 

Tanabi radix arboris, fublimo ftylo ufus fuit, 

Katabj liber, codex, epiftota, Mercurius. m'ka- 
tab 9 fchola, botrus. 

Werekh, fpecies arboris ; : wtraket y ars fcribendi ; 
tuerek, qui fcribit, foKtuft arboris, feriptura ; wara* 
katon, ar$ librara ; hence Mahomet's wife was 

called Wdrdk&h. lrifh' 9 bara? 9 a leaf ; barachlach, 

• . , . ... 

full of leaves; barat or bafc, a book; bardam, 
a bookhoiife, aHbrarf ; bara&tiitr, or, breaffaire> 
& career ^'rtrieev engraver.' 

Tala, flordre, gemmare ctepit arhbr, cognovit, 

: coniideravk', anirhum advertit ad rem ; taafy, ar- 

' boris proventus, fpatha palmae • flexes ac gemmae, 

* legendum propofuit, edghovh, idoneus, ferpens, 

arcanum, horofcopus, fortuna ; inde talufm, telef- 

matibus feu imaginibus confecravit opus quod 

rt^fA.% dicitur. Magus, effeftum haberet imago ma- 

gica i 


gica ; quales • fub certo horofcope inculfd rebus, 
& confecrare folebant ad fingularem efGcaciam. 
(Irifh Taiteafg, a magus, a philofopher, &c.) 

Tawry, fylveftris ; atawryh, pcrvenit ad extre- 
ma fcientise, 

Alak, fufpenfus fuit, depart us fuit ex fumma 
atboris folia, vinum, arbor cujus folia ramofque 
carpit ; alaky, nomfen herbae fpinofa, effe&us ftu- 
diutnque animo, peculiaria artis ac profeflionis ; 
unde taalakon, fufpenfus chara&er, fcripturae genus 
Perficum. And hence the celebrated poems hiing 
up in the temple of Mecca, were called mo-allakat 
(/•). (Irifli eotac, fldlful, wife ; uallach, inftruc- 
tion ; ullocy fufpended, a pully ; ealac, a bracket, 
by which any thing is fufpended ; alach, th^ nails 
which fufpend the planks of a fliip to the ribs j 
tdllatj tattle. They are all from this Arabic root). 

lieitb, decorticavit arborem, verfus car minis. 

Ulum, ulutnan, fcientia, do&riiia, Cyprus, arbor, 
(frifii ollamharty learning, fcience, a doftor of arts j 
muir-ollaman 7 ah academy, a college ; otlam^ a 
dofltor of arts ; a$iam 9 learned ; aolam-tighe, a 
college ; ailm 9 a tree, the name of the firft letter 
of the alphabet), 


(t) Ala%* dependit, adhefit etiam dicitur pecus, pendcre ab 
arbore quum fummitates ejus decerpit ac depafcitur — pulchra 
imago! pendere a fcientiis, pro iis deditum & adfixum effe, 
St pendere ab iifdera, pro eat decerpere & depafcere — faMor 
ne eloquentiae Arabicae princeps Hariri nofter, utrumque nunc 
cum gratia & emphafi in uoum fenfum intexuit. (Schultens Not<r 
10 Hariri Conceflii8 2d). 


Judd, putavit pahnam, diligenter ac ftudiofe 
opcram dedit, ftudium. 

Darak, pervenit ad maturitatem, fruftas conj- 
prehendit, vir qui multum aflequitur ; meta-darak, 
Rhythmus peculiaris. (Irifli, dreacht, a poem), 

Jazal*, fecuit lignum, putavit arborem, pollens 
firmufque mente & priidentia, oration^ fluidus; 
jazalet, mens, fagacitas, eloquentem efle f 

' Ka/edj baculus, virga, poetna juftu verfuum nu- 
mero conftans ; kafad, poematibus condendis ope- 

Raknyiy nomen plant®, hortus, floridum fcripfit, 
notavjft, \i bet, tabula, prudens, intelligentia (Go- 
lius) ; rakam, writing, arithmetic, embroidering, 
painting. (Richardfon). (Irifli, racam, to write). 

Arem r erem y irem y vinea, vitium hortus : ara- 
tnah* decqrtjcare, arrofse arbores, ardor animi, 

• .-'•*•*■ *.- .. * 

fignuoi, lapis (in deferto) ereftus ; arumet, prigo, 
radix, anima optimae indolis, feu condjtionis. 
Perf. arboris fpecies. Hence Armqis^ a name pf 
Thoth or Mercury, (See p. 35,) Tfre Hermes of 
the Greeks \ in like manner Jablpnfky derives the 
name* Thotb from ap Egyptian. wpr<| Spur Thotft 9 
fignifying an ere&ed pillar or (lone? Cippus, lapis 
(in deferto) ereftus. (Irifli, armais, invention; 
ead-armaisy the art of invention)— vocabatur Thotb 
quia T/60/AEgyptiace fignificat columnam ; coJumnis 
autem fcientisc & inventa facerdotum inferibeban- 

K r 

tjir, quibus PbtAas praeerat. (Jablonflcy Egypt. 

Panth.) : 




Panth.)— Saccrdotes in Egypto, omnia determinate 
juxta antiquas Mercurii columnes (t«« **&& &**) 
quas Plato, & Pythagoras ante eum, 1 edit antes, 
philofophiam inde conftituerunt. (Jamblichus de 
Myft. L, i. C. 2). In like manner Theophihis 
. Antiochenus fpeaks of the pillars of Hercules, 

Taitb-mead, a Cippus, a fignal (lone, an infcribed 
monument. If thefe pillars had not been once 
infcribed, how fhould the ancient Irifli have come 
by the Egyptian word Taitb or Totb. Taitbmead 
at prefent fignifies a monuiqent in a Chijrch-yard, 
with an, inscription). 

* * , 

From Richardson's Arabic Dictionary. 

• * 

, Arab* Hejh> pulling- leaves from a tree, eafy, po- 
lite, well bred ; bajbyar, intelligent, wife. 

Perf. kenza, a flower* wife, learned, philo- 

Arab A Wezim 9 a bunch of herbs, dates., &c. fa- 



Elbab y pith of a tree, the underftanding, intel- 
led ; elb, name of a certain tree ; e/ba y . wife, 
prudent, intelligent ; Erbabi elbab, learned doc- 

Werd, any flowering tree, a flirub full of leaves ; 
from this word and %eban y the tongue, is derived 
the Perf. werd-zebar^ fluency of fpeech, a flowery 

Zubr % 


Zubt 9 a flower, pi. azbut? flowers, a title ufually 
given to books of learning, of arts and fciences 

Sbekk, Shekfhikit, fplluiftg wood, pronouncing 

ti difcourfe, a fdriofous voiced ofatdr, an high 

founding fpeech. (Irifli, fcboike, declamation, a 

* tooiintebaftk ; mhol Jefoike, a ftnooth tongued 



Dtbtjh, uiibarkihg a tree ; dtbiftan, a fchool for 
writing ; Perf< dubir, a writer ; dibirifion, a fchool 
for writing; dibiri fdibutiadblr 9 lAtXc\A^ 9 i. e. the 
excellent writdr* (Iri&, *fe#, a writing; duib- 
ceijiy a motto, the fubfcription of a letter). 

Arab. Zabar, pi. azbar, a flower or bloflbm, the 
title of many books iri Arabic (Herbelot). 

Perf. Dane, feed of fruit, fcience, learning, 
(Irilh, ddn 9 learning ; daria, leahied men ; aos- 
ddna, magi, driiids). See hejh. 

ibaar, trees ; Jhiaf-, a fign, a mark, fcienfce, un- 
derftanding, poefy, verfe, metre; Jhara many 

A. * 

fte&f ; Jhwtra, wife men, dd&ors, literati. (Irifli, 
faoi, a tree ; Jhear, poetry ; jhear-moin 9 oratory, 
preaching, (frofri Jheat -and muin, inftru&ion,) 
jbear-tann, chief poet ; /hear-tanna^ fcieUce ; fa or 9 
a liberal mail, a man of letters). 

Ukdet^z thick plantation of trees, confufed words. 
(Irifli uchdach, delivery of fpeech). 

Wetid 9 a club, a ftaff, a foot ift verfe. (Irifli, 
mtbady metre)* 




rpy Ritb i virgtf tarn tenue. Arab. r*tez % a feeble 
yerfe. (Irifli, rith 9 a twig \ ritb-learg, a weak ex- 
temporaneous verfe). 

Lub, pith of a tree, the heart, foul, underftand- 
ing, genius, judgment, 

Afeky a tree. (Irifh, afec, a literary chara&er. 

N. B. Every letter is named from trees). 

Aden, the garden of Eden ; adin, pruning a 

Faj\ a branch ; fayfaj, multiloquus. 

Arza 9 Ch. nN araz, cedrus ; Arab, aruz 9 poe- 
try, verfe, profodia, argument ; haruz 9 profa fine 
metro fed rhythmica in fine colligata, rhythmum 
difpofuit. ( Irifh, airis poetry ; airifi, a rehearfal 
of verfes ; airis, hiftory, in verfe). 

]*) Ran 9 cecinit, jubilavit. Arab, ranm; fonuit, 
pfallft, cantus lufufqiie muficus, jubilatfo; rind 9 
the laurel. (Irifh, rinn 9 a foot in verfe, mufic, 
melody ; rann 9 a verfe, ftanza, fong, poem ; ran- 
nach 9 a fongfter ; oran 9 a fong, (the Egyptian ar- 
ticles is here prefixed). Perf. arungi, an air of 

Kerizy fecuk vitcm, dixit carmen, carmine ref- 
pondit ; karaz 9 collegit folia arboris. , Ch» ^in 
chardzan 9 verfificatdr: (Irifh, crofanach, poetry). 

Haruf 9 proventum acceleravit palma, naftartiuth, 
litera, verbum, ledlio. 

Sbemar, putavit arborem, ftudiofus fuit, diti- 
genter & cum ftudio inceffit. 



Sana/a, fronduit, folia profudit arbor, compofuit 
librum m'fannifi au&or libri. 

And to this tree the Mahumedaris allude in the 
old adage, fignifying that their prayers are a tree, 
which bears five fruits, three of which the Sun 
never fees (becaufe they are faid before his rifing, 
and after his fetting) (s). 

The Tree the Symbol of Literature with the 


i - 
The Chinefe pretend to have been the, wifeft 

and mod learned people in the world from the 

remoteft times. They fay that Confulu, or, Con- 

fulus, was the inventor of letters and of arts. We 

have {hewn this was the Cann-faola of the ancigpt 



(/) Pietro delta VaHe. Letter from Conftantinople, 1614. 

(/) See p. S3, 10 Sina Chnfulus litei^uip & artium inventor. 
Hornius de origin, gent. p. 238. 

Hercules, in Egyptian was called Chon ; in Irifh, Con is a 
dog, fo called for his fagacity, from Con, Icnfe, ratio'; in Ara- 
bic (j*^«5o fulkut) is a dog 5 and the Egyptian Hieroglyphic 
for learning, fcience, wifdom, is a dog with a hook open be- 
fore him, which dog is named Cuno-cephalus, a word the Greeks 
probably formed from Chan and fuf bus. 

Literas Cynophalum pingunt quia eft apud Egyptios cognatio 
qucedam & genus Cynophalorum, qui literas norunt. Oua- 
propter ubi primum in facram aedem ductus fuerit Cynophaflus, 
tabellam ei facerdos apponit, una cum (cirpeo ftflo, ac attra- 



That they have corrupted their antiquities, has 
been proved by many learned men. That they 
mixed with the fouthern Scythians has been fhewn 
in the Introduttion ; and as we bring the Hiber^ * 
no Scythian from thofe Southern Scythi, it is not 
furprizing to find the author of letters common 
to both thefe nations. 

We (hall now fhew, that they either carried 
With them the fymbol of the ttee, as a literary 
character, or borrowed it of the Scythians or 
Arabians. From the affinity of languages, it is 
evident, that the Chinefe mult have borrowed this 
fymbol from other nations, or, that the tree was 
the fymbol of literature, fcience and erudition, 
before the difperfion of the general affembly of 
mankind ; becaufe, as in Hebrew, Scythian, &c. 
we find Jiab 9 a tree, to be derived from foab, to 
ftudy, to meditate, to fpeak ; fo in the Chinefe, 
Jt y a tree, is the key or root of fu 9 a man of eru- 
dition ; of faii learning, wifdom ; of a matter of 
arts, or, mandarine ; of fu, a book, epiftle, &c. 

The charaders denoting thefe fignifications, 
confirm this affertion. The following are taken 
from Bayer's Lexicum Sinicum. 

mentb, nimirum ut periculum faciat, fitne ex eo Cynocepha- 
lorum genere, qui literarum gnari funt ; pingit itaque * m ea 
tabella Eteras. Pretcrea, hoc animal Mercurio dicatum feft, qui 
literarum omnium particeps eft (Horapollo, p. 25). 

Literas'per CynophaK fimulacrum intelligebant Egyptii. 
(Pierius p. 58). Chald; nm caona, ftudy, attention. Arabic 
iuadof {agacioufl. 


H7 Ji t tcbi, fu t arbor, lignum. 
/I\|j/|" A, *«, i/»» ^» arbor. 

— m, rruftus. 

I 7 1 


^TT v^ &», numerus radicum j truncorufi* 
/ Y*- arborum radix* 


From thefc Keys or Roots proceed the following : 
T" fu, tfa, doftor, magifter. 

dh'. T^rff do&rina, doceo. 
jr /a, £/#, do&us, mandarinus. 

/f" I % f te > P rava v * r do&rina & .ratione. 

Monfieur de Guignes, on comparing the Chi- 

nefe with other Oriental chara&ers, thought he 

' found fuch a fimilitude, he afferts, I believe toa 

haftily, that the Chinefe chara&ers were the pa- 

rfents of the Arabian, Syrian, Ethiopian, Phaeni- 



cian and Hebrew. — The following extrad is t^ken 
from his Mfrnoire, dans lequel on prouve que les 
Chinois font une Colonie Egypt, p. 36, de 1'avant 

" Je fus frappc tout-a-coup d'appercevoir une 
figure Chinoife, qui refembloit a une lettre Phe- 
nicienne. Je m'attachai uniquement a ce rapport ; 
je le fuivis &Je fus 6tonne de la foule de preuves 
qui fe prefentoient a moi. Jq fus alors convaincu 
que les carafteres, les loix & la forme du gou- 
vernement, le fouverain, les miniftres memes qui 
gouvernoient fous lui, & l'empire entier, etoient 
Egyptiens ; & que toute l'ancienne hiftoire de la 
Chine n'etoit autre chofe que l'hiftoire d'Egypte 
qu'on a mife a la tdte de celle de la Chine-r-^ 
trouvai encore les carafthes qui ont donm naiffanc* a 
ceux des He'breux, des Arabes 9 des Syriens, des 
Ethiopiens £sf des Phiniciens : c 9 e/i-d-dire 9 les pre- 
miers caratleres du monde, &f une grande par tie de 
la langue Phenicienne" 

In another work, published many years after, 
M. de Guignes found, q'uil riavoit point paffe a la 
Chine de colonies Egyptiennes ; qu'il ne pouvoit 
s'imaginer que les Chinois euffent jamais rien des 
Egyptiens (a). 

It is evident, that the Chinefe under flood the 
Tree to be the fymbol of knowledge, and did 
adopt that fymbolical chara&er, but this ch'ara&er 
was an hieroglyphic of their own invention, as all 
the other characters were. 

(») Recueil de» Lettres Edif. T. xxit. 


boa, pingere literas. 

/V^ 41 pi*** 

/J^ 41 pi*** tabula fcriptura* 

7k \ aw'/i, infculpo. 

chiy tfii ramus. 



Hence proceeds: 
verif res literaria. 

4 » 

ven> res literaria. 

- 1 - w«, literas componoi compofita'i ex* 

^C^ politico 


' ib'ar, dottrina. 



bhy fcientia, doftrina, gymnafium. 

chara&er fed qui per fe, nihil fignificat, 



A I boa, flos, au&or, conftrudio. 

Then follows Literary Titles, in which the fym- 
bolic tree and branch are very confpicuous, viz. 

ban lin^ Mandarinus epiftolarum, 
feu libellorutn^foi, qui eft tertius 
fcnatus cancellarius. — N. B. The 
fymbols at the top exprefs books. 




, >t 






fieufaij praeftafltior do&rina, Bac? 

xiftii literates, doftus.-t-The fymbol 
at the top expreflps a flower and 

vujieufai, fortis pneftans do&rina, 
Here the branch, tree and flower 
are combined. 

|4$ THE TfcR* THZ<$yM90L, &C. 

Signatum praefente nbta procudere nomen, 
Ut fllvae foliis t prconOB mutantur 4ri aonos \ 
Prima cadunt : ita verborum vetus interim aetaa, 
Jit jnyenum ritu jlof^u roodo nata,, yigpntque, 

Hprat. Ars. Poet. 
Ut filvae foliis mutantur. — This pafiage has per- 
plexed the ; £<^TOeflta,ti>rB ,«f Hpwfr- ibi fiivas 
comparationem praebent linguarum, ut folia ver* 
b.9*¥Tn^$wc;U fone 3d : hu9<? : wfl#ui*v yd. feifo 
cufla /eft*, e liuiiiitaU$yy/M, coprafiflima. materies, 
turn verborum turn (ignificationum. (Schtritowr 

Qrjg* Hfibr. p.,a*6)- . .;*.. 

The learned author conclaves W« fecond Oration 
on tfye gr^aFufe'of the Arabic language, wijh.a 
metaphor of "this kind : 

E noftris deinceps viri principes, Arabicac tittra- 
turae inftrumento copiofus fubornati, fuccintiqu^ 
nuritb quaqu^ efficlciofem c wrapt, #c cukuram, 
languenti in multis Hebrdica'arbttri a^movfrun^ 
atque novum quoddam robur, novuitt.^igoreRKt 
honoremque, Jiirpi, ramis, frondibus^ firuflfbuS) 
uinimrfeqUe ades jroitf^r^ r xjua ^fe ^Jate -explicit} 
atque difftrt(fit, liididertiht. ' - 

i jo 

M \ v *' 

■* »,^ * . • •« »/ A 



C *47 # 3 

Since the foregoing iheett have been printed off, 
the firft Vol. of the Afiatic Rifearches, 6* Tranf- 
a&ionsof the Society inftituted in Bengal, came 
to our hands. Art. XVIII. contains a memoir by 


Goverdhan t Caul, a Bramin, on ' the literature of 
the Hindus, written in the Sanfcrit, and translated 
into Englifh by the learned members of that So- 
ciety. It begins thus, 

44 There are eighteen Vidyas, or parts of true 
"knowledge. The Veda* are confidered by the 
44 Hindus as the fountain of all knowledge human 
44 and divine ;^ the. verfes are faid to be the leaves 
44 of that holy tree, to which the Almighty him- 
44 felf is compared." (a) 

44 The wife have called the Incorruptible One 
* 4 Afwattha (the Indian fig tree) with its roofs 
44 above, and its branches below j the leaves of 
44 of which are the facred meafures. He who 
44 knows this tree, knows the Vedas. 

The Japonefe have much the fame fymbol, as 

we learn from Georgius, in his Alphabetum Ti- 
betanum, p. 142. 

44 Praiter emblema primum, qui Japonenfes 
44 Deum Creatorerrj ita fingunt, ut taurus fit, qui 

* L 2 " cornibus 



(a) The Sanfcrit word Veda fignifies knowledge or what is 
known, (Trania&ions, p. 349) and it is compared to a Tree. 
The Irtihfeadb, jiodh, oxfodh f fignifies a tree % knowledge, art, 
fcience. 'Alphabetum. Forma Hterarum. The commutation 
of F into V is common in all languages. — Hence we think the 
epithet of Fiditu was given to Hercules, as much as to fay* 
the learned Hercules, or Ogham Fidius, the Author of»th^ 

u coraibus ovum difrumpifc, & aperit t &c«ftdum 

* babeat 2/idta> finite : J& tantum pro. dubbis** Da* 

* caudam fcrpentw jaxta Indoa trahehrifeafc, tree 
* c numer^s in imagine. Japonica4 acrSoitarpw- 
u terea addas, qui fub hominis barbkti forma, & 
u eapUe i^adiato e marUrc^ 

** git teftitudinem fuperibatem, aqtiis, dorfoqae 
a regentem non montem Sameru, f&iMtirupfij fed 
" urboris tnmum 3 in cujus futtimitate fedet Su- 
«< primus Creator Ow& Aliud quiddatadfet ob- 
a fervatioae dignum j fed ego trtmcum arbotis me- 
a ditor, qui mihi fin&is vitetur Palma Egyptrse 
u ac BabyJoaicac, (id eft Bati). At fivq Japo- 
" nenfes, five Indos, five Tibetanos adeas, ubique 
<f tibi occurret virentL trbms religio ob fymbola 
"*■ forfan creationis, & conftrvationis rmm recepta* 
c * atque retenta,'* 

* . ' 


E *47 l 3 

' • ** » 

c H A p.' ni- 

cy the Origin of Numeral, and of Alphabetic 

W E are of opinion that Aftronoxny was the pa- 
rent of Numerals, and Numerals the parent of 
Alphabetic Writing. 

The origin of jaftxonpmy" is loft in the abyfs of 
antiquity. We learn from Rripture, " that, in the 
very firft ages, menjnufthjive had fome method 
of meafuring.time. Whatever progrefs man had 
made in this fcieQoe before the deluge, it is .pro- 
bable, that fhis* together with every cither mpnu- . 
ment of arts and fciences, were fwepfc away from 
allipankind* except Noah, and a few of his de- 
fcepdants. . The effefts which the confufion pf, 
tongues, and the difperfion of families v muft have 
produced, rendered the remaias of aftronomical 
knowledge of little ufe to the immediate defcend- 
3Uts of Noah. 

Neceffity foon obliged the new M inhabitants of 
the earth to ftudy the courfe of the ftars. The 

La operations 


•* » * - 

operations of agriculture depended on the obfert 
yations of the feafons. Order in the affairs of 
civil fociety, and diftin&ion of the feafons deftined 
to religious foleiqnities, introduced, the divifioq. 
of time into years, months, &c. Yet as there is 
no fcience which depends fo much on the length 
of time as aftronomy, it mud have been long 
before h arrived at any great perfe&ioq. 

The Babylonians and Egyptians were the firft 
of ancient nations, in their {kill and conftancy in 
obferving the motions of the heavenly bodies. The 
way of life of the firft inhabitants of Chaldsea fa- 
youred the progrefe of this fcience : tending their 
flocks was one of their chief employments; agri- 
culture was pra&ifed by them in very early times. 
Their country' coiififted (for the mod part) of im- 
rnenfe plains, covered with fands, driven about ; 
b[y the ,: winds, ' 'fe&viiig ; lib traces 1 of any* road.' 
r ffref flafe betume itheir only guide on all journfes," 
which we're gtffle'rally performed' in the night time, 
to'aVbic! rftfc exedfflve heat of the day. : J * • 
' 1*fre Ch'aSd&arte havebeeii efteemed by all antf-' 
quity, tfid fir?entcrs of judicial aftrology. This* 
ridiculous fttfdy Obliged them to find out methods 
of determimii^ 4 the rhdtions and afpefts of the 
flfjairs. ; Sbtfiat aftrondmy 6wes its great eft im- 
provements,' frdm* the hdrofcopes drawn by thefe* 
frivolous philofophers, to read the fates of men in 
the book of Heaven." 

.» . A <.-... .* . . ' i •••• 

.-..., Chaldaei 


Chaldsei fcidntia ftellarum periti, omnia aftro- 
turn motibus tribiiebant* a quibus credebant, dif- 
penfari mundi potentias* quae conftat ex numeris 
eorumque proportionibus; (Philo in libra de 
Abraham). . 

They muft confequently h&ve made life of cer- 
tain fign$ or marks to exprefs the heavenly bodies ; 
Rabbi Chomer has recorded twenty -twq of thefe 
marks, which he calls the Caieftial Alphabet of 
the Chaldeeans, and has likewife given us a celef- 
tial chart of the heavens, filled with thefe charac- 
ters. They have been, copied by Bonaventurus 
Hepburnus, a Scotchman ; by P. Gaffriel in his 
Curiofitez inouyes\ and by Kircher, each pretend- 
ing to correft the other, in the celeftial chart; 
Duret and Ambrofius have given us feveral alpha- 
bets, the bafis of thefe charts, under the titles 
Caleftial Characters, Angelic Characters, Alphabet 
tf Abraham, CaUJiiql Alphabet of Salomon, Ssfr. 
See PL IX. 

It is worthy of obfervation, that wherever the 
planets arfe mentioned in Job, as in Ch. ix. V. 9; 
Ch. xxxviii, V. 32. the Chaldee Rabbins have 
introduced the word ys\D Jter, which fignifies a 
writing, chirography. See Buxtdrf Lex. Chald. 
p. 2381. See alfo the word eacdaireach in the 
Law Dictionary, at the end of this Volume. And 
it is alfo worthy of obfervation, that the Sabeans 
dedicated each fpecies of trees to certain Jlars, 
planting them in their name, and pretending that 



they partook of their virtues, and did difcourfe 
with men in their fleep (#). 

This alphabet contained twenty-two chara&ers, 
each ornamented with a certain number .of liars.; 
twelve of which were allocated to exprefe the 
Conftellations of the Zodiac ; /even to the Planets ; 
and three to the Elements ; for the Chalde&ns 
did not aUow air to have been one of the elements, 
Les trois lettres n> fi, Uf» denotent les trois ele- 
ments, Terte, Eau & Feu : car les Hebreux n'e» 
admettent non plus, rejettants Pair hors de ces^ 
comptes. ( Duret. hift. de Porig. des fangues, 
p. 205). 

This is the exaft number of the letters in 
the Samaritan, Hebrew, and Chaldaean alpha- 
bets* although feventeen were fufficient to ex- 
prefe all the organs of fpeech ; for which rea- 
fon, five which appear to be duplicates, are 
called additional* > by the learned Bayer, as we 
have already (hewn. 

But lefe than twenty-two caeleftial characters, 

would have brought confufion in their aftronomi- 

cal marks, for the reafons before given, and from 

the ufe made of thefe chara&ers, and being or* 

namented with^ftars, for diftin&ion, they properly 

obtained the name of caeleftial, and the fphere 

formed of thefe chara&ers, was called the book of 



(*) See Saob in the Law Gloflary at the end/of this Vol. 
See alfo Rab. Mofe. in Moreh, his extrad from an Arabic 
MSS. and Pocock Hiftor. Arab. p. 139. 

an# At PHAB^Tic vhtrrnrt*". ryk 

ISrothihg was more likify than 1 for t&r Jews to 
foHbV the Chatoaeatis, and convert fuch ' a 
fph4r£ into jadiml aftrolbgy. They qubte the 
fcriptures and fay, Jacob bade his chfldreri read 
in' the! both of heaven, what rmtfl be the fatt df Y you 
and put children. Ifaiab fays, the bedrvenfhatl be 
rotted up tike a book. Rabbi Chomer obferved^ 
that the characters which formed Medtt/k't head, 
denounced defolatiort to Greece, becaufe they 
forriie<i the word that figmfies defilate. Even 
Origen- Was ftdt free front thfe fuperftition, he de- 
clares" * the heawei* is a book filled With Characters, 
" the fbfrs fo many figns, which denote the fete 
" of men and kingdoms ; to read them is above 
" the ordinary capacity of men, they may attain 
u it, and fometimes do/* 

The Bramins are of the fame opinion : les In- 
dians diffent que kt vie de t'homme eft ecrite d*a- 
vance dans la t&te de chaqoe enfant par Brama— 
d*un j autre cote, it* diffent^ que tes aflion* des horn* 
me* font Strife* dan* les afires\ et annoncees par let 
mouvemen* &f let afpeStt de cet afire* (y). 

" I ffiall be reckoned a liar/* fays Poftelliis, 
< c if X fay, that I have read in Heaven in Hebrew 
" characters, whieh Efdras has given us the key 
" of, whatever is in nature ; yet God and his 
** Son are my witneffes; that I lye not: I will 
_* c only add, that 1 have read it but implicitly. 

" All 

(,y) Lettres fur lea fciences par Bailly> p. 71. 


" All the learned Rabbi's as Maimonides, Na* 
" chum, Ab. Efra, Kimchi, Abravanel, Picus, 
" &c have treated of thefe celeftial chara&ers ; 
" we cannot doubt of their exiftence and ufe." 

Marfil Ficinus gives Zoroaftres the honour of 
the invention* Habuerunt enim Zoroaftres, ejufque 
facerdotes peculiarem quandam fcribcndi rationem 
a vulgari differentem ; ipfe autem Zoroaftres earn 
inftituit, & formavit literas cum chara&eribus 
caeleftibus fignorum & ftellarum, 4 quo poftmo- 
dum inftru&us Mercurius Trifmegiftus earn tradi- 
dit Egyptiis (in Plat* philofoph. C. 29). Others 
aflert that Hermes Trifmig. added the Taw— Her- 
mes Trifm. in numerum literarum aftronomicarum 
Tau tranftulit; but the fatt is, that the origin 
of this aftrcmomical alphabet was loft in the abyfs 
of antiquity. 

Cornelius Agrippa, in his book de occulta phi- 
lofophia, mentions thefe Star characters. Kircher 
thus attefts their exiftence :— certum eft, veteres 
fuas literas quibufdam circuits veluti Jiellulis qui- 
bufdam ornafle. Caufa fuit, ut nonnulli fcriptores 
arbitrarentur, facras literas a primis inventoribus, 
ex Jiellis inventas ; atque ipfa literaria elementa 
plura compleCti fignificata* (Oed. T. 1. p. 107). 
The ancient coins of the Jews, lately difcovered 
have thefe characters engraved on them. 

The difpofition of the heavenly bodies by thefe 
characters was named by the Chaldaeans Court and 

Tacan, from \HD C° u * anc * P^l Tacan, or, )pn 

Takan y 


Takatiy all which fignify to difpofe, to fet in ordtiy 
difpofuit, direxit, ordinare ; the root of which 
the Lexiconifts think is Cotrn. But when th£ 
Chaldaeans applied thefe chara&ers as numerals, 
• and themfelves to aftrology, the fame words catoe 
to fignify numbers, aftronomy, aftrology, &£- 
This is an undeniable proof that thefe aftronom}- 
cal marks were turned to numerals. ;TQCom f 
difpofuit, direxit, convenit cum pn Toeon, et 
)pn Takan. Cachma he Tacana % fcientia difpofi* 
tionis, viz, Jftronomica. Tacan numerator, aftro- 
nomus, arithmetics* genethliacus. (Vide Caf- 
tellus, Schindler, Thomaffinus, &c.) The Iriflr 
word cunt as y and the Englifh word county to num- 
ber, derive from this root. Hence ^sjq mekin f 
templum & Solomone extru&um— aftrologia ; be- 
caufe in this temple, the hod of Heaven was pour* 
trayed ; and one of the columns which was fet up 
to fupport thefe reprefentations of the fpheres, 
mentioned 1 Kings vii. 21, was called jv^ Joan 
or Jakittj from this root, and probably was de- 
picted with the aftronomical alphabet attributed 
to Solomon, . named Alphabet de Solomon, in the 
plate annexed, py Jakin, Heh. & Chald, di- 
rexit, conftituit, ftabilivit, praeparavit j Ch. intendit 
ftudiofe & data opera aliquid egit — fcientia difpo- 
fitionis, viz. caeleftis, i. e. aftronomia. — The ta- 
bernacle of Mofes, and the temple of Solomon 
were made by models fliewed, and were to imi- 
tate the Heavens as far as poffible in miniature ; 



and thefe Heavens arefoppofed to be a repreFefrta- 
tion of the refid$nce of God, for whfch reaftm 
the fame word is ufed viz. faa nivcottn, 1 Kings 
™ii. 39, 49- (Hutchinfon Principia, p. 8i). 

iW the moon was a principal, figure in the c£- 
leftial bodies, and by her periodical returns ferved 
to meafure time, (he alfo was called ]V>5 kitm ; it 
isthe Kioun of Aihos, : the Gennah of the ancient 
Arabs; (z} and the Cam, or, Kiwn of the Pagan 
Mfft, by which they meant the full moon (ac- 
cording to Shawe, iii his Iriffi Lexicon). To her 
both Irifh and Chaldaeans offered cakes called from : 
her o*0 4 3 cauanim. Quod legitur Amos, V. 25, 
thun vel Khun eft bafis, ab Courr'vei ex aliis* 
ftella Saturni, vel, Regfna Caii; cui offerebant 
(ex Jerera. vii. 44. & xviii. 19). Placentas, hint 
deftominatas Cauanim — hinc Syr. keiana natura, 
natura omnium genetrix fe directrix. (Thdmaffi* 
nus). In Iriflr Caineach, nature. 

_ » • *■ 

From the periodical motion of this planet, 
which was ordained by God to man, for times 
and for feafons, and for niN ot 9 figns, whence of, 
a letter or character, though all Lexiconifts agree 
the word fignifies fome miraculous fign, fignum, 
dkitur de miraculo, {Guff.) from the periodical 
motion of this planet, the feaft of the new moon 
was eftablilhed. " Fuerunt infUtutae Neomeniae 
" in memoriam lucis craeate a Deo vero, caeli, 

. " fblis^ 

* • - 

{%) Pocock Sp. Hift. Arab. p. 104. Hindoflany Charm, the 
Moon. (Afiat. Ref. Vol. I. p. i6i\ 








" folis, lunae & fteHarum authore, motus item & 
" revolutions corporum cseleftium, opefcationifque 
" & influentiarum illorum in haec eiementaria cor- 
pora, & viciffitudinis temporum gubernatore; 
atque huic conditori & gubernatori pro lucis 
creatae beneficio, gratias in Neomeniis agerent, 
& ipfi fe fubjicerent. (Zepperus Leg. Mofaic 
explan. L. 4. C. 9.— -Spencer de Leg. Heb. 

P- 739)- 

Thefe chara&ers being ufed for aftronomical 

purpofes, it was a natural progreffion to adopt 
them as numerals ; when ufed as numerals there 
was no necefiity for the ftars to be marked on 
them, and their awkward form was reduced to 
what is now called the Chaldaean, or modern He- 
brew chara&er, probably by Efdras. 

Taking thefe agronomical characters as they 
(land in the order given in PL IX. the contra&$d 
numerals would follow thus. 

N ■ 

. 1 

3 ■ 

• 2 


i • 

■ 3 


1 ■ 

■ 4 


n • 

■ 5 

1 ■ 
t ■ 

. 6 
■ 7 


n • 

■ 8 

& ■ 

■ 9 


* . 

• 10 


s • 

■ 20 

when final f - 500 


• 30 




a - 40 * 

. additional 

D - 600 

D - 5° 
- 60. 

t - 7QO 

y . 70 
9 • 80 

?] - 800* 

if - 90 

p - 100 

X " 900 

^ - 206 


to - 300 
n - 400 

And beyond 'this number ttiey muft have re- 
peated fome of the chara&ers, till they invented 
others, to which they did not give new names, but 
adhering to the old ones, they made them final 
letters of the forriief alphabet, for example : 
•j was called the final 3 cdpb 9 dnd flood for 500 
q a final 30 mem, and flood for * . - 600 
) a final 3 nun, and flood for - - 700 
P] a final 3 pe 9 and flood for * - 8 bo 
)( a final £ tzade, and flood for - - 900 
The lamed, famech and airi were reje&ed from 
the awkwardnefs of their figure or form. 

To exprefs a thoufand they recommenced with 
M and placed points over it. N3 flood for two 
thoufand. NJ for three thoufand and fo on ; and 
this continues to be the Jewifh mode of number- 
ing to this day. 

Gebelin thinks that numerals followed letters, 
the original number of which he confines to fix- 



l 57 

teen, but the Eafterns finding thefe inefficient 
for numeration, they added fix others. And the 
Arabs not finding twenty-two fufficient, added fix 
more, in all twenty-eight for the greater conve* 
nience of calculation. It is plain, this was not 
the cafe ; for if the original number had been fix- 
teen, they would have invented new names. for 
thefe numerals up to nine hundred ; whereas fix 
of thefe are only duplicates, bearing the fame 
name, but differing in figure. 

The finals were not known to the Samaritans ; 
and therefore I)r P Kenfticbtt thought they were 
modern ; he fays they were not ufed in Hebrew 
MSS. till about iopo years before Chrift. The 
authors of both Talmucls fpeak of them, as of, 
great antiquity even in their time, and St. Jerom 
mentions the finals as equally in ufe with the reft. 
We may conclude, they were ufed only as nume- 
rals at firft, and by degrees followed the reft into 
the alphabet; 

» » «« 

• *. 


»4» i— 

C H A P. 

E 138.3 

; G Z U "t :/£." jV. 

,- "Numerals fifume the Powers of Literary 
- \fi ::'"j Cberafiers. 

I. . ■• ... . . ,.-.•• 

T.i§ Y£ry ; eyident-froja the iafpeftion of plate X, 
that ^11 >hee^ftern nations borrowed their pume- 
r^Je from the CJialdaean agronomical table. 
-Gp.uget^s* we, have jeafon to doubt, it the 
Egyptia^h^^hiBetical chara3ers : be- 
fore. tW,:Jw»r { the .ufe, of letters: in another 
place be .%^ t^iq queftio^ is : to determine wJugu- 
of : the^fliar^sjon.thje plb&faifz numerical marks, 
and from thence to judge what were the arithme- 
tical chara&ers of the Egyptians before they knew 
the ufe of letters. In the Obelifk given by Gou- 
get as an example, are a number of ftraight lines, 
horizontal an<l perpendicular ; thefe Bianchini and 
Velfer had clearly proved before him to have been 
numerals, from the authority of Hermapion and 
Ammianus. Bianchini thought thefe ftraight lines 
did not exceed nine, but by the great difcoveries 
of* (fpupf Gaylusy from an ancient Egyptian kalen- 
dar, on the banderole of a mummy, it is plain 



they carried the perpendicular ftibkea, like- the 
anctepf fcMh,. up to ttraity ; .rohich die latter ex- 
preffed byfooi'Mkl, or.twiccMcf, that h twice* jad 
Qr ten ; ibe Icifii /a?/ :is-ccftairdy .the: Ghaldasan 
EW3^4i*ttB» ^icc ; whence QMHPD fbaamhn, du- 
abut tykiboe. . . 

Bafnage is of opinion, that the Jews and Chal- 
deans borrowed their mode of numbering from 
the Egyptians ; they found, fays he, the number 
365 in the name of the river Nile. This is a great 
miftake ; the name of the Nile, in Egyptian, was 
Ameirij i. e. color <serukus$ or, Iaro, i. e. fluvius ; 
and in the fcriptures- it- is called *in* tar. 
(Dn Woide)i Bu t Neilos, in Egyptian, figni- 
fied a year, becaufe the numerals, . taken as alpha- 
betic letters^ forming that word, make up the 
number 365. TSuftathius,' Helidorus and Cenlb- 
rinas tell ii$," that the Egyptian name Tor a year 
was Ntihsy {that is, "the number of days of the 
fun's Apparent revptutioti found the earth). 

Take but ihe xiuirierate from the column mark-' 
ed Numtfaf power of Jif Copfsy in'PUX/p, i/and 
it will Hand thus : . , ' * ■ " . 








1 $ 

















I • 



And hence the Sun was called Neilos, and wor- 
fliipped by that name* The Greeks miftook, and 
thought they worfhipped the river Nile (a). 

In like manner Lojfoe made up 1895 days, 
or five years, which was one of the Egyptian 
Cycles ; and hence the Irifh, Ltfca and the Latin 

* +*+•■> 


- - 3° 

- - 800 


- - 900 




• • 


18 25 days or 5 years. 

And the fiftt year confifted of 366 days, or 
rather the fourth; for they added one day between 
the end pf the fourth year and the beginning, of 
the fifth. Strabo fays, Eudoxus having been edo, 
cated with the Egyptians, taugjit #$ Grripks to 
intercalate one day at every fourth year, >vhich 
Pliny ,~(iri his fecond book) fays, was the fame as 
Annus Canicularius, compofed of four years of 
365 days each, and a 366th day at the end of thp 


* 1 

(a) Dies 365, Egyptian Kane anni quantitatem voce NiAd* 
iridicafTe Helidor. 1. 9. p. 444. Euftath. ad vers. 224 Dion. 


Nihil Egyptiis tanto erat in honore, tamque rcligiofc cole- 
batur atque Nilus, ad quern folemnitates eorum facra tantum 
non,omnes fpe&abant. Aridities Rhet. in Egypt, p. 93.- 
Tbh was Nllus t the fun. 


fourth year : this is as dubiouily expreffed as the 
Irifh explanation of their Lufca, la coureagadh re 
aodhbeart acceanngach cuigheamhad bliagban, i. e. a 
day made holy by fecrifices at the bead of every 
fifth year, or at the end of every fifth yea*, (*w> 
ceahh is a dubious expreffion). The Armenians, 
inftru&fed by the Perfians, fixed this <lay in the 
month of Auguft, and called it Nau-Azar 9 that 
is, the New fire. 

Mr. Aftle in his origirt and progrefs of writing, 
j>. 44, fays " the^haldaeans who cultivated aftro- 

nomy in the mod rertiote ages, ukd fymbols, or, 

arbitrary marks, in their calculations ; and we 
-" havejhewn* feys he, that thefe were the parents 
" of letters" If that ingenious gentleman had 
(hewn that numerals were the parents of letters, 
it would have faved the author of this work much 
fludy and tnuch readings 

Before we proceed to the Chaldaeans, who we 
efteem the inventors of thefe numerals, and of 
converting them into literary chara&ers, we 
ftxall finilh what we have to fay of the Egyptians. 

The name of the Sun in Egyptian is <£ PH or 
PHRE (£), which word Martiannus Capella, in 
his hymn to the Sun, tells us, Was expreffed in 
three letters, making up the nuipber 608. 
Salve vera Deum facies, vultufque paternae 
Ofto et fexcentis numeris, cui litera trina 
Gonformat facrum nomen, cognomen et omen (<:); 

(5) Note, PH or <p is the article* 
(c)Dc nuptxis phUologix, p. 43; 



♦ - 




p . 


— - 


H * 





Hence the Greeks formed from other numerals, 
making up the fame number, the ^Enigmatical 
name of the fun yhi, viz. (</) 

Y — 400 

H — 8 

E — 200 


They woribipped the fun under the name of 
Neilos, becaufe the numerals of that name made 
up 365 days. So they worshipped the moon un- 
der the form of a cat, becaufe K flood for 20, A 
for x, and Th or Thide for 9, and thefe three 
numerals K, A, T, made up the number 30, or 
the 'Lunar Erolutiori. 

The Egyptian priefts impofed much on the 
Greeks, and concealed their knowledge under 
puerile evafions, which tvere greedily fwallowed 
by the wifeft of the Greek travellers. Diodorus 
Siculus tells us, that in the temple of OJiris, the 
p*iefts appointed thereto filled 360 bowls every 
day with milk, to preferve in memory the number 


(*?) T f h* Bacchus, Sol. r%< Bacchi epith. apud Ariftoph. 
See Hefych. & Gebelin Hift. Caknd. p. 548. See alfo Fr. 
Grandis ad ill vir. Balzac 4A0. 1657— hence the Phaenician 
Affii, of which hereafter. , 

6* LITfcfcARV CHARACTER.'* t£j 

of days in a Lunar, year (e). . " I think, 1 * fays 
Sir Ifaac Newton, " he nieans one bowl every 
" day, in all 360, to count the number of days 
4t in the calendar year, and thereby to find otrt 
" the difference between this and the ttue folaf 
,c year ; for the year of 360 days was the year td 
w the end of which they added 5 days, ?tnd the 
4i Ifraelites brought this year out of Egypt.*' 

Is it poflible Sir Ifaac could think that a nation 
allowed to be the firft in arts and fciences, aftd 
thought to be the inventors of arithmetic, nun^e- 
fratiqh, &c. could be put to theft fhifts in counting 
time in fo bungling a manner ? The truth is, that 
Lebnos, in Egyptian numerals, made up the funl 
of 360, (as Neilos did 365), but Lebnos, in thd 
fame dialed, fignifies a bowl, and probably a bowl 
out of which they ate their milk, or preferved it in 
the dairy : and thus they fabricated the childifh 
ftory of the pried and the milk- bowls* or thi 
Greeks did it for them. ™ 




— 30 

— 8 


.— X 



— & 

— 70 

— i<x> 


Therefore Neilos was the folar jMJaiy and Lebnas 
the lunar year. 

IVl a This 

(r) Diod. L. I. p. 13. 



The component numerals probably applied to 
the intervals between certain feftivals (fj 9 and if 
we may judge from the quotation from Martianus 
Capella in the preceding page, the priefts, after 
the change bf numerals into letters, may have 
formed other myftical names to exprefs a year, or 
the revolution of the earth round the fun, by 
combining fuch numeral-letters as would iriake up 
the . number j as the Greeks did r5<; Certain it 
is, that the myftical names of the Sun, Abraxas* 
Belenusy Janus, and Ertcoell* the derivation of 
which have fo much puzzled etymologifts, are no 
more than words formed of the numerals, making 
up the number of days in a year, viz* 365. 


Coptic and Greek 

A - H — t 1 

A — 1 

B - a ~ 2 

B — 2 

R - H — ~ 200 

P — 100 

a - * : — . 1 

A — i 

£{X)p — 10a . 

.»,•*— 60 

A - k — 1 

A — 1 

S - D — 60 

2 — 20O 



The Chaldaeans wrote Abrakas, but the Gr^ek 
numerals not correfponding to thefe letters, they 
changed the word to Abraxas Q*). 

(f) Of all the Egyptian feftivals, thirteen only have come 
to our knowledge — -ces liturgies n'exiftent plus, les Chretiens 
lea jettoient dans le feu, avec autant d'ardcur qu'on les. y jet- 
loit eux~ifctcmei* {Gebeh'n Calendr.p. 224). 

(g) Si myjticam numerorum rationem adhibeamus in Abrax- 
as, proveniet inde numerus dierum communis anni. (Elias Sche- 
dius, p. 101)* D. Hieronyimifr in Comm. ad Amos. Abrax- 
am eundem efle cum Mithra feu Sole tradidit. 



Chaldean Coptic and Greek 

B - a 






E r ■ 






L -$ 

« *' * 





J2 - n 






N - j 






- 1 





S r m — 200 x —~ 200 

365 . 3 6 J 

C. PET IT I. C.F. &C.&C. 

See many other inferiptions to Belenus in 


Tu Bajocaffis ftirpe Druydarum fatus, 

Si fama non fallit fidem, 
Beleni facratum ducis e templo genus, 

Et inde.vobis nomina, 
Tibi Paterae ; fie miniftros nuncupant 

Appollinaris myftici. 

(Aufonius in Profeff. IV). 

Macrobius has colle&ed all that the ancients 
have faid of Janus; iye fhall not follow him 
through the tedious paragraph, which only marks 
the ignorance of the Romans with refpeft to the 
origin of this deity, but fhall extract fuch parts 
prjly as point to our difcovery. " Some," fays 
Macrobius, " will have it, that Janus was the fame 
" as Apollo and B/ana, and that both the divini- 

« tics 



.. ' - . 

** ties are- comprehended in that fingle God. — > 
cc Nigridius affirms, that Apolla is Janus, and 
c< Diana, jfana* Diana was formed from -Jtaiff, 
by the addition of a D, which is frequently 
put before the I, to foften the pronunciation ; 
** however fomfc undertook to prove that Janus is 
u the SUN, and that he is reprefented double 
« faced, as being matter of both the gates of 
*' Heaven, becaufe he opens the day when he 
44 rifes, and lhuts it when he fets— -his ftatues are 
* c often marked on the right hand with the num- 
u ber 300, and on the left with 65, to fignify the 
& meafure of the year, which is the fun's ef* 
44 feft.— rCicero fays, Cornificius, in his . third 
^ book of etymologies, calls him not Janui but 
44 Eanus, ab eundo-r*hence the Phoenicians figure 
44 this divinity by a ferpent or dragon, which 
*' turns itfelf in a circular motion, and bites and 
€C devours its own tail, to fignify the world nou* 
44 rifhes and fupports itfelf, and turns upon its 
** own axis." 

44 He is reprefented ' with four faces, as he 
* 4 whofe majefty- comprehends all climes. We 
call him Junoniuj, becaufe he keeps the entrance 
not only of January but pf a!l the other months, 
and all the Kalends are. under Juntfs dominion ; 
it is for this reafon that Varro fays, Twelve 
s 44 Altars were confecrated to. Janus, fox juft fo 

v many months (h)" 


(i) Sat* x«$b. 




Cselius Rhodiginus in his Le#. Antiq. {hews 
die manner in which the number 365 was ex« 
prefled on the hands of Janus, which will prove 
this deity to have owed his name and attributes to 
the Chaldaans. " Plinius au&or eft, Janum a 
" Numa rege dicatum digitis ita figuratis ftetifle, 
" ut trecentorum fexaginta quinque dierum nota, 
<c per fignificationem, anni, temporis, & aevi fe 
" Deum indicet. Super quo interim adnotatu non 

indigna funt, quae & Graecis in hunc ufum de- 

rivavimus, quippe Januarium effe inquiunt 
H quadriformem ftatuam, propter convcrfiones 
€C quatuor, quas r^i* vocant. Sed alios eum 
" ita effingere, ut dextra clavem teneat, ut tern- 
" poris principium et aniu reckifo rem et patul- 
€€ cium atque cuftodem, aut fcutum : alios vero 
" in dextra * habentem, in fmiftra vero fc quia 
" non alius fit, quam annus. Ex quo Longinus, 
" quafi aeonarium interpretari conabatur Janua* 
" rium. Ilia vero nota t, trecento fignat, i vero 
cc fexaginta, at • quinque (#). 

Now it is evident, that Janus was no more than 
the Chaldaean word expreffing the number of days 
in the year, as follows : 


• * 

.' — 



- J 












(<)Cxh RhocLp. 1286. 


For had the name been formed of Egyptian, Cop- 
tic or Greek numerals, it would have been IANET 
not JANES, as will appear front the numerals, 

I — IO . 

N — 50 

E - 5 

T — 300 


The Greeks therefore to exprefs the attribute of 
the Deity marked the hand (becaufe the fingers 
were ufed to exprefs numerals) with, 











£rom this word IANES proceeded the Hiberno- 
Scythian Bdl-ain y which fignifies a year, or the 
revolution of Baal or Belus ; and hence ERECO- 
ELL, another epithet of the fun, becaufe the nu- 
merals made up 365, was miftaken for Hercules ; 
and hence Cicero tells us, that the Hercules who 
pervaded India was called Belus, the Great Baal 
or Maba-Bali> mentioned by that Sun of learn- 
ing, Sir William Jones, as has been (hewn in 
Chap. i. 



Chaldatan . 

E - n 

— s 


— 200 

E - n 

— 5 

<: - a 

— 20 

O -* 

— 70 

E - n 

— 5 


— 30 

L - b 

— 30 


HPAKLES aftris amide, rex ignis, princeps 
mundi, SOL, &c. (Dionyfiacon L. 40. p. 683). 

The word almanack has been fuppofed to be 
derived from an Arabic word, fignifying compu- 
tation or calculation ; there is no fuch word in the 
Arabic with that fignification. {sfl» mana, in He- 
brew, is to number, whence fome imagine *£jq 
meniy fignifies the moon, quod diale&o Arabica 
almanachiy feu Ephemerides Lunares ; — but this 
was not the only ufe of almanacks, or thje Indi- 
gitamenti of the ancients ; they marked the rifing 
and fetting of the planets, the eclipfes, &c. The 
Arabic and Perfian words for an Ephemeris are 
Rooz-nameb, Tukweem, Roozeaneb t Roozeeneh. 
Therefore I conje&ure that the Arabians and 
Greeks borrowed the word almanack from the 
Chaldaeans, with whom the numerals made up 
the. number of days in a year ; but this is con- 
jecture only. 






- n 












- * 




- J 




- * 




- p 

3 6 5 

The letters So and Jauda, or, S, I, made up 
the number 16 ; and ft in the Egyptian fignifies 
to take a wife, to cohabit with a woman ; there- 
fore the Egyptians reprefented an ad of this kind 
by the number XVI. Voluptatem fedecim pingunt. 
(Horapollo). Silence, for the fame reafon, was 
reprefented by the number 1095, &c. 

Of the CHALDiEAN Cycles, 

The three famous periods invented by the 
Chaldaeans, were, the Sofos, the Nerew and the 
Sana. Berofus ufed them in compofing hk 
chronological calculations, and fixing the epochas 
of his hiftory of Babylon. 

The So/is contained 60 

The Sams 6660 

The Nari 1 1 10 days, or one fixth of a 

Sana ~ 57 moons. 

The works of Berofus have fuffered greatly by 
interpreters, and there are many contradictions 



among modem authors as well upon the number 
of years that compofed theife famous periods, as 
Upon the ufes they may have been applied to. 

Syncellus, Abydenus, Alex. Potyhiftor, tell 
us, that the Saros was a period of 3600 years (j), 
Suidas, an author cotemporary with Syncellus, 
fays, the Saros was a period of lunar months, 
amounting to 1 8 years and a half. Aftronomers 
cannot difcover any agronomical operation to 
which fuch periods can be applied. Pliny indeed 
mentions a period of 223 lunar months, which 
Dr. Hally thinks is a falfe readings and propofes 
the amendment by reading 224 months. It is not 
the intent of this effay to. enter into arguments of 
the propriety of thefe periods, but to fhew thf 
formation of the words from hun\erals % . 

That the firft king of Chaldsea fhould have 
reigned ten Sari, according to Abydenus, will 
not be furprizing, provided we take Sttida/s cal- 
culation of 222 moons to a Sarus. Sir Ifaac New- 
ton makes the Sarus 18 years and 6 intercalary 
months, which exactly agrees with Suidas ; but 

then it i$ not the fimple Sarus, but the l niKV!nTi?ttt 


{ £) Abydenus fays, the firft king of the Chaldaeans reigned 
ten Sari, that is according to hfs, aecount, 36,000 years, and 
that the number of kings amounted to ten, and the term of 
their reigns to an hundred and twenty Sari, or, 43,200 years. 
We need proceed no further to convince the reader of fome 
.great miftake iu the MSS. or the printed copy of Abydenus, 
as £ufebius has handed it down to us. 


Sarus-Hafre, or tenfold Sarus of the Chaldaeans, 
that makes this number — for example : 

3 5 ° 

222 moons of Suidas 

30 2880 
— — 360 
6660 days ■ 



6 intercal. months 

6669 days in 1 8£ years 

It is evident thefe 1 8 years canfifted of 360 days 
Jo each year only. 

Now the numerals forming the word Saro*, 
taken from the Chajdaean alphabet, PI. X. ftand 
thus : 

3 - tt> T— 300 

A - * -«- 70 

R - 1 — 200 

V - 1 — 6 

S • y — 00 

*>66 days = 1 Saros, which X by Hafre, or 10 

0<66odays, or 222 moons, pr 18 years and 6 
" months, as above. 

We have ftrong reafon to think this was the 
Sarus of the Chaldeans, becaufe Syncellus tells us, 
that the Chaldaeans counted 120 Sarus to have 
paffed from the creation to the deluge. Now 1 20 




multiplied by i8£ zz 2220. Jofephus and the 
Septuagint make it 2256 years, which is not very 
different. And if I miftake not, this period is 
the Egyptian reign of thefun^ which they fay. was 
2340 years, and the reign of the Peris of the 
Perfians 2600 years; and it is remarkable that 
the period the Indians call the third age, was of 
2000 years, alfo. 

The Nam or Nereus contained one fixth of a 
Sarus, 6t iiio days, which is equal to 37 moons, 
or three years, two of which confided of 12 
months each, and one of 1 3 months. The word 
was formed of the following numerals : 

N final 700 

R 200 

R 200 

I ■ 10 

iiio days = 37 itioons. 

The Sos or Sofos was the letter Qfamech, which 
(lands for 60. Many ufeful difcoveries may be 
made in ancient hiftpry, by this application of the 
numeral-alphabet ; for example, no Lexicon will 
explain the reafbn why the Jews call the new moon 
Jab fp* Now it is well known they referred all 
the time of the filent, or dark moon, .to the old 
moon, and becaufe the firft appearance might be 
ufually about 18 hours after the true cotijun&ion* 
they therefore began their months from the fixth 



hour at evening, that is, at funfet, next aftet the 

18th hour from the coftjun&ion, and this rule 

they called Jab n* ; it is a word compounded 

of two numerals which make up that number* 

Viz. (#). 

«s - — • i o 


U is remarkable that this word ibould be ccwu* 
mon to the Iriih. We know that the Jews Woujd 
write afld projjpiince *bis word tjhkh. In Jrifli rh 
fignifies the afcocai, and tjhei-fl is explained in an 
old Gloflary in my poffeffion by coitus lunas, in- 
termeftris liinse, interluiiium. In Arabic the new 
moon is called ^ Jhur. s 

Let us now fuppofe a Chaldaean explaining in 
what manner the Saros was made up of numerals* 
by pronouncing the name of eaph numeral } he 
would firft begin by Shin or 300, then proceed to 
Ain 0^70, then to Ris oi- 200, fo on to Van and 
fj/ade-} by repeating thefe iunnerals quick, Shin' 
would be pronounced as Jh 9 ' Am as ^, Ris as r, 
Vau as v, arid Tfade as U or s. . This would cer* 
taiftly produce th£ idea of giving the literal pow«r 
of Jh to ty, of a to y, *f r to% and fo on, And 

* • • * • 

this I think #as the origin 'of -letters^ ' - '- • 

Th$*e ^c&mot be a ftrongef proof that numeral* 
preceded letters, than the Hebrew word >tqd fa 

fjr) Sec this well explained in Newton upon Daniel, p. i6f * 


pber, which properly fignifies to number, numeral 
tion, numbering; but after numerals were ap- 
plied as literary cfearafters, the fame word deno- 
ted, as it does at this day, a fcribe, a letter, a 
book, a literary character. 

The word Sepber, fays Bates* has all the fenfes 
of the Latin calculus, and calcub, and that for 
the like reafon, from the ufe of fmall white ftones 
in numbering, reckoning and recording ; and when 
writing with letters was revealed, k was applied 
to the new method of calculating, and therefore 
fignifies an account, whether by number, memo- 
rial, monument, book, letter, or voice. Bates 
here alludes to the Saphire ftone. I cannot avoid 
thinking the word is of Egyptian origin, in which 
language we find fcbiepi is to number. 

Leigh is pofitive the word properly fignifies U 
number. Some authors, fays he, will have it, 
that fappir, whence faphire, comes from fepber, 
becaufe of the number of little ftars which flune 
in that kind of ftone. 

That fepher, to number, might allude to the 
Jhrry or caleftial characters, given in Ph IX, I 
have no doubt, becaufe the ftarry letters, firft 
intended to reprefent the conftellations, became 
numerals, as we have {hewn. 

Sepher is alfo ufed to exprefs the expounding, 
or, explanation of dreams, as in Gen. xli. 8.— ■ 
u and he Jepbered the dream of Pharoah."— 
We know the daldacans were the inventors of 




judicial aftrology ; and in the myfterious operation 
of expounding a dream, they. certainly either had 
recourfe to the ftars^ or, to calculation by the 
Jiarry alphabet: Certain it is, that the Englifli 
word cypher ', and the French chiffre, are derived 
from this Chaldaean word. 

And hence the Sephirotb tree, or, tree of numbers, 
of the Cabbaliftical Jews. And this tree contained 
ten divine names, viz. corona, fapientia, pruden- 
tia, dementia, gravitas, ornatus, triumph us, con- 
feffio laudis, fundamentum, regmun. The num- 
ber ten feems to have been, fixed on, becaufe as 
relating to numerals, ten was called perfection, as 
from thence all nations begin to count anew ; for 
this reafon the Egyptians expreffed the number 
ten, -by the word mid, that is, perfe&ion, and the 
Irifli call it deag, a word of like meaning. And 
for this reafon the Chaldaeans formed the Jod, or 
number ten by an equilateral triangle *, which 
was the fymbol of perfection with the Egyptians : 
we fee it on the obelifks, fufpended from the legs 
of the facred Scarabaus, hung round the neck of 
the faered lamb, &c. whence it became the fym- 
bol of the Almighty One, with the druids of thefe 
lflands, carving it on the bark of the facred oak. 
The Egyptians doubled the triangle thus X, and 
then it became a crofs of St. Andrew, or the 


letter X or ten, that is, perfection, being the pcrfeft 
number, or the number of fingers on both handsj 
hence it ftood for ten with the Egyptians, Chinefe, 



» i 

Phoenicians, Romans, &c. and is fo ufed with us at 
this day. The Mexicans alfo ufe the fame figure in * 
their feculaf kalendars. The Tartars call it labia, 
from the Scythian lamb, a hand, fynqnimous to 
the jod of the Chaldaeans ; and\thus it became the 
name cf a crofs, $nd of the High Prieft. with the 
Tartars ; and with the Irifli luam, fignifies the 
head of the Church, an -Abbot, &c. " Ge qu'il 
" y a de remarquabte» c'eft que le grand pretre 
" des Tartares, port le nom de lama, qui en Ian- 
" gue Tar tare fignifie la croix ; et les bogdoi qui 
" conquirent la Chine en 1644, & qui font foumit 
" au dalai-lama dans les chofes de la religion, ont 
" toujours des croix, fur eux, qu- its appellent auffl 
« lamas (/)." \,;, . : : < 

From this number X all nations .begin a new. 
reckoning, becaufe it is the number of fuigers o& 
both hands, which were the original mftrpraentg 
of numbering ; hence *T> iod in Hebrew ;>is. th$ 
hand and the number ten, as is lamb with the 

And here, I. think, ye may trace the origin o£ 
the Idai Daflyli or Curetes ; for Dadylus is only, a 
Greek tranflation of the Phoenician T> iod, as lamb 
In Scythian, whence the lama of the Tartars* 

Sophocles, quoted by Strabo, informs us, that 
they were called Idai, becaufe they inhabited 
moqnt Ida, and Daftyli from the Greek word 
daflylus, fignifying a finger, they being at firft ten, 

' ,N " 1 which 

(/) Voyage de la Chine par Avril, L. 3. p f 1 94 


which is the number of fingers on the hands. It 
is clear from this that they were originally named 
"p lody that is, ten, and that, mount Ida, where 
they dwelt, was fo called from them. Strabo 
reckons five brothers, and fays, they had as many 
filters, in all ten ; among the brothers he names 
Hercules and Paon, which I think was one and 
the feme perfon, viz, our Hercules Pbaki, men* 
tioned in Chapter I, as the author of numerals and 
of fetters : for, Herodotus brings thefe Curetes 
out of Phoenicia with Cadmus, and Sir L Newton 
thinks, that having followed Cadmus out of Phoe- 
nicia, fome of them fettled in Pbrygia> where 
they were cajled Cor yb antes, a name which fome 
think they derived from Cherub, a Phoenician 
word fignifying valiant* but, in my opinion they -called from the Phaenician tWw ghariba, 
in Arabic kar'tb, in Irifli-Scy thian carb, that is, a 
Jbip ; for' -they were not only great navigators, but 
fbip-buittfers t they were fkilled, fays Herodotus, 
in ail the arts and fciences of Phoenicia above 
other men ; aftd Purely navigation and (hip build- 
ing were arts'iri which they principally eKcelled, 
They were named Cutvtes frbm the Scythian word 
Creat, that h fcieriee ^they were men of learning, 
and not tJie Curetes or guards of the Phrygian 
kings, as the; fcholiaft on Lucian obferves, for 
the Curetes or guards were the fame as the Cuiritb 
of the ancient' Irifli, which the reader will find 
explained in the Law Gloflary annexed, under 





Ceann-Cuirith. This Hercules, one of the Idai x 
Itedyli, k laid, by Cicero, to have come out of 
Egypt, and to have taught the Phrygians letters ; 
which correfponds with what has been faid of our 
Ogham-Hercules \vl the firft Chapter, for although 
he was originally a Scythian, he came out of 
Phoenicia into Egypt, where he ft u died under 
Tbotb or Mercury at Thebes * as we have fully 
fhewn. Had he been an Egyptian he would have 
ufed Egyptian Chara&ers, not Phrygian — Hercules 
alter traditur Ni/o natus, Egyptius, quern aiunt 
Phrygias literas confcripjijfe (k). Sguintus in India, 
qui Belus dicitur (/). And this can be no other 
than the Maha-Bali of the Brarhins mentioned in 
Chap. I. Clemens tells us, the Phrygian letters, 
ufed by the Idai Daftyli, were the lame as were 
infcribed in the temple of Ephefus, and thence 
called Epbefian Letters ; in fine, they were facred 
myfterious charafters, and very probably our 
Ogham cyphers ; for it is remarkable, that where- 
ever this Hercules went, we hear of his facred and 
myfterious inferiptions. Thus, Appollonius Ty emeus, 
fpeaking of the temple of Hercules at Gadis, 
makes the fame obfervation : he faw the altar, he 
faw the infeription. EJfe autem quadrangular es ve- 
lut incudes, et eorum capita Uteris inferiptafunt, non 



, (i) De nat. Deor. § . xvi. 

(/) Id. ib. and from Appollonius Tyaneus we- learn, the 

Scythians fixed themfclves in India, and 'covenanted with the 
King of India to fettle there. (Philoftratus de Vit. AppoLL 
p. 126). 

, l 


Egyptiis neque Indicis, neque ab aliquo penitus 
cognotis — ipfe verd Hercules in domo Pare arum 
injeripjity £sfr. (m). 

The fundamental notions of arithmetic, mud 
have been familiar in the rudeft ages. However 
ignorant the greateft part of mankind became, 
after the difperfion, they could never be fo ftupid 
as not to diftinguifh the'obje&s which furrounded 
them. The diftinft ideas of fimple numbers could 
never be loft ; the moft barbarous people would 
ftill be fenfible of the numerical relations and pro* 
portions of their hands and fingers. We accord- h 
ingly find the Savages in America count by tens, 
hundreds, &c. Father Lafiteau mentions this 
knowledge of the Savages as an extraordinary 
circumftance: " on doit regarder comme une 
" chofe digne d'admiration, que les Sauvages 
" ayent la meme maniere de compter, qui nous 
" eft venue de Tantiquite, qui etant purement 
" arbitraire, doit 6tre d6riv6e de la m6me fource. 
" Car le nombre de dix eft chez eux le nombre 
deperfeflion, comme il etoit chez les Egyptiens, 
comme il l'eft aujourdhui chez les Chinois, & 
comme on peut dire audi qu'il eft chez les na- 
tions de l'Europe ; ils comptent d'abord les uni- 
tes jufq'au dix : les dixaines par dix, jufq'a 
cent: les centaines par dix jufq'a mille («).'* 
It is much more furprizing, that thefe Savages 


, (m) Philqftr. L. 5. C. I. 

(n) Mocurs des Sauvages, T. 2. p. 234* 




knew Tome of the conftellations by the fame name 


we know them, of which I fhall give fome exam- 
ples in the next chapter. 

But the Scythians, who were firft fhepherds, 
like the Chaldacans, and afterwards a trading 
people, muft have been mafters of arithmetic. 
The mixing of their great flocks of fheep, muft 
have acquired them to have been familiar in prac- 
tical numeration to a confiderable amount, when 
they came to divide their flocks. And when they 
became mafters of Afia, and had laid that vaft 
empire under tribute, which was paid in money 
or merchandize, they muft have been perfeft in 
arithmetic. The feudal government, which com- 
menced with thefe Scythians, required a proportion- 
ate or mixed arithmetic. » It is moft probable they 
were the authors of arithmetic. 

" I,es Sacques, ou les Scythes, paffoient pour 
un peuple tres fage, & tres modere : ils n'im- 
poferent a PAfie, conquife par eux, qu'un le- 
ger tribut, c'etoit plutot une redevance, pro- 
pre a marquer leur dbmaine, qu'une impofuion, 
dont ils chargeoient des peuples foumis par la 
4C force de leurs armes. — Afiam perdomitam vec- 
tigalem fecere, modico tributo, magis in titu- 
lum imperii, quam in viftoriae praemium im^ 
4< pofito. (Juftin), L'Afie etoit alors un Fief de- 
" pendant de la Scythie. C'eji le premier Etat gou- 
" verni pendant un elongue fuite defiecles, par cette 

" efpece de conflitution, dans lequelle on peut re- 

" connoitre 







connoitre Forigine du droit Feudal* , apport£ en 
Europe par les defcendans de Sacques, ou Scy- 
thes. Leur government ctoit tres doux, & 
" leurs loix tres jufte, comme on peut le juger 
" par ce qu'en difoit Juftin & le poete Chaerilus 
c< & bien mieux encore, par la maniere dont I'lndt* 
" la Chine, & le Japan Jirent gouverms par leurs 
" premiers princes ; car ces princes defcendoient 
" des Sacques, & leur admin titration paroit avoir 
i€ ete reglee, fur le modele du gouvernment d'une 
" famille, dont le chef eft regarde comme le 
" pere." (D'Ancarville, Rech. fur l'orig. des 
Arts de la Grece). 

The Bacchus of the Greeks was a Scythian j he 
was the fame God known in India by the name 
of Brouma. The Indians give him for wife Saraf* 
foudi, the goddefs of fciences and harmony j flie 
is playing on an inftrument named kinneri. (A7- 
nour, in old Irifo, is a harp). To fhew that Brou^ 
ma introduced letters into their country, they 
reprefent him holding in one hand the olla, or 
leaf of a fpecies of palm, on which they write ; 
and in the other, he has a cane or bamboo, which 
ferves as a pen. The Vedams, which they pre- 
tend are deposited at Benares, in a cave, they fay, 
treat of the fciences introduced by Brouma. 

Brouma, according to their account, fixed 
himfelf in India about 361 o. years before Chrift; 
if the Vedams are fo old, they were anterior 



above aooo years to the epoch given by our chro- 
nologifts, to the writing of the Pentateuch by 
Mofesj for Petau. dates the publication of the 
Pentateuch, and the death of Mofes, anno 3223. 
of the Julian period, which correfponds with the 
year 1491 before Chrift. 

The conqueft of the Scythians in Afia, and the 
arrival of Brouma in that country, preceded the 
commencement of our aera 3610 years. Accord- 
ing to M. Daw, the Sbqfiars, or commentaries, 
were written 4800 years ago, that is, about 600 
years before the conquefts of the Scythians,>and 
as we find they had an aftronomical Epocha 400 
years after the date of Brouma, a period long pri- 
or to the invention of alphabetic writing j and, as 
we find by a letter to Mr. Hallis, dated at Bena- 
res in 1 765, that the Bramins have books written 
in Chaldaic char afters, we think it highly proba- 
ble, thefe books contain only the Chaldaic nume- 
rals, which may have been introduced by Brou- 
ma (0), 

The Phoenicians had numerals before they had 
letters. Their firfl numerals were fimilar to the 
Irifli Ogham marks, confiding of ftraight perpen- 
dicular lines from one to nine, thus 1, 11, 111, 1111, 
&c. Ten was marked by an horizontal line thus — »; 


And thefe they retained after they had adopted , 
the Chaldaean alphabetic numerals. 


(0) Minutes of Antiq. Soc. of London, 19 Feb. 1767. Sec 
«lfo Vindication of ancknt Hid. of Ireland, p. 222. 


The Palmyraeans exprefled numbers by ftraight 
perpendicular ftrokes from one • to four. Five 
was exprefled by a charafter refembling v or y, 
and the encreafe to ten was by the addition of 
ftraight lines. Ten was the Phoenician caph ; or 
by a figure refembling the Chaldaean jod, that is, 
the delta of the Greeks. 

The numerals brought by Cadmus to Greece 
confifted of ftraight ftrokes from one to four. 
Five was a contraftion of the Chaldaean Heth n, 
and the increafe to nine was by ftraight lines. 
Ten was the Chaldaean Jod (*), fee PI. X. p. 1. 
We may therefore reft affured that the Phoenicians 
had in part adopted the Chaldaean numerals* 

The Daleth, or four, of the Samaritans, was 
originally a quadrilateral figure whofe uppermoft 
fide was ftnaller than the reft. The Greeks con- 
tracted it into a triangle, and hence that figure 
called Delta (from the Chaldaean word Daleth), 
became the fourth letter m the ■ Greek alphabet : 
an infpeftion of PI. X. p. 1 , will make this clear 
to the reader, and he will perceive that our vulgar 
numeral 4 is formed from the Samaritan Daleth. 

The Hanfcrit of the Bramins will alfo be found 
to be taken from the Chaldaean alphabet, as the 
learned Ben. Schulzius has already obferved. Li- 
terae Hindoftanicae a longe remotiffimis temporibus 
ad hunc ufque diem confervatae, proxime accedunt 
ad chara&eres linguae Chaldaicae vel Hebraicae, 



. ita ut inter utriufque figuras faepius, vel parva, vel 
plane nulla apparet differentia (/>). See PL X. p. i. 

When Cadmus came into Greece Ke introduced 
the Phoenician numerals. It is faid the old me- 
, thod was reformed by Cadmus, confequently the 
Greeks had numerals before his arrival ; for a 
reformation fuppofes a thing to have exifted be- 
fore. The names of the Greek numerals plainly 
fliew they borrowed fome of the Scythians, and 
others of the Eafterns : for example, Deca (ten) 
w is the Scythian Deag, that is, perfe&ion. Petite 
(five) is the Perfic Punj or Punjeh, which fignifies 
the hand, and (hews the number originally referred 
to the number of fingers on the hand, as the Chal- 
<3aean Jod, or ten, did to the number of fingers 
on both hands. 

It has been afferted by fome, that before the 
Greeks were acquainted with Oriental alphabetic 
numerals, they ufed fuch letters as were initial of 
the word exprefSng the number. Thus n ftood 
for five, becaufe n«1« fignifies five, a ftood for 
ten, that is, was the initial of a/**, h for one 
hundred, becaufe the initial of Hut™, &c. But 
ftill it is worth obferving, that the n of the Greeks 
bears a near refemblance to the n of the Chal- 
daeans, which (lands for five, and the A or ten of 
the Greeks is the fame as the Chaldaean Jod of 
\ the aftronomical alphabet, where it likewife {lands 


(/>) Schulzms Grammat. Hindollan. p. 2. 



for tea. The H of the Greeks does not much 
vary from the t of the Chaldaeans, which alfo 
expreffed the number 100. The Sampi of the 
Greeks was evidently formed from the Chaldaean 
S Tzade final, and which (lands for 900, as the 
Sampi did. See PL X. p. 2. (y). 

It is certain the Romans ufed literary chara&ers 
as numerals, and in alphabetic order, as the 
Chaldaeans did, fo late as Julius Csefar's time. 
In the fixth century a Julian kalendar engraved 
on marble was dug up at Rome, on which the 
days of the month were numbered by letters in 
alphabetic order, beginning with A at the firft 
day of January, B to the fecond, and fo on to H, 
or the eighth day, which was their Nundina, from 
which day they begun again with A, B, C, D, E f 
F, G, H, inftead of I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, 
VIII, which were the Phaenician and Palmyraean 
vulgar numerals. 

This kalendar is printed in Scaliger (De emen- 
datione temporum p. r6o), and in Bianchini 
(De Kalendario & Cycio Caefaris). Neither of 
thefe authors account for this mode of numera- 
tion. Scaliger fays — dies anni Juliani, ut vides 
in exemplary not at i funt per oBonarios ufque ad 
literam H f quia Romanorum ogdoas in tributione 
dierum fervabatur • propter Nundinas ut apud Ju- 
daos Hebdomas propter Sabbatum : but this does 


(q) See alfo Martini's Cadmus Graeco-Phaenix. 


not account for the alphabetic numerals— mais ce 
qui rCavoit pas encore ifeajfez approfondi, on y voit 
les huit premieres lettres de F alphabet Latin, dif- 
pofies par ordre 9 et attribuis am jours des mots ; A 
repond au premier de Janvier, B au feeond, Zffc. 
(Journal des S9avans, 1706, p. 208.) This is 
the only inftance we know of the Romans having 
ufed letters in alphabetic order as numerals. 

To conclude. It feems to have been univerfal, 
and natural to man, to have entertained the idea 
of numbering from his fingers ; and it does not 
appear extraordinary, that when man led an agre- 
ftic life (as the Chaldaeans and Scythians, the 
parents of numerals did) and had occafion to 
carry numbers higher than the number of fingers 
on his hands, that before he had affigned arbitrary 
marks for numbers, he fhould have adopted the 
names of trees, objects immediately furrounding 
him, fome of which grew more luxuriantly than 
others ; and that having invented an arbitrary 
mark for fuch a number, he fhould give it the 
name of the tree which flood for it j and thus 
having formed a numerical alphabet, thefe nume- 
rals at length became letters, as I have fhewn in 
the preceding pages, flill bearing their original 


[ i8« 3 


Of the ufe and application of the Calejlial Alpha* 
bet as an AJlronomical Character ; and of the 
Origin of the Figures on the Cale/iial Globes 

JL HESE chara&ers being 22 in number were 
invented by the Chaldaeans to reprefent the con- 
ftellations, and for other aftronomical marks ; and 
with thefe they formed their caeleftial charts. 
Originally they had no literary powers, but were 
mere aftronomical ligns ; afterwards they affum- 
ed the chara&er of numerals, and from numerals 
they were converted to letters, as has been ex- 
plained in the preceding chapter. 

Writing and aftronomy, fays Gebelin, both 
owe their origin to Thotb, and as both confifted 
of figns and charadters, they have been confound- 
ed one with another. (Orig. de TEcriture, p. 379). 
They are indeed clofely allied to each other, but 
aftronomical figns were long in ufe before they 
were converted to letters. 

The twelve firft Chaldaean numerals were pro- 
bably ufed for the conftellations, becaufe the 
Perfians, at this day, ufe the twelve firft letters of 



their alphabet for the fame purpofe (a), /even 
were allocated to exprefs the planets, and three 
to exprefs the elements. Hence many of them 
contain an equal number of ftars (fee PI. IX), 
but vary in their form, the more readily to di£ 
tinguifh the clafs to which tfyey belong. 

They were placed or drawn in all pofitions, fo 
as to reprefent the figures of the ftars in the con* 
ftellations. With thefe they formed caeleftial 
charts, which have been handed down to us by* 
fome Rabbins in an imperfelt ftate : thofe of 
Rabbi Gfomer, have been efleemed the mod per* 
feft. They were firffc copied by Bonaventurus 
Hepburne, a Scotchman, (I know not at what 
time), afterwards by Pere Gafiarel, in his Curb* 
Jttez inouyesy printed in 1637, and laftly by Kir- 
cher in his Oedipus. All thefe authors vary in 
their alphabets, each pretending to correct the 
other. Gaffarel gives the following notice :•— Lei 
chara&eres des deux tables fuivantes, font quel- 
que peu differens d'avec ceux que Bona venture 
Hepburne ecofibis a grave fur une planche en 
taille douce, & ceux que Duret a infere dans fon 
hiftoire des langues. J'ay fuivy ceux qu*a trace 
K. Chomer, plus fijavant qu'eux qn cede matiere, 
pour eftre un des Hebreux fenfez de notre temps. 
II y en a toutefois quelques uns d'alterez par la 
faute du graveur, fans neantmoins que ceite alte- 
ration foit grandement importante.— — — Les deux 


(a) Chardin T. 5. p. 84. BaHly Aftronom. Indiennc p 259. 


tables font divifees par l'equateur, & les eftoilles 
y font rengees comme dans le globe, fans toute- 
fois que celles qui font foubs 1'afpedt des pianette* 
compofent a prefent toutes les lettres que vous y 
verrez, a caufe que tous les jours ces mefmes 
pianettes, qui ne font pas icy defpeints, en repre- 
fentent diverfes par leur mouvement continuel. 

Notwithstanding this pompous notice of Gaffarel, 
his chart is full of errors. However, the conftel- 
lations of the Bear and the Bull, which I (hall 
here give as examples, happen to be correft in all 
the above mentioned authors/ In the following 
plate XI, I have compleated the conftellations of 
the northern pole, viz* the two bears, the dragon, 
and added that ef the bull in a different compart- 
ment* Each caeleftial letter is explained by the 
oontra&ed Chaldaean numeral or modern Hebrew, 
and the correfponding letters of the Englifh alpha- 
bet placed over each. 

The invention of thefe aft ronomical marks was 
prior to letters, consequently no word could have 
been intended to have been formed by the groups 
of marks reprefenting the conftellations ; but in 
length of time, when thefe aftronomkal marks 
aflumed the power of numerals, and thefe nume- 
rals became the parents . of letters (as has been 
fitewn in the preceding chapter) confequently each 
conftellation did then form a word, and this gave 
rife to the pictures we now fee on the caeleftial 
globe, that include the conftellations ; becaufe, 
inftead of repeating each character that -formed 



the conftellatiorv aV mud have been the cafe at 
firft, it was eafier to exprefs the whole by fome 
thing, which' the -chara&ers taken as letters did 
fignify. Thus iijtfas eafier to fay the Bull, than 
to exprefs each chara&er feparately, as T-A-R-B; 
and this name was better preferved in memory. 

The figures of Bull % Bear 9 Sbif $ &c. drawn on 
our globes, are not fignified by the aftronomical 
characters taken as letters, in the Chaldean lan- 
guage, but they are fignified by the words formed 
with them in the Irifh or Hiberno-Scythian .lan- 
guage. Hence I draw this conclufion ; firft, that 
the pictures of the caeleftial globe were defigned 
memoriae caufa, by the fouthern Scythians, who 
dwelt in Chaldae^, Armenia, &c.~- fecondly, that 
the Irifh are defcended from thofe fouthern Scy- 
thians* The ftrongeft proof can be given is, that 
the words fo formed by the aftronomical charac- 
ters do not fignify the bird, (hip, bear, &c. ex- 
prefled on the celeftial globe, in any other dialed: 
but the Irifh, the Dragon excepted, which is fig- 
nified in Chaldaean and in Iriih by the fame name. 

We propofe to give fome curious fragments of 
the aftronomy of the ancient Iriih in a fubiequent 
volume of this wprk, and a comparative view 
with the Chaldaean aftronomy. At prefent we 
fhal! confine ourfelves to four examples, by which 
we mean to prove, that the fouthern Scythians, 
from whom the Irifh and primitive inhabitants of 
Britain are defcended, were the authors or in- 
ventors of thofe extraordinary figures on the 



casleftial charts, which they drew or painted as 
reprefeitf ations of the things exprefled by the word 
formed of the aftronomical characters. 

Les figures d'hommes & d'animeaux que les 
anciens ont affign6 aux conftellations pour diftin- 
guer les divers groupes d'etoiles qui fe remarquent 
dans le ciel, n'ont comme l'on fcait, aucun rap- 
port avec la configuration refpe&ive de ces etoiles : 
elks aident la memoir e^ fays Monfieur Rouelle, in 
his new Uranographie. It is true, they do affift 
the memory, but why this or that figure was 
adopted for this or that conftellation, has hitherto 
remained a fecret, and baffled the enquiry of 

The mod ancient account of aftronomical charts 
with the Greeks, is the Sphere, which they fay 
was invented by Chiron, and defcribed by Mufeus. 
Sir Ifaac Newton thinks this fphere mud have been 
invented before the voyage of the Argonauts, 
becaufe of the fhip Argo thereon depi&ed. But 
when we refleQ:, that the conftellation of the Ship 
is formed by the aftronomical characters of the 
Chaldasans, which read :hn ARG, and that Arg % 
in Irilh, fignifies a fhip, for which reafon that 
conftellation was fo represented, we muft drop 
the idea of the Argonautic expedition, and fup- 
pofe the Greeks having got poflefEon of the Scy- 
thian fphere, converted the fhip to their own 
hiftory. We (hall prefently (hew a much ftronger 



reafon why the Greeks could not have been the 
authors of this figure* 

Tous les faits s'accordent a prouver que cette 
fphere eft du treize ou quatorzieme fiecle avant 
Pere chretienne. On peut conje&urer que cette 
fphere a ete prife par les Argbnauts m&mes dans 
quelques contree de TAfie. (Bailly Aftron. Indien- 
ne et Or. p- a6i). Tfrat the Argonauts did not 
take this fphere from the Chaldaeans, is evident, 
as they had no figures of fhips or men, or birds on 
their fphere : it mud have been from fome other 
people of Afia the Greeks borrowed their fphere ; 
il femble, que ce font les Cretois, & les Barbares 
qui occupoient la Grece, lefquels ont donn6 le 

nomaux etoilejs, .,& diftingue le ciel en conftella- 

• • ... ■ « 

tions. : This is the opinion of Lafiteau: We (halt 
now Jhew it .was neither Cretans or Barbarians, 
but the wife and learned Southern Scythians, to 
whom the world . is indebted for the caeleftia! 
fphere as hapded down to us. 

* • 

Scythians invent the Figures on the Cseleftial 




PI. XL Fig. i . reprefents the conftellations of 

the North Pole. , That of the ferpent or dragon 

is formed of charafters of the caeleftial alphabet, 

cofrefponding to rPTl WD or HIRB SHN which 

O being 


being read from right to left, according to Eaft- 
ern cuftom, form the words Nahhas Bariah. 
Thefe chara&efs were chofen from their figures, 
as beft adapted to reprefent the confteHations, 
without refpeft to their forming a word j for when 
they were firft invented, letters were not known ; 
they were firft caeleftial, or, aftronomical charac- 
ters, then became numerals, and thefe at length 
had the powers of letters given them, as we have 
already fully explained. 

When thefe chara&ers flood for letters, it was 
much eafier to exprefs the word Nahhas Bariah % 
to fignify this conftellation, than to name each 
charafter. Nahhas or Nacbas y in Chaldaean, fig- 
nifies a ferpent , and Naas, in Irifli, is a ferpent 
ti**& Baria, in Chaldaean, ligmfies the Pole or 
axis of the world.; Bars, Bar, Bir % fignify an 
axis or pole in Irifli ; hence . bara-rotb a wheel* 
barrow, or the machine with' a roth or wheel 
turning on its axis. , Hence this conftellation was 
called the ferpent of the pole, becaufe it is near 
the Northern ¥6k of the world. Hitherto we . 
have gained no honour to the Scythians; fince the 
fame words fignify the fame thing, both in Chal- 
daean and Irifli. 

The next 'conftellation is exprefled by aftrono- 
mical characters, correfponding to the letters JTIN, 
TRA, which being read from right to left, form 
the word A RT. This word in Hiberno-Scythian 
or Irifli language, fignifies a bear, and therefore 


fttt CJfilfSSTlAL ALPHABET, &C. 195 

the conftellation has that name : it bos no fuch 

Jigni/Scathn in any of the Oriental languages : in 

Chaldaic h fignifies a lake or river, (whence arath 9 

in lrifh, a name given to many lakes). Hence I 

* conclude the Scythians were the inventors of this 

figure on the cseleftial charts, to e?cpreft the cm- 

Jteilation of the bear. 

On the other fide of the ferpent, is the conftel- 
lation, expreffed by the aftronomfcai characters, 
correfponding to on*, or HS A, which being read 
from right to left, form the word ASH. This 
word ASH ot AISH in the Htberno-Scythian, or 
Irifh language, fignifies a waggon, wane or cart \ 
ptauftrum. It bos no fuch Jignification in any of the 
Oriental dialefls, or in any other language I am 
acquainted with ; from whence, I conclude the 
Scythians were the inventors of this figutfe. 

The laft :lar in the phuftrum, in the angle of 
the letter 127, is called in Irifh 'niatba, from the 
negative an or ne 9 and the verb iatbam t to turn ? 
as much as to fay, that which turns nof> becaufe 
this ftar is fo near the Pole, its revolution is fcarce 
difcernable, and for this reafon it is called the 
Polar flar. Buxtorf fays, the Chaldseans called 
it Nm*» IOTHA, but gives n6 explanation or 
derivation of the word. I imagine the Chaldseans 
borrowed this name from the Scythians, or if 
ptha in that language fignified to turn, the nega- 
tive b has been omitted hy Buxtorf. But it is 
extraordinary, that the Iroquois of N. America, 

O 3 name 

iq6 of the use and application or 

name this ftar/4/1 ouattenfis, or, that which turn* 
not. (Lafitau), The Arabs call it <-**. judi, or 
the ultimate flar^ whence the, Irim tuadi, the 
north pole. , .. 

( The corjftellation of the bully is formed of the 
aftronottiical ihara&ers, correfponding to SlftR* 
or, B R AT ; which being read from right to left* 
form, the word TARB, which in Irifli Signifies a 
bull, from to, or, tor, generation, and ab 9 father. 
The bull was the emblem of the creation before 
he was made that of the author of generation* 
and pf; the nodur naif un^Qr, Bacchus, who took 
his place* -Qf .the word ty> or tho given to this 
fymbol, they 4 formed that of thor, pronounced 
for by the Phoenicians, and the word **&& of the 
Greeks, of which the Latins formed taurus: it 
originally arefe with the Scythians, (fays the learned 
D* Ancarvilk)j^giij^i»f the creation* afterwards the 
author of generation, then,, that of Bacchus with the 
Greeks (h). • * ; , x 

The Scythians having, given the name of the 
hull to this conftellation, the idea of reprefenting 
a domefttf rur^l feene naturally occurred; and 
there being clutters of ftars in and about this 
figure,, the idea wf*s purfued. Between the letters 
1 and N is a clufter, called by, the Irifli EID, 
which fignifies young cattle. At a diftance above 
N is another clufter of five ftars, furrounding one 


; (b) \ Recherchcs fur Porigine de« Arta dc la Greece L. i 
C. 3. p. 272. 


of greater magnitude ; a better device for fuch a 
duller could not have been taken, than that of a 
hen and chit kens, and this is the name of that 
chifter in Irifli, viz. CEARC-EIN, or keark-ein, 
i. e. hen and chkiens. Of thefe, the Greeks form- 
ed their Hyades and Pleiades. But we have 
authority for the Scythian name of this clufter. 
" Quidam Talmudiftae dicunt, Scytha & Aramaic 
%i antiquitus Pleiades vocabant Cereinas, ficut 

Latini Vergilias & Pulicinellas — rurfus locum 

generationis & patriam Pleiadum vetufto voca- 
" bulo Cercinas Mauri vocant, pt Diodorus in 
" 4to libro*' 

The Indians -call flris clufter Pillalou-codi, and 
Cartiguey, fignifying the hen and chickens (*). 
"The Indians were undoubtedly inftru&ed by the 
'Scythians, of Scyfhia Limyrica, the country be- 
tween the Indus and the Ganges. See Intro- 

The Arabs name this clufter Nuzim, formed of 
the verb nazama, i. e. urns fata fuit gallina ; but 
fome think, by this name, they mean the Bullseye, 
others the Pleiades. (Golius). They are men- 
tioned by the author of the book of Job, xxxviii. 
33, et gallina fuper puellas fuas 9 i. e. Pleiades, 
(Buxtorf ). The modern Ifilh have many names 
ior this clufter, fuch as Trillin, the jtwjnklers 

&c. &c. 


(c) Tables Aflr. du P. da Champ. Aftionom. Indie one par 
iBailly, Difc. Prelim, p. xxx. 



The Greek fpbere, has been fuppofed to have 
been invented by Chiron and Mufaus, two of the 
Argonauts 9 who, it is faid, delineated the expedi- 
tion under the name of Argo amongft the afte- 
rifms. But, fays Mr. Richardfon, u this feems to 
" be a fundamental error into which Sir Ifaac 
" Newton has fallen, even in his own line* Ca? 
" nofusj the chief ftar of Argo, is only 37 de> 
" grees from the fouth pole ; the greateft part of 
" the conftellation is ftill nearer to it. The courfe 
" of the fuppofed voyage from Greece to Colchis 
lies between 39 and 45 degrees of north lati- 
tude, A few only of the letter (tars can poflU 
" bly be feen in the whole track; whilft thole of 
u the firft magnitude, and which alone are d*- 
" ferving of notice in every agronomical obfer* 
" vation, are, in thofe parts, totally invifiWe."-- 
But, they were very vifible to our Limyrican Scy* 
thians fettled between the Indus and Ganges, whofe 
country extended to cape Comorin, in 8 degrees 
N. Latitude, and thefe Scythians often failed from 
thence to the fouthward of the line (</). It was 
fliefe Scythians who compofed the figures of the 
cacleftial fphere, and by the language of the Hi* 


(d) Cxeli autem regie auitralis infra horizontcm deprimitur, 
8c diverfam fyderum tormam csh : Ht ; ita»jit piodorus 6amiu9 
dc Indis narrat, qui cum ad Limyriccn navigant, tavrum in 
medio caeio, & Pkiadct ad antennas media, habent : qui vero 
ad Azaniam navigant, ad ftellam Canobum, quae ibi eqtitu dtcitur 
curfum dirigunt, atque inter eo Apricku refonat, aliaque 
multa hujus modi narrat, (Mofis Chorcn. Geogr. p. 336). 


berno-Scythians we prove the aflertion. The 
principal ftars in this conftellation, represented in 
the Chaldaic caeleftial alphabet, form the word arg> 
which fignifies a (hip. Thus are the words of 
Dionyfius verified by the Irifli language :_ 
They (the Scythians) fhewed a path through feas, 

before unknown ; 
And when doubt reign'd, and dark uncertainty, 
They rendered life more certain ; thejfirji viewed 
Tbejiarry lights, and formed them into fcbemes. 

See Imrodu&ion, p. 17. 

Had this fphere been conftruded by the Argo- 
nauts, and had they wifhed to commemorate the 
* enterprize, by placing the /hip amongft the ftars, 
they, would certainly have chofen a conftellation 
which was confpicuous to Greece, and not one, 
the vifible ftars of which were too minute to attrad 
the attention, or to be of the leaft ufe in the di- 
rection of their navigation (<•). 

The word Zodiac is not of Grecian origin, but 
teverts aifo to the Scythian. In Ixifa fodhac is an 
cclipfe of the fun, from fodb f dark, obfcure ; and 
xYitJbdbac or zodiac was fo named, becaufe the 
Sun is always *cllpfed or obfcured in that line : it 
is jdfo an Arabic word, viz. fewad nigredinem 
notat. Crios-griain is another Iriffi name of the 
Zodiac, from trios > an eclipfe, obfcure, and grian 
the fun. Arab, karz, fe abfcondit, inde mr, 
Lufitanis, edipjis folis vcl iuna (Golius). Sol cris, 


(/}See Richardfon's DiiTert. on Orient* languages, p. 83. 


an eclipfe of the fun (Vieyra's ^ortug. Dift.) but 
creis, in Irifli fignifies fire, whence creijhan, a * 
poetical name of the fun (/). 

The general name for the figns of the Zodiac 
in Irifli is comh-ardha* that is, the man/ions of the 
Zodiac. We learn from Mafoudi, an Arabian 
author, that ardb, in Arabic, fignifies the Zodiac* 
and MtJt Aawrn, is a manfion or dwelling. It is 
alio called in Irifli talla-griain, or, the halls, pa- 
laces, or manfions of the fun, fynohimous to 
comb-ardha ; and from Mafoudi we alio learn, the 
ancient Arabs named it thoul ; and fynonimous 
thereto, the modern Arabs call it burja afuman, 
that is, the houfe or ftations of the fun or Hea^ 

In another volume of this work, we (hall treat 
fully on the aftronomy of the ancient Irifli ; what 
we have here faid, was only to (hew the applica- 
tion of the CJialdaic cseleftial alphabet to the 

(/) In the Sanfcrit chrifbna fignifies the fun, the Apollo of 
the Hindus : gopi fignifies the Mufes, in Irifh gube : but chrijh* 
na, in the Sanfcrit, fignifies dark blue approaching to black ;. 
and gopi, milkmaids ; thefe are the only derivations to be found 
ia that language : See Afiatic refearches, Vol. I. p. 259, 260, 

(g) See thefe words very differently explained by Mafoudi, 
jot the translator M. de Guignes, in the defcription of the Nf SS. 
in the JLab. of the K. of France, Vol. I. p. 176. 



r 201 ] 


Of the EJlrangol % or ancient Alphabet of 1 be 
/ Cbaldaans. 

» • 

1 HE EJbrangol or Alphabet of the Chaldaeans 
and Syrians, had one and the fame origin : there 
is now a fmall difference between them, as may 
be feen in the annexed plate, PI. XII. Kircher 
has given an ancient Chaldaic inscription in this 
<hara&er. (See his Prodrbmus Copticus, p. 179). 
This was the true Chaldaic alphabet ; that now 
ufed by the Jews, which we call Hebrew in gene- 
Tal, and fome denominate the fquare Chaldaic, 
was never ufed by the Chaldaeans, but as nume- 
rals ; they were the contracted agronomical cha- 
rafters, as we have fhewn. This was formed 
from it,* as more convenient for alphabetic let- 
?ters (a). 


(a) And thefe were called^ my {Ucal chara&ers. I am of opi- 
nion the Latin word Ktera, a letter, waa derived from the Arab. 
(JaLJ letify which fignifies an occult or myfterious meaning. 
Subtilis pecul. cum elegantia quod abditam habet fignifica- 
tionem (GoL) The derivation of libra from lineaiuraj as 
.Scaliger and Voflius have it, would lead us to the Figbam or 
jftraight lined characters. 


The Eftrangol, was probably named from }& 
tts 9 a tree, ]m tran 9 tall, ftraight, (like the 
maft of a ftip), and ^ gal y a circle ; referring to 
the literary elements contained in a circle men- 
tioned by Apuleius, fee p. 24. 

The Greeks caught the foyjid, and called it 
Jtrongulo, from a word in their own language 
fignifying, round or circular, viz. ZrpyyvM* :(£), a 
word borrowed of the Scythian or Irifh Jlracb or 
Jtfag* circular, an arch, &c. whence Jireqgb^ a 
company feated in circular order ; Jlreaftan, a 
girt, circingle, &c. and gaU % round. From this 
"word is derived the Englifh Jtraik, a fellow of a 
wheel, a part competing the periphery of a coach 
wheel: alfo the circular iron band, which fur* 
rounds it. 

% A Vtt gall 9 convolutus, rotundus, eft zrpyyt**, 
fays Thomaffin, in his Hebrew gloflary ; but he is 
filent as to .the firft part of the compound, which 
alfo fig nifiesrcircular, as in the words <*»wx,' tortus, 
<^fw, verto, torqueo. 

From an infpe&ion of the alphabets in the 
annexed plate, it will appear, they could not 
-have been called ejirarguh^ x>r round, from their 
form ; the letters are rather angular than round ; 
fome other caufe muft be affigned . for the name. 
We have adopted Apuleius's defcrijption of the 
Egyptian literary elements,-?— *Wg^r *t in madum 
tfot* lortuofis) as mod fatisfa&ory to our ideas. 


{b) Gebeliji fur l'oiigife dc l'Ectiturc. 



We (hall offer to the reader's confideration 
another derivation of the word ejlrangulo : We 
have (hewn that the tree was the cmUem of lite- 
rature with, die Egyptians, Chaldaeanfc, Arabians, 
and Hiberno-Scythians or Irifh, and that the lite- 
rary elements were comprifed in a circle. In 
Chaldak mtM azrach, is an indigenous tree, 
^jp hi y fignifies the voice or found: azracbhd 
might readily have been turned by the Greeks 
into ftroggtdos. Maimonides mention's a tradition 
among the Jews, that the tree of knowledge in the 
garden of Eden, uttered founds, and taught 
Adam the elements of fpeech—no name could 
have been more applicable to this, tree than *z- 
raehkoU AJlragalus is alfo the name of a fpecies 
of tree in the eaft (a^****®-. Diofc.) 

The book called Rambam containing the relu 
gious rit£s and cuftoms of the Zabii, who were 
Chaldafeans, is yet in the hands of the Arabs ; in 
this book Adam is faid to affirm, that the tree of 
knowledge had a root fliaped like a man, and was 
endowed with a kind of founding voice, fomewhat 
differing from fpeeeh. All thefe Oriental tradi- 
tions, ridiculous as they may appear, confirm the 
tree to have been the fymbol of literature, con- 
formable to the fyftem we have proceeded upon. 

Summary Remarks. 

According to the Irilh book of Oghams, Somas 
f>X Hejrcules ? converted numerals into letters, at 



the time all the children of Ifrael came into 
Egypt ; a colony of the Scythians then being in the 
territory of Ucca 9 in the eaftern part of Egypt, 
near the Red Sea (c). And it is faid that Somus 
ftudied under Fenius Far/ad or Thoth (</). 

This tradition bring£ the invention of letters to 
the time all learned men have affigned them ; it 
diftinguiihes the time between Jofeph and his fa- 
mily coming into Egypt, from the coming of all 
the Ifraelites. 

The Egyptians certainly pra&ifed hieroglyphic 
writing and numerals before the time of Mofes ; 
gnd this art was invented by the firft Thoth or 
Mercury ; but the invention of letters is attribut- 
ed to the Thoth, or Mercurius Trifmegiftus, who 
was coeval with Mofes (/) before whofe time it 


(r ) See p.. 69, and Introduction, p; 4. 

(d) Hiftorians in general Teem to confound Phenius Farfad, 
or Thoth, with Phenius K. of Bithynia, the leader of the 
Armenian Scythians iuto Pontus. Eufebius, Bochart and 
others think this Phenius wns the brother of Cadmus. See 
Vindic. of Irifh hiftory, p. 261. It appears to me, they were 
different men ; the Bi thy man Phenius, J think was the fame 
as the Fenyat of the Scythian Hunns. Phenius nomen vatis 
& regis in littore Bithynorum, annis circrter 1286 anteChr.. 
eft pure Hungarorum Fcnyas* hoc eft fplcndidus, illuftris, jl 
niB Phana refpexit, \j}& Phaan manifeftare. (Otrokocfus. ie 
orig. Hung.) 

(e) Thoth, i. e. Mercurius Trifmegiftus Moyfi coctanaeu*. 
(KircherOed. T. I. p. 194) where the refrder may find more 

Bafnage thinks Thoth, or Mercurius Trif. was the fame as 
Mofes, and Ofiris was Abraham. In tempore quo Mofes natus t 
eft floruit Atlas Aftrologus Promethei Phifici frater, ac mater- 
-BU8 avus majorii Mercurii, cujus nepes fuit Mercurius Trifme- 


does not appear from hiftory that they had alphabe- 
tic writing. We read of Pharoah putting a fignet 
on the hand of Jofeph two hundred years prior 
to Mofes j this is no confirmation of letters being 
then known to the Egyptians ; fignets even at 
this day, have feldom literary chara&ers engraven 
on them. 

More than twenty years had ehpfed, from the 
time of Jofeph's being fold into Egypt to the arri- 
val of his brethren in that country, without any 
relation of his circumftances being tranfmitted to 
his father ; it is not probable that literary writing 
was then known ; for, in the firft place, his bre- 
thren would have been afraid of having their 
wickednefs discovered ; and fecondly, Jofeph would 
certainly have written to his father. Suppofing 
Jofeph bad made himfelf fo much matter of hie- 
roglyphic writing, as to have reprefented his fili- 
ation, thefe hieroglyphics would have been totally 
unintelligible to his father ; but alphabetic writing 
might have been explained by Egyptian mer- 
chants, who travelled about the eaft with the. ma- 
nufactures of Egypt. 

" As 

giftus : hoc autem de HIo fcribit Auguftimis, quanquam Cicero 
& La&antiiis, Mercurios quinque* per ordinem fuiffe volunt, 
quintumque fuifie ilium, qui ab Egyptiis rheut, a Greet* 
autem Trifmegiflus appellatus eft : nunc aflerunt authores 
Egyptiis prsefuiffe, eifque leges ac literas tradidifle. Lltera- 
rum vero charaEteru in animalium> arborumque jiguris injlituijfe+ 
(El. Sched. p. 109^ 

And Selden in his Otia Theologica (Amft. 168*4, * n 4* 
DhTent.) concludes that, letters were invented about the time 
Mofes was born. 



* As to the precife time of the invention of 
Egyptian letters," fays Warburton, " it can ne- 
* ver be fo much as gueffed at, and for this plain 
reafon, becaufe hieroglyphics continued ftill in 
ufe, long after letters had been found out, parti- 
cularly on their public monuments of ftone, which 
is the reafon we find none of thefe infcribed with 
any dt^er characters. 

" Thofe who are for deriving all civil improve- 
ments from the line of Abraham, beftow this 
upon it among the reft* But as it is a fency that 
fticks only at the tail of an hypothefis, without 
any countenance from fcripture, they differ much 
concerning the time. Some fuppofe the ufe of 
letters amongft the patriarchs ; and by them tranf- 
mitted to the Egyptians ; bfrt there are fuch ftrong 
obje&ions to this opinion, even from the patri* 
archs fending verbal nejfeget, where it was more 
natural as well as more expedient to fend writtm t 
that others have thought fit to flwft the time 
to that of Mofesy when God, they lay, taught 
him the ufe of alphabetic letters, in the exemplar 
of the two tables, wrote, as the text aflunes us, 
with the finger of God. But how, from wprds 
that at moll only imply the ten commandments, 
to be miraculoufly written, as well as dictated, it 
can be concluded, letters were then firft taught 
mankind, I have not logic enough to find out. 
A common reader, would be apt to conclude from 
it, that letters were now well known to the 



Ifraelites, as God thought fit to deliver the firft 
elements of their religion in that kind of writing. 
If he was indeed the firft revealer of the artifice, 
how happened it, that the hiftory of fo momentous 
a circumftance was not recorded ? fo momentous, 
that the memory of it would have been one of the 
greateit barriers to idolatry. 

" But though I think it highly probable, that 
Mofes brought letters with the reft of his learning 
from Egypt, yet I could be eafily perfuaded to 
believe, that he both enlarged the alphabet, and 
altered tbejhapes of the letters. 

<e That he altered the ihapes of the Egyptian 
letters I think probable, for this reafon ; the lite- 
rary charafters of the Egyptians were formed from 
hieroglyphics, and all hieroglyphic writing was. 
abfolutely forbidden by the fecond commandment, 
and with a view worthy the divine wifdom (f)+ 
Hieroglyphics being the great fource of the molt 
. abominable idolatries and fuperftitions — to cut off 
therefore all occafion of danger from fymbolic 
images, Mofes, as I fuppofe, altered the form of. 
the Egyptian letters, and reduced them into the 
fimple ihapes in which we now find them. 

"Thus we fee that letters were a matter .of 
much confequence amongft the Hebrews, with 
regard to the integrity of their religion. If, there- 

(f) The Egyptian* had a running hand not formed from 
hieroglyphics — fee count Caylus, who has engraved fome bande- 
roles m this chara&er. Thefe have beta discovered fince War- 
burton's time. 


fore, as is pretended, God was the immediate 
author of them, it could fcarce be but Mofes 
would have recorded the hiftory of their invention,, 
as the bed fan&ion to thlir ufe, and bed fecurity 
from the danger of hieroglyphic writing to which 
this people, fo fond of Egyptian manners, were N 
very forcibly inclined.'', (Divine Legation of 
Mofes, v. 2. p. 14a) \: ,; 

Another reafop to prove .the Jews had not the 
trie of letters before their arrival in Egypt, but 
before the tables, may be gathered from the word 
HOWjirfy a fcribe ; it does not occur in the fcrip- 
tures before that period, and is allowed to be of 
Chaldaean origin. In the more early Jewifh re* 
public we find no office which by name betokens 
a fcribe. We read of the Sophitim and Nagqfim, 
or judges and tax-gatherers ; but when they, had 
fettled in Egypt, the office of Jter, a fcribe, is 
annexed to thofe of the judges and tax-gatherers,, 
Hear the Teamed Gufletius : — Ut V^y3(0J foterlm^ 
bene noris, ipfe vide £xod~ v. 14, 15, quanquam 
enim v. 10. praecedant cum iis aliqui.di&i Qyn 
•■IMD attamen hie foli p^nQli; populi percutiuntur 
ob penfuni infe&um, regem queruntur ; 
erarit. ergo hi delegati e pqpulo ipfo ; illi vero 
Nogajloik fiimpti ex JEgyptiis, ac pro imperio diri- 
gentes opus. Unde & ipfi Nogajhim priores nomi- 
nantur v. 6, 10. Dicuntur quoqae foterim quidam 
e Levitis fuper Levitas delegati, 1 Chrom xxiii. 4. 
ubi cum judicibus conjun~untur, & interim 


Alphabet of the <;hald£ans. aSby 

tacetur utrum fint ipfi judices, an diverfi ab iis— 
non poflurr^ afpernari quod lxx reddunt *yt*w**~ 
ro«<ray»ytvi. Certe -floa; Jier Chaldalcd fignificat 
lit eras, eafque multiplices. Ut hinc commode dici 
potuerit^r qui mandata ]udice$fcripta ad fubditos 
defert & obfequi imperat. Dubium tamen effe 
poteft an fcripturae ars aetate captivitatis Egyptiacas 
ufitata effet (g). See Eacdaireach and Stair in 
the JLa# Glaflary at the end of this volume.— In 
the Egyptian language^r/dr fignifies relatio, nun- 
cium, hiftoria nova (h). 

So far from letters being firft given to Mofe* 
with the tables, he tells us himfelf, that prior to 
his arrival at Mount Sinai, he was commanded by 
God to write a book, and to rehearfe the con- 
tents of it in the ears of Jofhua, (Exod. xvii. 14). 
TJh&dbre, as Warburton obferves^ eVery reader 
would conclude, that letters were well kttotf n at 
the time of the delivery of the tables. And in 
Exod. xxviii. 21. Mofes fays, " and the ftones 
" (hall be with the names of the children, twelve 
according to their names?* and v. 36, " and 
thou (halt engrave upon the plate of gold, 
" Holinefs to the Lord. 9 * Mr. Aftle remarks,, 
Mofes, would certainly here have faid ; in thefe 
engravings make ufe of the alphabetic characters 9 
ivhich God bath communicated to me, or 9 which I 

have invented, and taught you the ufe of '(/'). 

P I do 

(g) Commentarii L. Hebrajcas, p. 852.' 

li) Nomenclat. Egypt- Arab. p. 230. hence the Irifh Sdair. 

{s y Origin and progrefs of writing, p. 13. 



I do not agree with the learned Warburton, 
that Motes either altered the fhapes or enlarged 
the alphabet 6f the Samaritan letters, (in which 
Mofes and all the Hebrews wrote, till Efdras adopt- 
ed Cbaldaean numerals). It appears plainly, that 
the Samaritans had two alphabets formed on the 
fame flock ; one, the original, was the numerical, 
contra&ed from the Chalchean aftronomical alpha- 
bet, this in PI. XIII. is called Samar. e Codidbus ; 
it confided of twenty-two letters, like the Chai- 
daean numerals, and ferved them to reckoft up to 
400. And when the Chaldaeans invented what 
are called yfrw/r, to affift them in reckoning, and 
marking up to 900, thefe finals were not copied 
by the Samaritans ; who finding alfo, many nu- 
merals had affumed literary powers fimilar in found 
to others, they rejetted thefe letters of fimilar 
found, and originally ufed but 17 of the 32 (£) ; 
whence it comes, that on. the ancient Hebrew 
coins, we find but 1 7 letters of the Samaritan, or 
ancient Hebrew charaders ; but in modern ma- 
nuscripts we find 22. The alphabets in PL XIII. 
arc taken from Franc. P. Bayerii Archid. Valenti, 
&c. de Nvmis Hebrao Samar it anis. Valentia. 1781. 
The fame reafon we affign for the Irifh having 
adopted but 1 7 of the 20 original Ogham nume- 
rals, which were afterwards increafed to 24 in 


, Had 

Ik) Zain was not ufed becaufe fimilar in {bund to Tfade ; 
Thcth not ufed becaufe fimilar to Tau ; and Capb rcje&ed being 
fimilar to Kopb ; and Pe to Beth. 


Had letters been invented before numerals, or 
had they been originally independant of them, it 
is to be fuppofed* the inventor would have clafied 
the elemental founds ; the original inventor of an 
alphabet of letters, would certainly have diftri- 
buted the characters of the elemental founds, ac- 
cording to their feveral orders ; firft into vowels 
and confonants, and thefe again into dentals, la- 
bials and palatines, &c. whereas, they are arrang- 
ed in a confufed and disjointed (cries, which 
plainly ihews, they had originally fbme other ufe, 
and this could only be for numerals ; and although 
in the Irifh Ogham the vowels follow each other, 
without any intervening conibnAnts, when the 
Ogham numerals were arranged in alphabetic or- 
der, they followed the eaftern cuftom. We fee 
alfo in the modern Arabic and Perfic alphabets, 
when new letters were introduced, though the 
arrangement was altered, the numerals ftiil hold 
their proper places. In the modern Perfic Te is 
the fourth letter, yet as a numeral it (lands for 
400, the Tau of the Chaidaeans ; Se is the fifth 
letter, and (lands for 300, the value of Sin of 
the Chaidaeans ; and Giim which is the fifth letter, 
(lands for 3, the value of the Ghimel of the 
Chaidaeans. In the Arabic, Te is the third letter, 
yet (lands for 400, equal to the Chaldaic Tau; 
Gjrm is the fifth in order, yet (lands for 3, &c. &c. 
See PI. X. p. 2. 

P a There 


_ * 

There have been few nations, even the moft 
barbarous, that could not have reckoned to twen- 
ty, the number of fingers on the hands and, toes 
on the feet j and as few that would not have In- 
Vented fome arbitrary marks to (land for each 
number to that amount. Such a people being ig- 
norant of alphabetic writing, on their acquaint- 
ance with others, (as with the Cbaldaeans or Phae- 
nicians), who ufed arbitrary marks for both pur- 
pofes, would naturally preferve the ihapes and 
forms of their own numerals, on being inftru&ed 
in the application of numerals to elementary 
founds ; and hence may arife that diverfity of 
alphabets we fine! in the eaft and elfewhere (/). 

As to thofe who think letters were in ufe in the 
time of Abraham, I think the fcriptures plainly 
fliew they were not. The covenant between 
Abraham and Abimelech was ratified in the ac- 
ceptance of oxen and fheep by the latter, and by 
a mutud oath, without any mention being made 
of a written memorial That between Jacob and 
Laban was ratified by cotle&ifcg a heap of ftones, 
in a circular form, upon which they partook of 
a common entertainment, and erefted a pillar : 


(/) But with all nations, eren the inoft enlightened, taiwas 
:the perfed number, and from ten, they began to numerate a- 
new. Denarius eft Deus fummus, et Deorum Deus, quod ma- 
nuum pedum que decern fint digiti ; decemque praedicamenta 
& orationis partes decern. Omnia enim ipfis Decas ut fit, al- 
locutionem ceteris orationis partibus apponunt & fupplementum. 
(Nicomachi Arithm. Theolog. apu'd Photium p. 464)* 


fueh a circular heap is expreffed in Hebrew by the 
word ft gal, and hence gedl and gal 9 in Iriflh, ftg- 
nify a heap of {tones, a covenant, pledge, fecu- 
rity , &c. This word, and the application of it, their 
anceftors muft have learnt in the eaft (/»)„ 

Abraham went from Ur 9 in Chalclaea, into Ca- 
naan and into Egypt, and probably carried with 
him the agronomical character of the Chaldaeans, 
which we have (hewn were alfo numerals, and af- 
terwards became alphabetic letters ; the Phaenir 
cians would be defirous of learning fuch charac* 
ters, for the more ready depicting of the conftel- 
lationa ; they were navigators at an early time, 
and certainly applied thejnfelves to the delineation 
of a caeleftial chart ; from their proximity and 
connexion with the Chaldaeans, they had an op- 
portunity of knowing the application of thefe 
aftronomical numerals, to the powers of founds, 
as foon as invented, and hence might boaft of 
their being the authors of alphabetic writing, an 
honour we think due to the Chaldaeans. 

We (hall now attempt to (hew the caufe of 
fimilitude between the modern Iriih chara&ere and 
the Greek and Latin charafters. They certainly 
had one common origin the Fetafgfan - r but the 
Pelqfgi were Scythians. The learned Ihre has 


(«) See conjectural obfervations on the origin and progrefs 
of alphabetic writing, (anonymous), London, 1772 ■ an 
ingenious efiay, whereiiv the author attempts to demonftratc 
that the Greek capitals were formed from the pofition of the 
mouth m the pronunciation of them* 


treated this fubjeft fo mafterly and fo fully, we 
fhall here give his words : *—Pelqfgi Scythica gens 
feeriat ; fi itaque verum eft, quam probatiffimis 
veterum GrsBcke fcriptoruxn teftimoniis evidentur 
confirmatmn, Peiafeos Atticofque Thraciae feu, 
quod idem eft, Getica originis gentem fcuffe; 
confeqoi videtur, linguam Pelafgorum aliam noa 
fuiffe quam Geticam* literafque illas, quas ante 
Cadmus advtntum, Diodoro Siculo tefte, habuit 
Hellas, quafque wi*«ryM«i ww^m appellabant, fuiffe 
Getkas. Vocabantur easdem *at*«*, quam vocera 
dum Hefychius explicat t* ****** **>%*?*<> sntiqua 
& domeftka ; ingeniofa eft Heiafii conje&ura, ea£ 
dem ut & gentem ipfam ita appellatam effe, son ab 
ttrbe Athena nee ab Attbide, Cranai filia, fed ab 
ta^p^My atikim, quod in lingua Ebraea antiques 
notat. Hoc vero fi ftierit, probabile eft, id ipfis 
nominis datum effe a recentioribus advents Cad- 
me is. Communis quidem eruditorum opinio eft, 
ilia*, quibus ufa eft florens Hellas > literas per 
Cadmum a Phanicibus ia earn tranfve&as eflfe ; fed 
fateor, me in alia omnia difcedere, & licet huic 
quaeftioni hek locus non (it, attamen vdim mihi 
explicent hujus fententias Patroni. J. Cur e* 
viginti duabus oriemalium litem non nifi fedecim 
Graecis dederit ? 2. Cur non nifi poft belli Tro- 
jani tempora f, $, x* inter literas Grecas recepta 
fuerint, quum tamen s , t0 9 & j? inter fuas habue- 
rit Cadmus ? 3. Cur fi Cadmeae erant Gracorum 
liters, tanquam fingulare quid commemoret He- 


xodotus L. V. ipfo juvene repertas ad hue fuiffe 
rdiquias fcripturse Cadmese in teraplo Apollinis 
Ifthtnenii ? 4. An fi Samaritana fuiflfct Cadmae 
litteratura, iilaque in Grsecia omnium prima, all- 
qua veri fpecie dicere potuiffent Plinius Hift. Nat. 
L. 7. & Tacitus Annab XL eandam fimtlitnam 
fuiffe antiquiflimae Latii ? 5. Cur Cadmus in Fhae- 
nicia Ikeras a dextra finiftram verfus exararet, fed 
in Grecian* adveniens eafdem a finiftra ad dextram 
ping^ret. Hoc cnim fcripturae geiros femper ob- 
tinuiflfe, hand obfcirre indicat Herodotus L. 2. 
ubi diffen&m defcribit inter inftituta Egypriorum 
& Graecorum. 

Ad harmoniam, qux inter iinguam Scythicam 
Graecamque obfervatur, fieri poteft, ut nonnihil 
etiam comulerint plurimae illse, quae per Scythiam 
& in jnimis Ponticas regiones fparfee erant, Grae- 
coram colonise. Nemo ignorat, earundem men- 
tionem facere Ovidiuxn in Triftium libris. HHlo- 
ricorum pur ens, a me faepius laudatus, eafdem 
Scythico-Grccos appellat L. 1 . immo in oratione 
ad Graecos Boryfthenicos perhibet Dio Ghryfofto- 
nwts, Tauricam Cherfonecum a Graecis & Scythis 
promifcue habitatam fuiffe, immo Homeri carmina 
in ultimU his turn cogniti orbis partibus le&kata 
fuzflfe, maximique habita. Sed de ifciuftnodi colonis 
nee non hoftiii invafione in genere obfervandum 
x puto, fieri utique per eafdem potuifie, ut utriufqne 
gentis fermo aBquid peregrinitatk contraxerk in 
fingularibus vocabulis, fed genio tamen fermonis 



cujufvis loquentium integro monente. Videmus 
id, ex : gratia in Hifpania 9 ubi licet Gotbica fc? eti- 
am Arabics multa jus civitatis nacia Jint, lingua 
tamen ipfa gentum fuum fervavit Hlibatum. 

Dari itaqpe mihi yolq 9 Gracam linguam & Gc- 
ticatn fororias effe, & a commurilfonte Scytbico prog- 
natas ; quod monuifie, eo raagis e re mea fait, 
fpa faepius in curfu operis ex Graecia noftrorum 
vocabulorum fontes repeto. Eft ver9 non raro, 
ubi noftra lingua vicem reddere reperiretur, & 
deperditas inter Grcecos radices fubminiftrare, 
fi quis utriufque linguae peritus hanc provinciam 
fufcipere, operse dretium duceret. 

This exthtft from the learned Ibre accounts for 
the limilarity of the modern Irifli chara&er with 
the Greek, and for the identity or fac fimile of 
the abbreviations ufed by the Irifli and the 
Greeks ; they all flowed from the fame Scythian 
fountain, and apparently were originally nu- 

We jlatter ourfelves fome new light has been 
thrown on this curious fubjeft, which has hither- 
to fruftrated the enquiries of the learned from the 
age of Pliny to the prefenj time. Nothing here 
is affirmed with certainty, and we fhall think our- 
felves happy, if this effay may tend, in the fmall- 
eft degree, to lead others of greater abilities to a 
better inveftigation of the fubjeft. 

As to the great variety of alphabets in the 
Ogham manner of writing of the ancient Irifli, 



being no lefs in number than 1 50, (as it is faid) 
our furprize will ceafe, if we confider all, one 
only excepted, were invented for the purpofe of 
impofing on the; vulgar, and ufed on charms, ta- 
lifmans, &c. The Arabs had no lefs than 28 
alphabets, which they called Simia from Sent, i. e. 
a name j this was a fpecies of geomancy or divi- 
nation employed by them on talifmans, and in the 
invocation of fpirics ; in their books teaching this 
art, the twenty-eight alphabets of various charac- 
ters are delineated, which they imagined, by cer- 
tain combinations, had power to make fupernatu- 

ral beings fubfervient to the wifhes and commands 
.of men (0). 

(0) See Richardfon's Arabic Di&. under the word Kimyia,, 
p. 1511. 


t - 

I «* 1 


Selefl terms nf Law and Government, and fame other 
remarkable words ufed by the bijh in their an* 
dent Breith-amhuin Laws. 

JL AWS, and a Tegular Government, muft have 
proceeded from a civilized fociety. A favage 
nation becoming civilized, by mixing with a ci- 
vilized nation, mult have borrowed all terms of 
law and government from them. A nation fitu- 
ated in the weftern part of the globe, making ufe 
of terms of law and government, common to the 
eaftern nations, and unknown to the Greeks and 
Romans, mud have received civilization from the 
hands of eaftern nations. There is no doubt but 
fome families preferved themfelves from that bar- 
barity and ignorance which fucceeded the confu- 
fion of language, and the difperfion of mankind ; 
the molt ufeful and neceflary difcoveries were 
never entirely loft — but thofe who remained in 
the plain of Shinar and the adjacent countries, 
preferved the precious feeds of fcience and good 
government; neither were thefe branches of 
knowledge altogether forgotten by thofe colonies 



who took up an early fixed refidence ; for exam* 
pie, thofe who fettled in Petfia (a), Syria and 

Egypt — by t ^ ie ^ r means the feveral parts of ha- 
man knowledge were preferred, propagated and 
improved, but ail the reft led the life of favages 
and barbarians ; they negle&ed all kinds of know- 
ledge, even the moft common and neceffary, and 
not a few forgot even the ufe of fire. 

We have Jhewn from numerous authorities,* 
that the Scythians of whom we fpeak fettled in 
Iran, in Armenia, m Mesopotamia, and in the 
plain of Sbinar ; that they extended on one fide 
to Tauran, Thibet, China and Japan; on the 
other to Phanicia, AJfyria and Egypt, from whence 
they migrated to Crete, Sicily and Spain, and from 
thence to the Brittannic I/les. As we muft briefly 
walk over this ground again in the next chapter, 
we fhall proceed to produce more authorities 
drawn from language, in the terms of law and 
government ftill exifting in the Breith-amhan 
Laws of Ireland, defying our adverfaries to bring 
proofs of fuch terms exifting in the languages of 
any northern nations, from whom they wifh to 
derive the anceftry of the firil inhabitants of thefe 
Weftern Ifles. 

When we view fociety as the effect of unani- 
mous concord, it neceffarily fuppofes certain co- 
venants, thefe covenants imply conditions, thefe 
conditions are to be confidered as the firft laws 


[a] Perfia, that is Iran. 



by which focieties are governed; thefe are the 
origin of all political regulations which have 
been fucceffively eftabltthed. 

The word fpr a covenant in Irifh is Heart or 
Berit, plur. Breitb; hence Breitb-ncamb* the 
code of the covenant, the constituted covenant. 
The word Breitb is often compounded as Breitb* 
mmban, Ceart-breitb 9 Comb-breith, Breitb-caoman, 
Sic which terms will be hereafter explained^ 

The old Britifh words for a covenant are 
Marcbnady Cyttundeb> Cordiad, Ammod x Dyundeb* 


A covenant, in the Danifh language, is exprefled 
by the Irifh word Underbandling ; a feof or feodal 
tenure by Lebngods, a feadal law by Lebnfret* 

It is evident the Irifh borrowed from neither of 
thefe languages. In the Oriental languages, the 
words law and covenant arefynonimous \ they are 
fo in the Irifli, and generally exprefled by Breitb. 
In Hebrew (£) ffnfr BerH 9 fignifies a covenant 
(foedus, paftum)- Mofes ufes no other expreffion, 
fpeaking to his people of the ten commandments 
given him by God, and indeed by the tenour of 
the whole text, it is very evident a compact is 


(5) And in Phoenician Band or Berut, muft have fignificd 
the lanvy for the city of Berytus in Phoenicia, was fo called 
from the famous Laiv Academy founded there* The Emperor 
Juflinian named this cityy the mother and nurfe of the law, 
and from thence he called the two famous civilians Dorothea* 
and AnatoTtuiy to afiift in compofing the digefts. By whom this 
Phoenician College was founded is uncertain- 


meant. Deutr. ch. xxvi. Mofes holding the ta- 
bles, fays, " this day ye have ele&ed Jehovah^ 
your Elohim, (lord, matter) and have promifed 
to keep his ways, and be obedient unto him, and 
God has this day chofen you his peculiar people.** 
From thefe texts, fays Spencer, it is evident, the 
obligation was mutual ; and from hence he thinks 
the law given to the people of Ifrael is called 
Beritb, or cy»p Cat am, i. e. pa&um, foedus, fta- 
tutum ; the word fignifies to fwear, to promife by 
oath. Samarit. Kom 9 foedus. Irifh Caorn, Cao- 
mariy Coman 9 Comaoin, Deut. xxix. i. Thefe are 
the words of the compact or covenant j .and hence 
the book containing thefe laws ordered by <lod, 
and written by Mofes in the mount, is called Exod. 
xxiv. 7, the Book of the Covenant. Therefore 
JTVQ Berit, in Hebrew, implies both law and 
covenant, rf?JO Tf^M Berit malach, faedus fstlis 
Numb, xviii. xix. 2 Chron. xiii. 5, where it is 
tranflated a covenant of Jblt, but it is evidently 
the law relating to fait, as appears from Lev. ii. 13. 
Gufletius in his comments on the words firft 
quoted, fays, fnihifatis eft lex data defale Lev. ii. 
13 ommi exceptione carens & irrevocabilis—*itaut 
hac phrafis contineat comparathnem, fcil. res erit 
aquejtrma ac lex defale. Berit then, in Hebrew, 
fignifies both Covenant and law. (c) min iTCH 
Olti *03 fiitJto nam loqaiter codex facer ait 


,(c) Gufletius Comni. ad verb, n^c 


homines loqui confaeverunt. (Babha Mezia* fbL 

' Hence our Irilh Breitb-neamb. Now having 
clearly ftewa that the Iri(h word 'Breitb is Hebrew, 
and ufed by Mofes in the fame fenfe as the Irifh 
always applied it, the adje&ive neamb ihould cer- 
tainly be fought for in the fame language* Here 
the Hebrew nam or ncum> comes to our afliftance. 
ON3 nam difta dtvina y eaque de legibus, dogma- 
tis & prophetiis (Gufletius). Nam, dicere, inde 
naoitm conftitutum : a nam fit— Syriac : namoufa 
lex, & inde Grace* n^ ; inde etiam n^«, rego, 
adminiftro, unde Ne^ praefe&ura. N«pi£« lege 
fancio. Hibernict nimb & Finland; ninufi ad 
OND nam pertinent—id mihi fatis fuperque eft, ut 
Unguarum omnium ab Hebraica derivationem 
hinc opprobem. (Thomaffinus Gloff. Hebr. Univ. 

P- 595> 

This great etymologift has written the Iriftr 

word nimb for neamb 9 but he is pofitive it derives 

from the Hebrew nam ; therefore the title of the 

Irifh laws Breith-neamh might be tranflated Judicia 

Calejtiaj—Tieamb certainly fignifies heaven and 

heavenly in the Irifh and Thibet diale&s, but I 

think it is improperly applied here* 

That Breitb implies law and covenant in Irifh, 

is clear from the following paflage, extra&ed from 

the 14th Vol. of the NSS. Laws in my poffeffion. 

" Law cannot yield to the argument of the 

" pleader, 


" pleader, but as his argument agrees with the 
" authority of the law : no argument can invali- 
" date the law. The Breith neamh was emitted 
" with the common confent of the chiefs and people 
ajfembkd j it is therefore general and binding 
to all. If a queftion ar ifes not explained in the 
" code, then, ancient traditions of the Fileath's 
" muft decide." {d) 

The Breith neamh was rcvifed triennially at 
Tar ah > where all the dates of the kingdom were 
aflembled. The name of the place feems to have 
been given from PHID Torab? lex, the law ; and 
at this aflembly we read of a feaft given to the 
people. (See Collettanea III. p. 513). This was 
probably a facrifice ; for with the ancients no co- 
venant was made or ratified without a facrifice— 
fcedera non fine fanguinis efu inibant, all cove* 
nants were concluded with eating of blood. This 


(d) The Fileaths were philofophers, lawyers and divines-^- 
aut fi privilcginm phUofpphorum eft, (inquit TertuUianus) & 
utique Graecorum ; quafi non $c Scythae & Indi philofophentur 
— et hos philofophos alio quidam nomine Tarabojiefcos, item 
Phikatos olim appellabant. (EL Schedius p. 255). The opi- 
nion delivered by thefe Fileath's was called beuVufda % or tradi- 
tional, from beul the mouth, and us a ftory or tradition — and 
fuch opinion was efteemed equal to the written law. Ufta 
is ufed in the fame fenfe by thofe Perfians, who are difciples of 
Zoroafter. ZJfta, ou, Abejta> eft le loi non ecritc, qui consent 
pluiieurs traditions, qui parmi les diciples de Zoroaitre, ont la 
mhne autorite que la loi ecrite (Herbelot;. Ufta, Avefta, 
or Abefta, a traditional fupplement to the books which con- 
tain the principle, of the religion of the Magi, or fire-wor- 
(hippers of Pcrfia, (Richardfonj — Ch. »Vd pheli dijudicare, dif. 
quircre, rm^s phila, interpretation 

s s 

« r 


cuftom, fays the learned Spencer, was never omitt-' 
ed by the Scythians ;— non Scythis tantum & 
aliis gentibus, fed Romanis etiam omni genere 
humanitatis ex cultis, fanguinem in faedcre pan- 
gendo bibere (Spencer, p. 614). Hence JMofes, 
according to the cuftom of nations, when he had 
written the mutual terms of the Berit in a book, 
and the people had heard them read, having of- 
fered a facrifice, he fprinkied half the blood on 
the altar and half on the people, fayfrig, this is 
the blood' of / the covenant, which God covenants 
with you, on all his fayings. But this cuftom was 
praftifed long before the time of Mofes — Sacra- 
ficia faedaralia lege Mofis antiquiora fuiffe — fi ye- 
terum facrificia evolvamus, raro, facrificia fine 
covivio, rariflime faedera fine facrificio fatta repe- 
riamus (Spencer p. 766) j hence in Irifh caom and 
cum from the Hebrew or Chaldaean op com, fig- 
nifies a covenant and a feafl, as does the word 
CoiJhire r a feaft and a tribunal, from the Hin- 
doftan language— ne fsedera quidem incruenta 
funr, fauciant fe, qui pacifcuntur ; exemptumque 
fanguinem ubi permifcuere, deguftant : idputant 
manfurae fidei pignus certiffimum. (Pomponius' 
MelaL. 2.C. i>(*) 


(e) From thefe roots proceed the Irifh aod-btart> the facrifice 
of the covenant; in the Shanfcrit birto, a facrifice. See Holwell'a 
Hindbftan* And as every covenant was ratified by a facrifice, 
nTay riot the Latin fcedus be derived from the Arab, feada, re- 
demmio, facrificium. The Corn-Caiam, or horn of the covenant, 



Leges a deo acceptas Mofes in libro confcribit, 
multitudinifque exponit. Quibus cum fe parituros 
promiffiffent ; duodecim columnas & altare erigit, 
viftimafque maftari curat; quarum fanguinis dimi- 
dium altari afpergit, alteram dimidiam verfus tur- 
bam fpargit. Et hac ratione dei nomine fadus cum 
Iiraelitico populo pangit j vi cujus illi legum fibi * 
prbpofitarum obfervationem in fe fuofque pofteros 
fan&e fufcipiunt ffj. 

This ceremony of compaft between the eledted 
and the ele&ors, in the Irifh Brehon Laws, is 
fometimes named Biod and Boid, which fignifies a 
vow or compact reciprocally given between parties,. 
The word Jhas a great affinity to the Arabic biat, 
which in the modern Arabic implies, the ele&ion 
or inauguration of a Khalife. This ceremony is 
performed by taking the new Khalife by the hand ; 
it is a kind of pledge and homage, and oath of 
fidelity. (Herbelot). Biat r according to Golius, 
is derived from ^L baa, vendidit, and in the third 
conj. contraxit, ftipulatus pa&ufque fuit cum alio, 
which is the precife meaning of the Irifh biod or boid. 

Breitb-amhan fignifies the law, a judge, the 
perfett covenant : the latter part of the compound 
comes alfo from the Hebrew )jqn amen, credere, 
fidere, verificare, Veritas, fides — hinc tranfit in 

(^ vocem . 

ufed by the Irifh at thefe feftitrals 13 of this origin likewife, as 
is Coimhdey a landlord or feudatory chief. See Adh. From 
the fame root is bratair, a brother, frater, focitis, confederate, 
according to Refenius in his Iilandick Did. and alfo britbid* a 
focia confxderata, viz. nmn. 

(f) Waehner. Antiq. Ebraeor. torn 2. p.. 230. 


vocem credentis, afTentientis, quod di&um eft ; 
led magis eft fides in contra&ibus, cum n finale, 
amanah 9 contractus, ratificatio. Ceirt-Breitb, or, 
Ceart-Breithj the perfe&ed covenant, from cear- 
dam or cedrtam, to make or do ; " whence ceard, 
an artificer, opifex. The noun" JYna berit feldom 
occurs in 'the* fcripture without the verb JVQ ca- 
rath. 1 Sam. ii. i. " And Nahafli, the Ammo- 
nite, came up and encamped againft Jabefh Gilead j 
and the men of Jabefh faid unto Nahafh xh JTO 
rFXl (cardfb (enu berith) make a covenant with us 
and we flialf ferVe you." And v. 2, " And Na- 
hafli anfwered tbem, on this condition acarath be- 
rith 3 will I make- a covenant with thee." 1 Sam. 
xxii. 18. and .2 Chron. xxiii. 1. and in many 
other places TTO carath is joined with JTQ berith, 
and in all thefe the fenfe of carath is to make or 
perfeQra covenant (g). 

In the Irifh poem of the invafion of Ireland, by 
Erragon, tranflated by the ingenious and learned 
Dr. Young, Fellow of Trinity College, at p. 45, 
are thefe lines : 

Bheirramfa agus Ailde ur 

Breiteach bliadhna ri tnur Finn. 
I and the noble Ailde withdraw our covenant 

for a year from Finn. 
Here Breith is lengthened by the poet to breiteach, 
to anfwer the meafure of the verfe. 


(g) See what has been written on thefe words by Sharp, 
Catcot, Hutchinfon, &c. 


±. The reafoh for withdrawing from the covenant, 

cie. is given in the two preceding lines, viz. becaufe 

r x they had not been invited to the feaft at Almbuin, • 

& which was probably a federal feaft. 



Al. The Arabic article al was ufed by the ancient 
Irifli, we find it in molt ancient mariufcripts, 
as in 

Ahnafan, alms, charity. • L 

Ail-meadh, prayer, praife. Arab, d-bemdu, from 
hemd 9 praife ; elhemdu tillah, praife to God. 

Albhar, favage, from the Arab, birre, favage. 

Alneogh, the elm tree. Arab, nattgh. 

Alglois, mifchief. Atab. akhlak. 

Alfajna, a drove, herd. Arzb. juma: 

Alraon, a foreign journey. Arab, rah, rube/. 

Altadbh, civilization. Arab. adeb. 

Allutta, a wound. Arab, alut, taiut, lutum, &c. 

Almafana, or, Almfana, alms, charity, ni gaba 
Taibret almfana in abeat dich feir, a Taibret or- 
Prieft fhall not take or accept of alms from 
paupers. The verb is afanam % or \fanam 9 to do 
good, to heal, &c. Arab. 1*^ ha/ana^ bonum 
fecit (plerumque hafna effertiy) ; unde mahafan* 

C^ 2 benefa&a. 


benefa&a. GoL p. 612. Hence die Almafan 

of the Irifh and the ****&*• and 'ex******* of the 

Greeks. Old Span. Almofna. 

The modern Irifh have confounded the article 

with the word, and all our Irifh Lexicons are very 

defective in this particular, as well as in the prefix 

M, which in many words is only the fign of a noun, 

denominating the inflrument of the a&ion, as in 

the Oriental languages. 

Achufac, a feudal tenure. See Fine— -Arab. Ak- 
iezety a fief; it implies the receiving of lands 
from a chief, and might refer to copyholds or 
farms ; fo that nothing conclufive to fiefs can 
be drawn from this alone, fays Richardfon, 
in his preface to his Arab. Did. p.. 33. — The 
rife and progrefs of the feudal fyftem in Europe 
is marked ; it was an exotic plant, and it has 
. of confequence engaged the attention of our 
ableft antiquaries. But in the eaft it is indige- 
nous, univerfal, and immemorial. In India, 
Ferfia, Tartary, and other eaftern countries, 
the whole detail of government, from tha moft 
ancient accounts down to the prefent hour, can 
hardly be defined by any other defcription than 
feudal. (Richardfon). In our preface to this 
Volume, we have (hewn the opinion of a 
learned author (D'Ancarville), that this mode 
of government originated with the Southern 
Scythians, and the firft inftance of it hi hiftory 
was their conqueft of Afiyria. (See Pref. p. 33). 

I think 


I think the firft i'nftance of it is under Belus or v 
Nimrod, as we {hall lhew in the next chapter. 
See Somaine, Saorgal, Soirceat, &c. Th6 He- 
brew tfiN achaz, pofledit, obtinuit, acbuzxa & 
acbuzat, poffeffio, is the root of our achufac. 
The Chaidaeans, Syrians and Arabs changed 
the x into d and wrote ac had. See Acaid.— — 
Hence the Spanifh Axuar y a wife's portion j 
dos & mundus mulieris quando hubit. Irifh 

An, Ain, the law. Arab. aien > rite, cuftom, 
cannon, law. Cpptice ban, judicium. Siban, 
judicari. Irifh fean-achas, a judge ©f the feu- 
dal code. See Achus. 

Adh, Ahud, the law. Faoi-ud, one under Cove- 
nant, a feudift. Arab, ahud, a covenant. 
Ohoud mot Arabe, pr6ceptes de politique. (Her- 
belotj. Ahd, jusjurandum, pa&um, fcedus, 
promifium, a themate abeda. (Pocock Carm. 

Achd, the law. Arab, akud, a covenant- 

Adal, the law. Arab, adal, juftitia. 

Adailgne, a military covenant. Arab, ahud ulug^ 
ulug is a Tartar word adopted by the Arabs. 
(Richardfon). Addala, re&um efficere. (Po- 
cock Carm. Tog.) 

Agh, Ach, the law. Heb. pn bokk 9 ftatutum. 
Arab; . hukk, the law. Perf. yek. 

Ath-cart, a renewal (of a leafe),. &c. a redoing. 
See Ceart-Breith in the preceding page. Arab. 



att 9 repetition ; particula Hebr. f\ti *U res dif- 
jungit, at vero prgefixum *| Vau, res iterum con- 
jungit. (Halich. olam. p. 1 96)* 

Acaid, an eftate, a poffeffion, fettlement, fixed 
abode. Chald. *iriN acbad, poffeffion. Acbida, 
haereditas. Arab. Akhad. 

Acaire, Acairid, the fame. Arab. akar 9 an im- 
moveable eftate in land, and houfes, &c. 

Adhal, the van, a leader of the vanguard. Ppr- 
tugueze adail, a guide, leader, or condu&or, 
. from the Arabic delid, a guide ; it is efpecially 
ufed fpeaking of thofe conducting armies. 
(Vieyra). Adail, a guide, fron^ the Arab. 
dalla, to fhew the way. In Africa this word is 
the name of an officer who conducts the army. 
(De Soufa Lex. Portug. Arab. >— Hence the 
Irifli have alfo da la, a demonftration, explana- 
tion ; and Dal-greine, or, the Leader of the 
Sun, the name given to Fionn-mac-Cumars 
ftjuidard, the Fingal of Macpherfon. Admha- 
lich, a royal warrant. Arab* «x$* aid, a war- 
rant ; melikj a king. 

Aghreir, the law, a covenant. Arab. akrer 9 a 

Aghall, fpeech, agreement, covenant. Hence 
Eo-ghalladh, the new Teftame^t or covenant. 
Arab, akauil, fpeeches, words, compacts. 

Ailmeadh, praifes, prayers. Arab, albamdu. 

Aire, Aireac, Aiteac, noble, a chief. . Arab. arek 9 
arha, . atik. 


Aodkair^ a ihephefrd.. Chald.Try ;vMw» a Sock. 

InlriJh <wdk hj§. ftegle.lheep. \tf*4bar ? * flock, 

and fitoay ibwpv:\ J^id r 4wr^a wtetctr* a. -guard, 

our word ihoBid r ^idterf^r-4w*;^J:J ... \ 

Ailing to iuffe».tf Vedubato.' Aiabs ;!*#£/#,' fcdu- 

.'• care, 8r idoneniiitedderfe; r ^ .;:-.:•. 


Altera, to nwfe* t&*g]Hte fuck, to&fter, to -edu- 
cate. The? f*&er 4 :fajfeer not; only took care to 

, b&yfe the child/ »wfecH but ^duQitsd atfoi by 
; proper makers. The price nof -dducatioA is 
:'. -fisfid in ;the Brdboa Laws^ac^dingi'tA -the 

4> :fqi$ftCQ$ t$ be: taught,* by-tbs Aidm^uUfch or 
,: ; proJfeflbr^itti^d fo* that p«irFWfei»Gha!d:. Vw 

r redder*. £^oao^k : Cprm. Tog*.; 2 5*9). <jAn 

t .,Adjm, th,q WH|e^f:}^ahaiuraaci , s,inftTu£lor find 

r chief >cQjmpaiiiqn, . Adama, ^rchirf, The Irifh 

• Aidfluaiatf* $ probably df r^je4/ r ?P?:^ ;; ** - c Wef, 

AN**?-, a c«^Wp»Hd^nHj|, iiAr^. £*/*/, qui 

v J5 wrk m tefa$i jbderat 11^ ,,&$ Esdlabtetr. : 
A^ t -a, houfei ; Altire, ^aft,;aishtte&< /AWth, 
..- jaoofes, aryillage,. Ji\doftanice i: Ayefi L .ft;village. 

See Dea. ..; y • - - - ^- " 

•AffiJHA* ,i.;e; Qjjigpdb, \. e. Amuin'yX^p- name of 
^, ^ officer gf. ftate^ if appear.s M tp have bean a 

t-MMWl ;-ititIe* and fometiraea written Earaan. 
-/f! Afab. ,*w% ;c$,jnot fignifieyf^/^, cette epithete 

n:dWw'fe4opne aax gouvernq^rs & aux inten^ 
dartts d^&pfaices fortes.? — r^Les Turc$ ifui^ro- 

- * » noncent 


noncent emin au lieu d'amht entendent encore 
. plus particulierement par ce mot, celui qui 
* adminijtre les femes, iff les reixnus du Grand 
Seigneur. (Herbelot)* Arnin, officier de finances 
dans l'admmiffration des Aldees de PIndonftan. 
(Anquetil, Legis. Orientale, p. 957). Chald* 
'lOtt & flbtt Aman & Arrwwt, in arte fidus exer- 
citatus, artifex, opifex, archite&us. See Alt. 
The; root is ]»w aman, verax, verus, fidtft, fi- 
delis ; whence in the Syriac amin, eunuchus, a 
fidclitate. (ShindL) Tte moft. ftriking example 
that can be given of the Hindoftans and the 
ancient -inhabitants of thtfe iflands, (the Irilh 
and the Erfe) having been originally one and 
the fame people, and fpruhg from Armenia, as 
I have proved in numberlefs inftances, or from 
Iran or ancient i*erfia, according to Sir Wil- 
liam Jones, ; is- in the names of titles of the 
(late officers, which are the fame in the Brehon 
Laws as at this day in 1 Hindoftan. Under the 
monarch of Ireland, we find his Antra or Ems- 
ra 9 his Bivtach, his Cearnt and his Buadbiare. 
. See each article, " La nobleffe de l'lndoftan . 
" formoit trois ordres : les Emirs y qui etoint 
les premiers officers de Tetat, & les vicerob 
des provinces, les Chant; qui occupoietxt les 
premiers poftes dans les armies, & les Baba- 
dours qui peuvent en quelque fa^on etre com- 
pares & nos chevaliers." (Anquetil Legifl. 
Orient, p. 234. See alfo Dow's Hindoftan). 





Air bhe, a ftory, a letter, a written fpeech. Arab. 

herf 9 a ftory, fpeech, letter, a chara&er. 
Airis, hiftory. Arab. aruz y occurrences, poetry, 

profody, the argument or fenfe of a fpeech* 

Hibern. aoris> poetry. 
Amh, one perfon. Amhaith, a community. Heb. 

Oy am> populi. Arab. amet 9 a community. 

Amet afefaU all the learned. Hibern. amhait- 

Anart, linen. R. iilferto. Arab. anesU 
Airillead, Arilcach, a law. Tartar, and Perfic, 

yerligbj a royal mandate, a diploma. Bale. 

jarleeua, a tribunal. 
Aire, Aireac, a chief judge. Arab, arijb, prin- 

ceps, pra^e&us pagi. Eek. and areek, noble. 

Hara, nobiii flirpe natus. Perf. ak 7 dominus.(£) 
Aighneam, to plead. See Chald. JYW hegaion, 

p. 31. 
Aidneadh, to plead. Arab, bada, in. clientelam 

recepit : termiiiavit judicio & legis paena in ali- 

quam animadvertiu 
Aire-ada, a fevere punifhment infli&ed by a judge- 
See Aire. Arab. bad 9 caftigatio, paena a. ju- 

dice definita, pecul. fuftigatio. (A) 

. Aclaidhe, foftening rigour, evading punifcment. 
Arab. akl 9 paying a mulft for manfiaughter. 


(h) miK aorah en Samaritain fignifie toujours loi. (Lcttre dc 
M. Bjornflahl a Fabrici, Titrcs primitifs T. 1. p. 381. 


Ain, money. Ana, wealth, riches. Arab, ain, 
money. Hindbft. htm, .hence the trifli beg-ain 
or peg ain, a penny, i. e. (mail money. 

Alga, Algae, Ealga, prince, - princely, noble. 
Tartar and Arab. ulug. See Adailgne. 

Ach,. Aice, a brother, a tribe, family. Aicne, na- 
ture, rw (xh % frater nature. 

Aicir, the head of a family, the root, a father. 
Chald. *ip>N oka r. Arab, ykr* ftirps, radix. * 

Ai, Aoi > a herd, a region, trad or country, com- 
munity, inheritance of land, confederacy, com- 
paft. Jt is fometimes written hy, as Hy-Ki»fel- 
lagh, Hy-Failge, &c. Arab, hay, populus qui 
. fedea in loco aliquo finiul fixerunt, vel fiipul in 
vicinia d«gentes. Sic in lingua Hpb. n^TI haia. 
Thema eft Arab, hayya. (Pocock Carm. Tograi. 

P- 77> 
Ali, Alach, Eile, a tribe, crew, generation ; as 

Eile Q'Carrol, Eile O'Gharty, &c. Arab, ali, 
offspring^ race, dynafty ; as Ali Ofman, Ali 
Zefer, Ali Seljuk. Ehle, a tribe. AH, a fa- 

Arc, Earc, an impoft, a tribute. Arab, eareh. 
Chald. -pp arak, ta£a<vit. 

.Amha; a plebeian. Arab, ammtt, amum> ami. 

Ame#l, bufinefs, employment. Arab. amuL 

Amar, Emir, a noble, a chief, plur. amra . Arab. 
Emir, plur. amera, umera. Perf. amrugh. 

Afaire, a (hoemaker. Perf. azar. 



Adon, a lord/ prince, fovereign. Ad'onlthad, 
or, Adonahad, fovereignty. Ch. )yw adon, 
dominus. • I think the latter part of the com- 
pound refers to Ad or Ahad a covenant or com- 
pad, fignifying a king or prince that has feu- 
dal princes under him. See Adh. 

Armenn, a chief, prince. ' Chald. flavin arimon, 
dux. Pcrf. arman 9 an elder. 

Aoda, Oide, Uide, a witneft, tcftimony, evidence, 
a godfather. tXHf oda^ teftimony, evidence. 

Aofidan, Aoftan, Aeftag,. a magus, aftrologer, 
foothfayer j thefe men had great privileges as 
.we (hull (hew in the proper place. Chald. tgst* 
o/l, magus, aftrologus. )^3^ta0^ ojlagnin* cfo&gi. 
Suidas tells us the Perfians called them or**** 
ojlanes i. e. magi, aftrologi. 

Aifli^leine, a linen Aifli, i. e. a fhroud. And 
Mahummed laid in cubiculo ayejha> fub kfto 
fuo in quo mortuus eft. 

Afar-laghach, to divine by herbs. Chald. ^j 1 ?- 
YSn hq/lir-lakad, from hat/ir 9 herba and /akad* 
fors. Verbo Hebraico "i^b lakad, fortitio ex- 
plicatur in tota paritet hac hiftoria iuftitutianis* 
Saulis ad regnum, cum tribus fortirentur, & 
poft tribus* familia & in familia domus, Be in 
donao perfona, ubique hsec fortitio per verbum 
*Ob lakad, exprimitttr (Scacchus Arcan. $,S. 
Myrothecium p. 833). 



Arfa-laghachd, to divine by numbers. Chald. *&•?- 
jTXin birza lakad. Arab. ba/ar 9 numero cotii- 

Afan, a flioit fpear. Dfu-Tafan 9 eft rex e regibus 
Homeritis, ad quern referunt fefe, ut invento- 
rem 9 haftae Tazanitica :, dicitur inde Azan 9 vel 
Azanitua, hafta media brevi & longa ! ! (Gjau- 
harius). Vide Schultens in notis, monument, 
vetuft. Arabia, p. 17.— But the word is Irilh, 

. as in the following quotation from the Leabar 
Breac, viz. " foidhis dino an tuafaj Jacobs Jofeph 
oirninte, agas a/an in a laimh" that is, the noble 
Jacob fent his fon Jofeph prepared, equipped, and 
with a (hort lance in his hand. If it had been 
a ftaff, the Irilh would have exprefled it by 
maide 9 matte, or mathan 9 the ntDJQ triatab of the 
Hebrews (/). 

An-eac, the woof. Arab. hak 9 weaving.. Aktun 9 
to weave. Hak kirdun, to weave. 


Bar, Beara, a judge. Chald. *q bar, examinavit. 

1^*0 m dath~baHa> or, deta baria, leges pe- 

riti, juris confulti. Dan. iii. 2. .Arab, and Perf. 

behrai 9 proper for the administration of public 

affairs. See Dath. 


. (1 ) ntOD matahy fcipio quails Judae pcregrinatis, ad fuftentan- 
-dum corporis dicitur de tribibus Ifraelis faepiffime— dcduci 
potuit ex ramis arborum, quibas genealogist conferri folent. 


Boaire, a degree of nobility. Arab, bohur, bo* 
; huron, vir liber a lis. 

Buadhaire, a military chieftain, a conqueror, a va- 
liant foldier. See -Amain. Perf. behader. 

Baofcna, law, compa&, covenant. Chald. pD9 
pefak, refpondet cum Hebr. Berith. • See the 
beginning of this Chapter. Chin, pefika, ftatu- 
tum, paftum. Pafak 9 arbiter, judex. 

Bealac, a fief, kings land. Perf. beluk, a fief. 

Beolach, a foldier, military tenant. Arab. bulk 9 a 

Barneas, Farneas, a magiftrate, governor. Chald. 
OWQ parnas, feu pharnas, magnatum in Oriente 
nomina ; re&orurri feu gubernatorum fonat.— 
Syr. parties y eft paftor ; inde Parnaflus eft «? rop«* 
fie montem dixerunt ubi greges fubs pafcebant. 


Beart, a covenant. See beginning of this chap- 

Beart, a facrifice. Aod-beart, facrifice of the co- 
venant. In the Shanfcrit birto, a facrifice. 

Baile, a tribe. Arab, abala, focii, trihus. 

Beis, money, tribute. Arab, baj, tribute. 

Barantas, a warrant, diploma. Arab, karaton, di- 
ploma regium, imprimis, quo privilegium ali- 

cui conceditur \ whence we have 
Barantunas, a deed of feoffment executed (£). 


(fy Brontanus do bheir duine maidhe ar duine ei^ean dho 
fhein ar feadh an ftiaoghal no do fein agus do fliochd na dhiagh— 
brontanus is a deed by which a rich man makes over v land ; to a 
plebeian for ever, or to him and his heirs for ever. 



Braide, a captive. Braideach, captivity. Arab. 
beradj. Perf. burdeh. 

Buacall, a mean perfon, fervant boy. Arab, bak- 
bily vile, mean. 

Blaf , a conqueror, a warrior. Be/bar > an ancient 
title among the Indian princes, equivalent to 
Pddjhah, or emperor. It was born by a mo- 
narch to whom the reft paid a kind of feudal 
obedience ; whofe f efidence was on a moun- 
tain called Belbar ; he ruled over the kingdoms 
of Cafhemir, Tebet* Barantola and other 
northern Indians, called by fome Turky-Hind. 

Bai, Baith, a plebeian, a clown, of the lowefl 
rank. Arab. beie. 

Beas, a covenant, compa&. Arab, bazur. 

Baili, a fteward, bailiff, &c. Arab, belu^ a ftew- 
ard, or other perfon who manages the revenue. 

Beul-ufda, traditional law. See Breith* Perf. 
Guebres, tffla. 

Bafal, judgment, opinion, counfel. Arab. bazaL 

Bocan, a manfion, houfe, cottage. Arab, baki, 
manfit. . 

Boromh, a heavy tax. Perf* buhurum. Arab, ba- 
baron, tria auri talenta. 

Beacht, covenant ; hence the Latin paftum. 

Bann, a law, compaft. Coptice bon\ foedus. 

Bannfaor, ffee of the compaft, free by law. 

Bal-faire, herald, cryer of the court. Arab, bilal, 
the cryers who announced to the people when 


LAW glossary. . £*g 

Mahommet prayed ; from bela^ making mani- 
feft : whence • ' 

Ballardah, a proclamation. Ballardhoir, a herald. 
Beofcara, a divQrce. Perf. pifhikar. 
Breas, Breas-lan, a prince. Ch. n2- ]^TCl braz* 

Jin, duces. 
Breaflann, a palace. Chald. f^fD ^arzalin, prae- 

fe&i. Perf. berze, a palace. 
Bafcac, bailiff, tollgatherer. Arab, bafghak, prse- 

Bla, be it made manifeft; this word frequently 
occurs at the head of paragraphs in the Irifli 
Laws. Arab. bela> manifeftum fecit, ^g ptai^ 
Baitibh, inteftate. Arab, tybb, the wilL Be tybb 9 
inteftate j here the Arab, prepolition be is ufed 
in the Irifli. 
Bar, a gentleman,, one of the upper clafs* Arab. 

beraya, nobles, the higher order of citizens. 
Bas, arms. Bafbaire^ a matter of arms, a fencer, 

tilter, &c. Arab, bezz, arras. 
Bios, filk. Biofar, a worker in filk. Arab, bezaz, 
, un ouvrier en foie. (Herb.) Chald. fl2 bu%+ 
byffus, feu potius pannus lineus, bombacinus, 
' etiam fericus ; hence Bezezjian^ a quarter of 
Conftantinople, where frfk is fold. 
Bally-biotagh, lands appropriated to the mainte- 
nance of the houfehold of the chief. Arab. beet> 



Bat, Batar, wares. Arab, beiat. 

Beal-taine, a military tenure of lands, a feod, 
compact, covenant: the origin of this com- 
pound feems to refer to Belus or Nimrod, 
(who certainly firft introduced this tenure) as 
the Irifh Beal-tine does to the fire of Belus, and 
from whom the month of May is fo called at 
this day. See Chapter VIII. See alfo Tana, 
Chald. N2n tana, pa&um. 

Beafchna, a fpoken dialed. Shanfcrit bhajha. 

Ban, a meafure. Ban-aUamh, a cubit. Bins, 
mefure de longueur, dans Tlndouftan. (Anque- 
til. p. 281). Chald. ffiDN atna, cubitus. 

Biotach, an officer who gathers the tribute in 
kind, for the ufe of the Prince's table. Baile- 
biotacb, fuch lands as are appropriated for the 
menfal of the Chief. " Hindoftanice bataku 
44 Fonchions du baiaki eft, produire l'abon- 
" dance, prendre foin des terres, que ce foit 
** H fon principal, fon unique objeft. Tout im- 
** pofition, ou fruit, tout ce qu'il retire de 
* f fixe des grands, qu'il ecrive." (AnquetiL 

p. 260). 
Bras, tilting, fingle combat. Perf. burap. 
Braslongphort, an amphitheatre. 
Borrochas, war cry, he&orin^. Arab, beraki, be- 

raki, courage, courage, an animating jaculation 

to one another in battle. (Rich). 
Beim, a tribe, a flock. Arab. behm> a flock, a 

troop, an army. 


/ / 


Bruigh, name of an officer of ftate who had 
lands affigned him, and other privileges, to 
keep open houfe and to give entertainment to 
all travellers in proportion to their ranks. The 
houfe of the Bruigh was called guirme, that is, 
an inn. Chald. "OCTVCS burgni, hofpes recipiens 
viatores, hofpitia— domus ^xtra urbem extru&a 
in quibus venduntur vi&uala. X3H& garni, ca- 
ravanfera a ~ffi gour, peregrinus. Thomaffin 
derives the words from f!*0 birab> palatium, 
and gour, peregrinus. Hence the Spanifh AU 
vergue, a place of entertainment, and thence 
the French Auberge. Lat. Albergium, a lodg- 
ing houfe on the road. The Auberge, in Malta^ 
is a houfe where the knights are entertained at 
the expence of the order. The houfe of the 
Iriih Bruigh, was alfo named Form-teach, from 
ieach 9 a houfe, zn&fonn, a journey. In Arabic 
funtuk, is a caravanfera or inn (/). 

R Brath, 

(/) It is fpecified in the laws, that the Bruigh mall keep in 
his houfe, for the amufement of men of quality, Beart-ruch, 
Beart-naird, and Beart-cubhog, which are all explained by 
Taibhle Fioch-thoille, which is generally tranflated Chefs. 
Beart, in Iriih, is fport ; it is the Bert of the Arabs, plur. bertinet, 
fports, amufements : in the Arab, rtikh is the tower, or one 
of the fix colours or pieces of the game of Chefs. In Per fie 
nerd is the game of Chefs, draughts, dice. Cubog or Ca- 
bag is the Arab, tubch, the game of Chefs. Fioeh is the Per- 
fie pi%h % Chefs ; thoille is the Arab, tuleh or tule, the Chefs 
board, (i. e. fioch-thoille) ; To that Beart-ruch, Beart-naird, 
and Cabagh or Cubogh are all Oriental names of the game 
of Chefs, for which the ancient Iriih have been celebrated. See 
Hyde. Relig. Vet. Perf. and the Effay at the end of this 


Brath, privileges and rewards to conquering fol- 
diers. Arab, berat, brevet^ a royal diploma, 

Breo, Breogh, a facred fire. Syriace brua, i. e. 
Heliopolis. Hence the town of Brough near 
Lough CChur, or the lake of the fun, near 
which many altars are ftill to be feen. *nn cbur 9 
the fun. Arab. khur. 

Bodhe, Boghe, a poet's reward (ufually a cup of 
pure gold weighing five ounces). Arab, badeh, 
a cup. 

Bfehon, a judge. Arab, bur hart, demonftravit, 
indubitatis argumentis evicit ; barhanon, prin- 
ceps, primus. 

Buad-laim, a judge. Perf. bud, mobud, a judge, 
a counfellor of ftate. 

Buas, an arreft of judgment, or reftraint on pri- 
vileged authority. Arab, tufhub-bus, from baas, 

Baili, a fteward, agent, colle&or of revenue. 
Arab. belu. Bafcuenza bailea. Spanifh bailie, 
jeuz ordinario. 

Bafal, a judge, judgment. Arab. bajal 9 fenex 
fuorum dominus, vir magnus & potens. 

Bearcc, Beargh, a foldier, a valiant man ; the 
word betokens ftrength (as it does metaphori- 
cally in Hebrew) : hence barragh and borradb, 
a file of foldiers, a column of fighting men. 
Barradhachj valiant. Heb. 11*12 baricb, a fol- 
dier, from n"0 baracby flying, fays Bates, that 



is, a foldier who fought flying, as all the 
northern nations did — refugi Parthi — profugi 
Scythae, — and he quotes Ifaiah xliii. 14. " I 
" have brought down the Baricbim, or fighters, 
" flying all of them, and the Chaldaeans." — 
But as the Hebrew word fignifies a bar or fhort 
beam of wood, and the Irifh bar y a dart; 
quaere, if this is not the meaning of the word 
as a foldier — bara 9 in Irifli, is to flee, from the 
Heb. baracb, fugit, but we find rT*"D baricb, 
metaph. robur fignificat, (Schindl.) — from the 
verb fignifying to flee ; NTO barcba 9 in Chal- 
dee, fignifies a goat, a flag, &c. quern omnes 
fugiunt, whence our breac, a wolf; breac-follus, 
twilight of the evening ; breac-muc, a magpie, 
from its fhynefs ; braicbe, a (lag, a buffalo. I 
think therefore our bearc or bearac and breach », a 
foldier, is from baric h, robur ; whence the com- 
mon word in Irifh bracb*dacb 9 fubftantial. 

Bairighe, Bairghe, a monofy liable from the Arab. 
bar, once, unity, and buja 9 a fyllable. 

Breacam, to paint with various colours. Arab. 

brakaL) variis coloribus pinxit — hence the Irifh 

breacan 9 a plaid. See Tartan. The breacan 

or Tartan was woven in many colours, after the 

4nanner of the Tartars or Scythians. 


Cadial, a time piece, a dial. Chald. ^n chedel 9 
tempus, aerum, mundus, feculum. 

R a C<?, 


Ce, K£, a nobleman's wife, a wife in general. In 

Peruvian, coya. (tri) 
Ceann, a chieftain. See Keann. 
Cib, Kib, or Kiv, the hand. Kibh-ke, or Coibh- 

ke, dos, a marriage portion. Arab, kef, id. qd. 

Heb. cp eafh 9 et Syris cafto, manus vola. 

Arab. kjf % divitias, quia dives manum fuam 
, erogandis pecuniis, & fumptibus faciendis ex- 

pendat, ita ut vocatur liber alts eregatio, expan- 

(io manus. (PocockCarm. Tograii, p. ia, 37.) 
Caoin, an atonement for murder. Arab, khaon, 

murder. Khoon-buha, mul& for murder. 
f Caoin, a mul&. GSpkanas, mul&are. 
\ Cain, Cainfhi, mulft, tax. ttfty gbanajb, mul&are. 
Caomha, nobility. Arab, kiyam. Chald. NJS\p 

koma, dignitatis & principatus nomen. 
Ceann-felich, Keann-faBche, a governor. Keann, 

head, chief. XV#1V3 Jhaltib, nuncius, legatua. 
Cabhalach, tribute, rent, tax. *?3J gabal, tri- 

Cbmh, Cumha, Caom, a covenant. (SeeBreith) 

— hence 
Coimhde, a landlord, a feudatory chief. Comann, 

m fociety, living in covenant together. 
Com-airp, breaking the law, or covenant. 2TN 

arb 9 infidiari. 
Comal, obedience, fubje&ion to the law. 
Comh-dala, a flatute, law. See da la. 
Comhaim, a wife, a covenanted woman. 


(m) Robertfon's America, v. 3. p. 293. 


Cotntadh, or Conradh, a verbal compatt. 

Coda, the laws ; ad coda, ad cada 9 be it ena&ed. 
Arab. kaadeh 9 and keid 9 a canon, a law, kea- 
duta 9 a rule of law. Bafc. ecadoye 9 a judge. 

Cail, Cul, a covenant. Cultarfanguicham, to 
break the covenant. Callaidhe, a partner. 
Arab. kool 9 a covenant, compact, union. 

Caile, a queen. Arab. Cail, a king. 

Ciofh, Keefli, money, rent, tax, tribute. Ar. keejh 9 
money ; tnukes 9 tax. 

Keangal, a cotapaft. Arab, ekange. Gal 9 a cir- 
cular heap of ftones over which private compacts 
were made before witnefles. 

Canon, a law. Arab, kanun. 

Cardam, to comb wool. Arab. kard 9 defluxit de 
ove ; vilior teje&a fuit, & iii unum coa&a lana. k 
(Gol. 1883). 

Keartnfuigheachd, merchandize. 

Cabagh, chefs. See Bruigh. 

Coifath, judgment in law. Hindoft. kafaita. 

Caidhread, traffic, commerce. Arab, khured. Ir. 
fearkeard 9 a tradefman. 

Coir, a law, rule. Arab, kerou. 

Cortas, a debt. Arab. kerz. 

Gumhal, (Cuwal), a domeflie, a bondmaid. Ar. 
chawal, domeftici, feu tota ejus familia, fervi, 
ancillae, aliique. (Pocock Carm. Tog. p. ,224). 

Afecke feu famuli pec ; fervi, ancilte & paftores. 
(Golius, p. 77 5). 
Craob, Craobhaith, propinquity, affinity, confaft- 



guinity, a branch of a tree. Craobh-fg6uI, 
genealogy. Chald. mp karib, or karb. Arab. 
kurby kerabahy propinquus. See Afan, and 

Caol, Caolaire, Chalaire, a tipftaff, an officer 
of the law court. Arab, klaa , fatelles praetoris. 
See Aire. 

Creas, a fepulchre, a fhrine. Chald. mj? kros. Ar. 
karazj death. 

Ceal, apparel, raiment. Arab. khal). 

Coifire, Coifhire, an afiembly of judges for the 
decifion of caufes. (n) 

Coifhir, a parifli feaft. (Lhwyd). Coifre, a jury 
of twelve men to try according to Englifh law. 
(O'Brien and Shawe's Did.) Arab, kurfeh. 
Heb. ND3 kifa, cafa, a tribunal ; folium, thro- 

^ nus, fedes, tribunal, per metonym: Regiapotef- 
tas, authoritas, regnum. Chald. ^0^0 earjt. 
Syr. curjia^ R ihferto. (Thomaffin). It is true, 
the Brehon Law (Joes mention the trial by 1 2 
msn, which appears to be very ancient. It cer- 
tainly exifted with the Etrufcans. The 1 2 Lu- 
comones prefided over 1 2 provinces or cantoons, 
and over the whole was one Lucumo, who was 
ele&ed by the princes of the 1 2 provinces ; the 

r bufmefs of this Lucumo differed entirely from 


(«) Dans chaque Parganah ou diftric\, il y a une Cacheri ou 
cour dc juftice. (Anquetil, Legiflat. Orientale, p. 97). The 
word cacheri is low Bengali, and means an aflembly, and par- 
ticularly an afiembly of the Brahmans, at which the Raja 
ufed to preiide, for the decifion of caufes* (Sir William Jones). 
See Fairte and Gets, 


that of the other 12, being captain general of 
the army. The provincial Lucumo's took on 
themfelves the adminiftration and diftribution 
of juftice in their particular provinces, but, 
on extraordinary occafions, fuch as the trial of 
of property, of life or death, they were fum- 
moned to meet at Voltumna, where the grand 
national tribunal was held. Lucumo feems to be 
derived from Lag or Lack, the law, and mo 9 a 
man. The Suio-Goths called their provincial 
. judges Lagman and Lagmadr* The military 
Lucumo derived his title from the Hebrew on 1 ? 
Lacham, pugnare. 
Some fay trial by a jury of 12 men was in ufe 
among the ancient Britains, and others ; that 
we had it from the Greeks, the firft trial by a 
jury of 12 being in Greece. (Jacob's Law Di£L) 
Certain it is that no (late meetings were ever 
held without entertainments, as we have (hewn 
at the beginning of this chapter ; whether it 
was a ratification of a compact between prince 
and people, or a deliberation on any ftate bufi- 
nefs, facrifices were performed and feafting went 
on — hence CoiJhir y in Irifli, came to fignify a 
tribunal and a feaft ; and when a prince or 
judge went his circuit, it was faid he went Coi/h- 
iring ; and at this day the word is in ufe, Ag- 
nizing to take a circuit of feafting at the houfes 
of friends and relations. 



The deliberating on bufinefs, and the holding of 
councils of ftate during entertainments, (fays 
the ingenious Mr. Stuart) was the practice of the 
Celtic and Gothic nations ; and it is remarkable, 
that the word mallum or mallus which, during 
the middle ages, denoted the national affembjy, 
as well as the county-court, is a derivative of 
mael, which fignifies convivium. From this 
union of feftivity and bufinefs, thus refulted 
evils which gave occafion to regulations which 
cannot be read without wonder. It was a law 
of the Longobards, ut nullus ebrius fuam 
caufam in Mallum poflit conquirere, nee tefti- 
monium dicere ; nee Comes placitum habeat 
nifi jejunus — re&um & honeftum videtur ut |u- 
dices jejuni caufas audiant & difcernant (o). 

Cli, Celi, a caille. Ar. killah, Cb. Nta kela, 

Cliun, i. e. mac tire, a wolf. Arab. khetaon 9 mctus 
& terror, velut a dasmone immiffus, lupus, & 
lycanthropi vel fylvatici dsemonis genus quod 
ghulin, vocant. (Gol.) Hibern. gholine, diaholus. 
— Sagh-cliun, a wolf dog, a famous breed of 
dogs now almoft extinft. Arab, fug, a dog. 
The Irifh have feveral names for a wolf, all of 
which are either Arabic or Perfian, zsjlrideacb. 
Ar. and Per. Jheid-man 7 abujuadeb, &c. 

Ceirt-bhreith, a compaft. See Breith. 


(0) Stuart's View of Society, p. 158. 


Cart, Ceart, right, juft, law, equity. Ar. khei* 9 

rettum. Cb. &1£Tp kartis y decretum, ftatutum ; 

0*0*1? karitis. Gr. k$*fJk, judex. Ar. at-harat, 

dies judicii. 
Ceann-Cuirith, i. c. AireaoCuirith, the king's 

minifter. Et Lot fuit Jp*>tfl?np *01tt arii krite*- x 

hence the Irifh Cujreat, the knave at cards, the 

king's minifter •> hence the Curetes or guards of 

the kings of Pljrygia. 
Geis, Keis, an aflembly. CCeis Teamhra, the 

affembly of the dates at Tara. Arab; Ke/s, an 

aflembly. See Coifire. 
Culaidh, Culaidhin, apparel, armour. Gh. f»Y^3 

calidin, genua veftimentorum, vet armorum 

fplendidorum. Ar. hideut r a garment. 
Ceile, Keile, a wife. Ch. ^3 eala* Maflfe- 

cheth callahy de fpona. De maritr* in uxorem 

officiis prsecipit ; the name of the 4th book of 

the Ta-lmud. 
Ceile, a fervant. Ar. khal, fervants, donxeftics. 
Gulbas, abier. Ch* PDVO culbah, capfa mortuarum- 
Cobhach, a tribute, wealth. Ar. kvf. 
Keifli, Kifc, a meafure, as a kifli of turf, &e. 

Arab, kees, menfuravit. Ch. MJTDp ki/ta 9 men- 

fura, ki/i^ fextarius. 
Clia, a. meafure (not fpecified), probably about a 

market cleeve. Ch. vh^2 kila 9 menfa aridorum, 

i& cabas feu fata tria. (Plantavita). 
Cios, Cus, a tax or tribute ; cios cam> a poll tax. 

P. kuzity a poll tax ; ku7xid> a tribute impofed 

by conquerors. 




Chalad, the eldeft fon, from coil, old, and laid, 

brought forth* rf?!D calah, fene&us (Job xxx 

and Job v). Ar. wulad, a fon ; awul, elder. 

Ch. *jVl uled, filius. 
Conn, a fervant. Ar. Keen. 
Caimfe, linen of all kinds ; cat mis, a fliift or (hirt. 

Ar. kumeesj a fhirt j kerns 9 indutum ex goffypio 

non ex lana, (Gol.) indutum omne interius. 
Caireadh, Caidhreadh, commerce, merchandize. 

Ar. kar, khureed. 
Ceid, Ceidlios, a market, a fair. Ceidtlas, a fair 

for cattle. Tlas-achd, the fame. Ch. ffxjp 

katlisy forum. Ar. abd 9 a market, from our 

Caid or Keid is derived the name of the port 

and town of Cadiz, in Spain. 
Kear, Kearn, vi&ory. Cearn ttuais, the reward 

of viftory, athletic laurel. (Shawe). Ar. kuhr, 

viftory ; tauiz, a reward. 
Keap, Ceap, family, (lock, kindred. Ar. khab> 

affinity, kindred. 
Caraman, a model. Caraman 'naoi, the model of 

a fhip. Arab, karnameb, a model. 
Carra, Carracan, a model, copy. Ar. kar nameh. 
Cear, Kar, offspring. Ar. kara, peperit. 
Cios, Keefli, money. Ar. keefeh. 
Cim, money, value. Ar. kimat. Heb. dp iom 9 

pretium rei. Ir. coimead, quantum. 
Keid, war. Keitearnach, a warrior. Ar. keid, war. 
Cuileacam, Ceilcealam, to betroth. Ch. pbn chelak, 

divifit in partes haereditatem. 
Cora, fifli ; corra, a fifhdam ; cars, fifh ; carmoil^ 



abundance of fifh ; the name of part of the bay 
of Carrickfergus, on account of the quantity of 
fifh there. Phoen. vyo cauri, fifhy, nS«q mala y 
omnem abundantiam fignificat. Ar. malt : hence 
the Irifh cari-carban^ the fail fifh- See Cairb. 

Cairgh»aos, fifh feafon, lent^ &c. Phoen. *i*p cauri, 

Cuirailte, a meeting of the ftatea. Arab, kuriltai, 
kariltaiy kuriltan. The Irifh word is compofed 
of cuire, a flock, herd, throng, meeting of mul- 
titudes, and alt, a noble. Cuire-alMana, would 
fignify a meeting of the nobles of the region or 
diftri&, or of the fcederal nobles* See Tana. 

Comal, the performance of an office. Ar. kamala> 
perfe&um effecit, the execution of any thing. 

Cumhal or Cuval, bail, fecurity ; tocamhal deanadh^ 
to become fecurity. Ar. kuftl, bail; tukufful 
kirdun, to become fecurity. 

Cumal, retribution. Chald. Nfrjzfti gumila. Arab. 

Cumal, a fine paid in cattle. The Cumal, in fome 
paffages of the laws, is valued at 3 cows, in 
others at 5, and in fome places at 7 cows. 
Heb. *yiJDJ gemoul, retributio.— Homicide is 
valued at feven Cumal ; in Arabia it is valued 
at fo many camels. The Hebrew word fignifies 
to yield fruit \ to make a return or retaliate is 
rather the confequence than the fenfe of the 
word. (Bates). 

Cath, war. Ch. tOtOp katit, pugnare j b\Op katal* 

incidit ; 


incidit ; katoJa, horaicidium. Ar. katttlj atapu- 
tavit, fuccidit— hence the Iriflb name Gatbal> the 
warrior, which we tranflatc Charles. 

Keaba, Ceapa, Kab, a fignal m battle to raft on 
the enemy, from the Arab. **£si k*ba> concidit 
pronus, colleftus in cumulum, impetus unus in 
curfu, pugna ; ja&us qui in altum fit $ y;*=H 
kubab, agmen, turba, caterva : hence the Irifh 
coblacb, a fleet of (hips, i. e. a collefted body 
on the water. 

Croaidhe, heirs. Ar. meeras kbore. 

Cain, a fine, a mul&; canach % the fame* Gail* 
cine, a fine for man-flaughter. Ch. Cbp> kanas, 

Cerata, Gratar, nobility. Arab, khdtr^ nobility, 
dignity, being in favour at court. 

Ceatharnach, an officer, a fatellite, from the pre- 

Carbh, a fmail ftiip, a long boat. Ar. karib. Ch. 
Nn'ny ghariba. 

Carradh, a ftone monument, a pillar. 

Carrthadin, a holy ftone, a monument. 

Ar. kbareb, a ftone ; kure, a monument, a tomb. 
tedbin, anointing. 
teduiny infcribing names in public records. 

Ceannaighim, or Keannaighim, to buy, to pur- 
chafe. Keahnaicbe y a merchant. )j£D Kenaan, 
nomen prop, viri & terrse. Mercatura nobrlis, 
inde Kenahani negotiator, mercator. Kineba, 
4nerx. p3p Kank> emere. Kone, emptor. 



Comhafta, a pedlar, a factor. Ar. gomajhtah. 

Carmol, purple, a carbuncle. *?ffl*|3 Carmol, Tyrian 

Kears, affimlt and battery, Ar. kbpree/h. 

Keird, a mechanic. Kearraidh, matter of his pro- 
feflion. Ar. kerari, any tradefman; kar, an 
artificer ; kertar, lingua Indica eft fa&or. ( Hyde, 
Millius, &o). 

Cairche, mufic, a merry making. P. caroz, hence 
chorus, caroufe, &c. 

Kead, Keadach, cloth. Ar. khuzz. 

eaom, a nobleman, governor, proteftor. Heb. 
D^p kirn. Chinefe dam, dux fummus, guber- 
nator ; cum, dominus. (Bayer. Lex. Sin.) 
NElp koma, dignitatis & principatus nomeft, 

Coittar, a cottager, one who holds a fmall form. 
Ar. kata, fecuit, truncavit, affignavit in feudum, 
. princeps, de fuis opibus quad refe&um, terra 

Coda, the law ; ad coda, decreed by law. Arab. 
kaadeh, keid, a law ; keaduta, a rule, of law. 
Bafc. ecadoya, a judge. 

Cul, compaft ; cultarrungucham, to break a cove- 
nant. Ar. kool, a covenant. 

CibcA or Coibce, a marriage portion, i. e. the 
riches of a ce or wife. The word is derived 
from cib, the hand, like the Arab. ka/ 9 divitiae 
a kaf manus expanfio. See Pocock. Carm. 
Togr. p. 37 . 



Ceadduine or Cead-dine, the neareft of kin. Arab. 
daniy y propinquus. From the fame root the 
learned Pocock, in his notes to the Carmen 
Tograi, brings the Arabic dune a, the world, 
(in Irifh douan) inftrufted by the learned gram- 
marian Shirazius— quod a nobis propius abfit 
quam feculum futurum, a dana quod propd effe 
fignificat nifi forfan a vilitate potius ejus ori- 
ginem peti malimus ; fignificat alias daniyon vel 
daniy, vilem, abje&um, nullius pretii. Irifh 
douoin, bad, vile. There cannot be a ftronger 
inflance of the affinity of any two languages (/>). 

Creun, the body. Arab. Kerin. 

Criofan, a prieft (of the fun), from Criofan or 
Crijhariy a poetical name of the fun, from crifh 
or crhjh 9 light, fire, fplendour ; whence criqfacb^ 
hot embers, &c. Ch. unD- Heb. Din Sol. 
Syr. D*Hp Kris 9 ardens. Sanfcrit Crijhna, the 

Crefean, Grefean, Grafan, Grafare, arable ground. 
Ch. j^anS Crifinin, glebae. Ar. Karzan, fale- 
brofa terra. 


Dabam, to paint. Ar. debj 9 painting with figures ; 

dibbaj, veftis ferica imprimis pifta. 
Dath, the law. Ch. JTf datb, lex, edi&um, jus ; 

&H2 m Deta baria, leges periti. See Bar. 


(p) The Irifti words arc written by the moderns domhain, 
domhan, domhoin, dohnkoin, but pronounced douin. 



Hence the Perfian names Mithradates, Madates, 
Pharadates, &c. 

Deacar, an hiftorian. Ch. 151 dacar, recordari. 

Dabhach, a farm that can fupport 60 cows and 
upwards. Ar. malu ked deba, much cattle. 

Deac, the law. Dea&a, an editt. The commeit- 
tators bring the firft from ttaic or taic, fignifying 
a dependance or confiding in ; therefore I think 
deac here fignifies covenant, the fame as breitb. 
Arab, tbekat, confidere; mithak, foedus, pac- 
tum — deada, an edift is evidently the Chaldasan 
tOJH digat, edi&um. Arab, dihkan, lex. 

Damh, law, compaft ; damhriogha^ a prince. 
Arab. diam> law, agreement, compaft — a pillar, 
column, prop, the prime minifter of a nation, 
the fupport or chief of a family. 

Daimh, a family, a houfe, friend, connexion, 
qonfanguinity. Arab. damet, blood. Perf. dem* 
breath, fociety (as breathing together) ; dama y 
a near ally, affinity. 

Dual, a law, a duty, Arab, adil, juft, juftice. 

Dual, hereditary wealth. Hindoftanice dualath, 

Duine, a plebeian. Arab. deni. See Ceaduine. 

Duan, a tax ; marcach duaine, a taxgatherer, i. e. 
fear gabbais duan. Chald. ~pffo marik y a tax- 
gather. Arab, devane, taxes. 

Deachadh, or tteachadh, to tax, to fine or mul&. 
Chald. in taky mul&are. 

Dearganta, a plea. Arab, deration, loquutus fuit ; 

medarabon 9 qui pro aliis verba facit. 



Dior, few. ChaM. "fft dor, ordinare, dirigire. 

Perf. daweri, fovereignty, adminiftration of juf- 

tice, fentence of a judge. 
Dior, a tribute, Arab. darr. 
Dail, an ordinance, a decree, an affembly of the 

ftates ; mordaii, the great convention ; ridail, 

a parliament. Arab, daati, confiiium cepit, 

Dian, retribution. Arab. detn. 
Duanneartach; a fenator, a judge. Arab, divan, 

a fenate. 
Duangaois, policy, art of government. Arab. 

doun, political ; ahwala duned, politics. 
Doile, a fervant. Arab, dowlut-jui. h\uu. 
Dian ceacht, phyficians. Arab, din, natura ; ha- 

kirn, wife. See Teibi. 
Dian acchaodhli, moral philofophers. 
Din or Duin flieanacas, a record of antiquity. 
Duin comhla, a mufter maftef ; an aid de camp, 

who commits the orders of his commander in 

Dun foiMighdhe, a manifefto. Arab, dun, divan, 

fcripfit in tabulis publicis; dana, collegit in 

unum librum, fcripfit in albo nomina milites, 

vei in publicas tabulas retulit ; kamala, perfecit 

confummavit (y). 


(q) Divan, proprie rathnarium judicis aut praefefri & dan pi 
cujus 2 conj. exponitur in tabulas publicas retulit, fcripfit in albo. 
Hinc accrevit figniiicatio multiplex, ut fyntagmatis carminum 9 
tra&umque ; item loci ubi confeffus habetur judiciaiis— hinc 
tranflatio fa&a ad Conceffum eruditorum. (Schultens Notis 
Hariri Conf. fixtus p. 177) — hence the Irim duan, a poem, 
and Perf. duwan* 

law oioWAtt; 1*57 

Dr&chd, & flattatioh ; Dreachdaife, anhlftorian, 
; ab etegdrtt Writer ; Ea^hdaireachd, hiftofy, chf o- 
iiide. Chald. ttStfTt dfr*coi 9 eftriarrator, ex- 
pticator, hiftoria raerfionae. iTCTTN adacara, 
memoriale. An iatetk, hHtory, chronicle ; 
akqfisj hiftories ; akh-bar^ amials, traditions, 
news. Our Dreacdaire ofr Eacdairgacdoir, or 
hiftotian, had great privileges, as will be feen 
in the Brchon Laws. Sefe Eacdaireach. 

Drea&am, to certify, to give notice in #ritlng. 
Dreacath and Dreag&th, an advertisement, an 
outlaw, a prescribed perfon. Cft* NrtTHtf 
adaracata, literse profecutionales judicis* 

Dreachd and Dreacht, a poem, rhyme. An ddrak 
pervenit ad maturitatem fru&us, inde metadarak, 
rhyttanw. (Obi.) 

Damha, a procefs at law. An dawa. 

Duaridh, Duari, a dowry. Syriace dwtaa taunus 
quod fponfus fponfse dat. * « 

Doig, a diploma* at teftinaony. Ar. tookia. 

Dealach, a divorced ot repudiated woman. An 

Dabhfeis, a cuftotnary tribute. Ar. adub> cuftdm, 
law, rule. 

Daileamh, a king's purveyor. 

Deorata, an alien, a foreigner. Ar. Zearufj*. 

Deoraidh, a furety that withdraws himfelf. P. 
durat, an hypocrite, a deceitful tmxi. 

Duaire-dan, Danduaire, i. e. Duaire fine, the 
learned tribe,- poets, hiftorians, judges, lawyert, 
fvQtctduair^ fenfe, reafon, judgment. Ar. dirayet, 

S knowledge, 


knowledge, fcience, (hence the Irifli draoitb, 

wife men, druids). Perf. nadireb dan, learned 

men, from nadir, fingular, uncommon, whence 

nadir e, rara avis, the phoenix of his age. 
. P. nadireb dan, intelligent, learned, knowing 

myfterious things \ hence the Irifh deirideacb, 

myfterious, and direadh, a panegyric. 
Don, a nobleman. Ar. dun, noble, excellent, 

deun, vox eft, qua apud Indos jam inde ab 

antiquis temporibus fignificatur dominus, rex. 

(Schmidt, de Egypt. Colon, in Indias.) 
Dioid, a little farm, a few acres. Ar. dih, a farm % 

dad, opulentia carens. 
Diol-lamanach, a hired foldier. on 1 ? lachem, a 

Diolamhan, the fame. Arab, lawund, a hired 

foldier ; dilare, foldierlike ; ateel, a hireling ; 

ateellmvan, a hired foldier. 
Druth, inceft. JTfHy Grhttb. 
Dar-riogha, a praefeft, a loyal Dan Ar. dor at 9 

oppidi prsefe&us, from dar yt habitation 
Dae, a houfe, a village ; bally dea, a town. Ar. 

dea, pagus, villa. Heb. JTH dib 9 caftellus. 

Span, and Portug. aldea, pagus, oppidum, vicus. 

Hindoflanice aldee, pagus. See Alt and Iofda. 
Dioghlan, illegitimate. Ar. dughooL 
Dor, Dora, a right line, a plumb-rule, perpen- _ 

dicular. Ch. N*n dara 9 linea re&a, feries 

rerum quarumcumque. 
Daim, a church. Hindoft. dzam, ecclefia. 

E. Eac-rais, 



Eac-rais, a horfe courfe, a horfe fair. Ch. ND^I 
rifa ftadium curriculum, locus in quo equi regii 
curfu exercebantur. 

Earba, an employment, office. Eilearba, officers 
of the law courts. Ar. ehl arf 9 officers of 
juftice, attendants upon a judge or tribunal. 

Eile, fervants, domeftics, tribes, claims, as Eile 
O'Carrol, Eile O'Guaire, &c. &c. Arab, ehle, 
a tribe ; al, alt, offspring, race, dynafty, as 
all Ofman, alt Seljuk, &c. Ehl populus vel 
potius domeftici, familia, ab *?nN &bal tentorium 
(Schult. Hariri Conf. 4to.) ; aoul, portion d'une 
horde, qui comprend les vaflaux relevant s du 
meme noble. (Herbelot). 

Eile, a prayer, a ftated day of prayer., bbf] lau- 
davit deum, Ar. haly, jubilum* 

Eallabhair, a vaft number, multitude. Ar. alab 9 
turba, congregavit. See Allabhar. 

Ead-doirfighim, to naturalize, to admit to cove- 
nant. Ar. a hud y a covenant, 

Earchaine, aftronomers, from earc, heaven, the 
moon. Ch. •OTT'Y 1 iaracbini, aftronomus, peri- 
tus motus lunae. 

Eafgaidh, an ambafTador. Ch. TJftf efgad, legatus, 

Eafgath, an editt, a proclamation, pty azak^ cir- 
cummunivit, circumfepfit, quod eo afta omnia 
& edifta muniantur. Inde Ch. NJIpty hi/keta f 
annulus fignatorum. 

S 2 Earras, 


Earras, Earradhas, wares, commodities, mer- 
chandize. An arez. 

Earrufaid, a loofe wrapper of cloth wort, by the 
women. Ar. arezy y a kind of cloth. 

Err, noble. Ar. bara 9 nobili ftirpe natus fait. 

tare, a tax, tribute, fine ; eiric, fine, or, restitu- 
tion for blood. Ch. -py harak, tax, fine, mul&, 
it mud alfo fignify redemption, for the 8 1 ft book 
of the Mijhnar is entitled psry Erikin, prsecepit 
de redemptione. (Wachner). Arab, eareb, a fine, 
a tax. Perf nerkb, a tax, a tariff, &c. See 
Marcac. Arab. ari/b 9 reftitution. (f) 

Enec, Eneclann, prote&ion, protection of the 
clan. P. inak 9 fafe, fecure, protection. It is a 
Tartar word. See the following : 

Eid, Ed, prote&ion. Ar. ed, a tax paid for pro- 
tection in lieu of military fervice. 

Eidna clann, the fame as Eneclann. 

Eaman, i. e. Feimin, a plain, a meadow. Ar. 
hemirtj ameneh. 

Eallamh, creatures, cattle. Ar. alum. 

Eafc, a milch cow. Ar. ba/hei, laftis plenum fuit 

Eandst* frivolous. Eandmaca, Deanmaca, toys, 
trifles — hence Deanmachoir and Eandmachoir, 
toyman, a pedlar. Ar. aendeb, frivolous. 

Earal, Aral, an altar ; erl, holy ; erlat, devotion ; 

erUam^ arl-am 9 a holy perfon. Arab, arlat, 

ftudium divini cultus, devotio. (Gol. 8). 


(p) So the Arabs write Arfhimedes for Archimedes. 

\ r 


Ealhith and inealjaith, tools, inftruments, harnefs, 

Ar. alet. 
Ealba, 3 hgnj. Ar. <*/£. 
EwxwhU. *& $poch. iEra, period. Ar. erkhet. 
Eiflr^acJh, coats of mail, armour. Ar. a</n?. 
pinfhir, Aipfhir, foldiers, heroes. Af. enfar.— 

Tfoe If iih i§ a cpnjpound, as in aingliu, keanngliu, 

a h^ro, champion. Ar. kunghaL 
Eapg, 3 ypar ; a fUtfd period. Hindu, hangaqi. 
EJd> tax, tribute. Ar. #fo 4</jr, extorfit pecuniam. 

Cppt. ^, qenfus, iributum, ve&igal. (Woide). 
Ealg, EaJgay noble. Ar. ulyg, a prince ; qlgb, 

iflagnu? j olug-keig* magnus dominus. . 

£imaro ? id. <j. )Eigeas ? a learned man. I^iiidiift. 

imqm* focerdos. 
Eirijrf, a furpmary abridgment of the law. Ar. 

jarapi, dee^rpit, cojle&io. Bafq, ereman 7 to 


Esirrun, a portion, a tythe. Ch. $OWN 4rhmna 9 
decimatio, r.c4itu$ anni, tributum frumepjtorum 
& agrorum, vectigat tranfeuntium. 

Eac^aireach, tynites calami* an orator, poet, hiflo- 
rian. Th.e \vord is compounded q( eac, a horfe, 
and dqireacb or dvacbach^ narrator. SeeDreacfrd. 
This compound is one proof of the harmony 
between the old Irifli and the Arabic. — Equites 
calami) venufta figura, pro iis qui fcribendi fa* 
cultftte $r#pollent ; oratores, poetae, &c. (cf) The 

. general IrHh name of an hiftorian is Jlair-oir> 
fjrpm Jlmr, hiftory, and o/r, the agent ; but it 

* » ■ 

literally fignifies only the fcribe. $tair is de- 

(q) Schultens, in Hariri Cone. 4. 


rived from the Heb.Jter, and the Arabic fatyr, 
a fcribe, whence mufatyr, writings.—-* 4 Hiftoria, 
" en Gr. 'istoria, .tout le monde a cru que ce 
*' mot ctoit Grec. ; ceux m&me qui font venir 
" le Grec de l'Hebreu. lis ne favoient pas 
u qu'en Hebreu, en Arabe, &c. le mot ster 
" Heb. "TJflu;, Arabe ^^ 9 fignifie 1. /tribe* 
" & re ffi er y & c - en Chald. contrat, teftament.'* 
(Gebelin. Did. Etymol. p. 569).— Certe -jBUJ 
Jier Chaldaice fignificat liter as ; et hinc, qui 
mandata Judicis fcripta ad fubditos defert, et 
obfequi imperat. (Gufletius). It is remarkable 
that where \htjierim are mentioned in 1 Chron. 
Xxiii. v. 4. the Septuagint have ypitpaTumytry'H, 
a certain proof that they were fcribes or re- 
corders ; hence they are always joined in the 
fcriptures with the judges. Vide Gufletius Com- 
mentarii L. Ebraicse, p. 852. In the Egyptian 
languages, /doria fignifies hiftory, news, a tale, 
and hence the Iriih/dair ixi&Jlair : the Egyptian 
is certainly borrowed from the Chaldaean. 
Eidir-ccleo, Eidirgleodh, an honourable and de- 
finitive fentence of the court. Ch. "Hn hador* 
honoratus ; n*?D ila 9 kela y caqfa finalis. 


Fagh, power. Fiugh, Fiughidh, a chief, prince, 

hero. Ar. of ok, valde praeftans, liberalis vir. 

Ch. p*»N2 phaiky opibus vel dignitate eminens ; 

nnD phica, dux, princeps. Ar. foivk, altitudo, 





Fualac, a tribe and its ftbck. Pix.fafuk; omnes 
creature, hominefve. t4 

Fearg-faoir, a king, a chief. Ar. fergb, capacity. 
Saur, a prince. 

Fath, the right between man and man; 

Fatuai, the law ; fatuaghim, laws. Ar. futahet, 
judicature. Hindoft. cafaita, judicium. Ar. 
futawet, the dignity of a Mufty or judge—hence 
the title of Mufty ; DJna pbitagbim, feiitence, 
decree. Efth. i. v. 20.— hence the Arab. Fettan, 
the name of an angel fuppofed by them to judge 
and try men in their fepulchres ; the fame as the 
Afuman of the Perfians and the Saman of the 
ancient Irifli.. (r) 

Fitir, a judge, from the preceding, 

Fathach, an explanatory treatife of the Jaws, a 
comment. Ar. vatbaik, the title of a book 
which treats of contracts, purchafes, fales, &c. 
fatahy explicari voluirdifficilia Corarii lock — 
hence the Irifli fath-oide, a teacher ; fathfgrio- 
bhadh, a poftfcript, a comment, an explanatory 

Fal, a tribute. Kx.faiaj^ impofuit populo trifeutum. 

Fal, a prince, a judge. An faal 9 nobility. 

Feid, few, covenant. 

Feidhal, Fidal, Fithal, a judge ; Feiddligheach, 
law, covenant. Arab. jtdak y jidalik>fudUk 9 law, 

Foras, a law. Ar. fuhris, a law, a- canon yfurz, 
quod impofitum & imp era turn eft a Deo ; 

(r) See Colledanea, No. XII. p. 443. 

3^4 *-AW OJ-0$SA*Y. 

/<rsys skilled in the law* Ch. 013 fbarjs, 

edi&um. Arzb. ferayiz, ijtatutes, laws, divine 

Forafna, an illuftration of the law, a preface to a 

book. Qi. p^p pfyaras, explicare. 
Feargafrhn*, Forghn*, Forughna, an apparitor, 

Ch. i03)ing phwaghfibbna, apparitor, li&or. 
Fafech, w Ppen Jpacp, an uninclofed deferl. Ar. 

■. fa/aba* 

Fmonadach, * fwordfman, an officer pf the army. 

At. jir end j, a (word. 
Fa#, decent, inclination ; fan~griain 9 the fctting 

fun. . Ch, w^jj /#«<*> vefper. Syr. pbinm % in- 

clinatio diei, vefpera. iEthiop.y*wft yefp^rtino 


Feme, .'pkfcs. Ax. few. 

Finne, Fein*, generajs, princes. Ch. N'fOg 

phinabia, pridcipee, primores, capita pQpuli, fie 

Helvetiorum duces Centoni dicuntur, k M. 

Tartariae Imperajor. (Caftellus), 
Fairke, f* divj/ioa, diftri#, province, bifhop'g fee, 

&c. Arab. furk 9 a divifion. Sanfcrit pargynubj 

a diftriflt. 
Faoich-arjibam, to lay out money at intereft. 
Faoich-arbaire, an ufurer. Ar. rub*, intereft of 

money ; rabyb, an ijfijrer. 
Fafgh, a conftraint, prphibition, a prifon. Arab. 

vazah, praetor, quafi coercens ab ijlititis, hinc 

& princeps. 
Fal, a prince, a judge. Arab, faal, nobi&as. 

Oiald.Vjg />&/<*/, dijudicare. Uphill, judex. 



Flakh, a prince, governor. Arab* wHat r a ju* 
riCdidionj wulat r governors, judges, lords; 
wilayet, government. Arab. fail % governing ; 
fplabi fuperiorky, Chald, V^philaU dominus. 
.(IX De PomU). 

Flaitheas, dominion. Hindu vlpfet, 

Fen, a wheel, a wheel-carriagf ,' See Phpnn: 

Fine, Fione, a tribe, 4 cjivifion of the people. 

. Arab* fam 9 in varia genera divifit poptilupi ; 

. yjro, plebs 1 fen % viri varii generic* ramus, fpe- 
. cjes, Perf. find, ramus, populiip congregatus. 

, Mon$ magics. . (Jn^kjliabfion). 

Fine achyfac, a tribe under feudal tenement. Arab. 
akhazut, afeod. SeeAchufac.' 

Fineacas, a code. Chald 0?>D phinacas. See 
Seairaacafi. • 

Fang, an Iti&x coin, of what weight does not ap- 
pear. Chinefe feng and fuen % :a coin the. tefeth 

; of an ounce. ' 

Focrac, manumiffion, a reward. Arab, fekb, 
v£d.fakat 9 msnutniffio $ rqc y %vitus, manci- 
' pima ftatus, • * 

Fi^athgair, a coat of .mail. Arab, buktnr, 

Faoladh, learned, a fcribe. Arab, faluj. 

Fann, a congregation, temple, church. Arab. 
fan, caetus, convent us. 

Fei5, a convention of the ftates. Feis Tarah, the 
fynod of Tarah wherein the provincial laws 
wer 1 confirmed. Arab, feiz, numerous, pubr 
lifting ; felfel, a definitive fentence from which 
there is no appeal. 




Forach, Foraght, Forthgo, valuables, precious 
commodities, merchandize, wages. Arab, fu- 
rukbt y furuktuge, merchandize. 

Figh, a judge. Arab. fek y ftudy and fcience of 
the law ; fakib, a do&or of laws. Spanifli al- 
faqui* Chald. 7\p$phika 9 jurisprudential 

Figheall, judgment. 

Feige, Fiach, Feigbear, Foghar, a warrior, a com- 
mander, a viceroy. Chald. ng pbecb, a gover- 
nor, a viceroy. Arab, afak, vllde praeftans. 
Fegbfor, the general names of the kings of 
China ; nn9 pbeche, a foreign word, fays 
Parkhurft, common to the Chaldaeans, Aflyrians, 
Syrians and Arabians. 

Feorna, chefs-men. See Pheorna. 

Faomam, to confent mutually, to enter into cove- 
nant ; faoman, a con trad. Perf. feiman, foedus, 
facrum padum. 

Faomh-athair, a predeceflbr, i. e. a father who held , 
lands by covenant. 

Fonnteach, an inn, literally 'a journey houfe, or 
houfe of a Bruigh. See Bruigh. Arab, fun- 
tuk 9 an inn, caravanfera; fundunk> ah inn, a 
houfe for market people. 

Fodail, q. s. fod-diol, a ranfom, price paid by a 
captive for liberty. Arab. fuda. 

Fleafglamha, a farm in common. Arab, falab, 
agricola ;. lafak> conjundus. 

Fal, a land boundary, a hedge. Arab. Felij. 

Fal, a ruler, governor ; falla and falamnas, a 



kingdom — hence failm or failim, a tiller or 

rudder of a (hip, q. s. the goyernor of the 

waters. Arab, fail, governing ; felah, fupe- 

riority ; yamm, the fea ; felab, a feaman, rather 

a pilot. 
Forth-ceadoir, Fortheacdair, a fqtiire, gentleman 

uftier. Arzb.fart, qui prccedit, ita dux avium 

F*achd, troops, forces. Arab. fouj. 
Faodhcharbaire, ufurers. Arab.faedeb, ruba, inte-i 

reft of money ; rabug, an ufurer. 
Fithghthe and Fithge, fine linen woven. Chald. 

ttiJTQpbitga, Sindon, fine linen: non fie in Ty- 

ria findone tutus oris. (Mart.) 
Fithighdoir, a weaver, from the preceding. . 
Fioca, the weather or wipdward fide of a fhip, &c. 

Arab. afak. 
Fafga, the lee or fheltered fide. 
Fil, file, an elephant. Tahfile, a chefs-board. 

Arab, feel, the elephant at this game. - See 

Pheorna. . 
Forugaire, a praefeft, a commander. Syr.. NJnB 

fharga. See Aire. 
Forgabreath, the pure and upright praefeft— hence 

the Vergobretus of the Gauls. : 
Freafc, an entertainment. Syr. pbrafa, efca,ci- 

bus — hence the hiShpraifeacb, a manger, broth, 

G. Gaid, 



Quid, a father, head of a family- Aidb. gbud y or 
jud 9 a father, from jurfa, beneficial to all j ,/#£&, 
bonus — hence the Perf. khtdt* bomjs, deus. 

Geall, a pledge, fecurity, redemption ; ge*llam y 
to forfeit, to* redeem. 

Gaol, relations, kindred. Thefe two words are 
of the fame origin, though different in ortho- 
graphy ; the root is im g*l 9 redetait* yindfea- 
▼it. . nV»} ^BQfipbir g<tla 9 the book of redemp- 
tion (Exodus), in qup defcribitpr redemptiQ Ifra- 
elitorum ab Egypfiis (Caftellus). b&ti g<al 9 re- 
demptor, vindex, cognates y qui^ ex lege, vin- 
diciarum jus habebant proximi, cpgnati, pro- 
pinqui. Syr. ty) gal 9 deppnere i& ftdem aUcu- 
jus. Arab, gbelik, the forfeiture of % payra or 

Galfine, a tribe under federal tenure. See Fine. 
Arab, keel, foedus — hence I think the Irjfli giqila 9 
a foldier's boy, a foederal fervant. 

Gearras, Gearradh, tax, tribute. 7WT\Xg^q/h^ 

Greit, a chieftain. Arab, gburret. 

Garait, a holy man, a faint. Egypt, garafia, 

. gratia. 

Gabhal kine (Cine), the law of Gavel kind, by 
which the lands .of the chief of a family were 
divided and fubdivided among its branches. 
Chald. *?5) gabal, divifit, mifcuit, coj»mifcuit ; 
^p Cain 9 the name of the firft born man, i. e. 
the inheritor, his mother explains it as being 
born of God, the heir of the promifes; fo 



Abraham is called the heir of the world, with 

refpe£k to the promifed bleffing— fceiice kin> who 

are tiext heirs. (Bates). 
Giufte, athletic fports. Peril gtifhti, athletic; 

gujbte kab 9 gymnafiuri. 
Giuftal, the fame. Hindu ghojjaal, fporti, paf- 

times. Qu. if from Arab. ghuazti y a ydtith. 
Gas, a military fervant. Phaenice OM galas. 

Syr. gaifa. Arab. #&<#/, jejh 9 an army. PterC 

gbauze, a foldier. 
Gafrai, domeftic troops, to gazar, feedus irifit ; 

gazira, pa£tum. ; 

Gais, a dart, a fpear j £*j#fi?, armed. Ch&ld. n&v| 

£j/2r, a fpear. Arab. gbazi 9 a conquferar ; ghazi 

al deen, the champion of faith, a proper dame 

— hence the Gefata of the ancient Gauls. 
Gail, a dart ; gaillian, an arrow. Chald. ^ £0/, 

Gaice, a gawky, a fool. Arab, gbabak, infania. 
Gaife, chivalry.. Hind, ghttflfc, a horfe. Arab. 

ghazi, a gallant foldier. 
Gudaire, Grudaire, a diftillef , a brtwer. Arab. 

kutir y diftillation. 
Gaifera, plebs, commfthaky is of a different ori- 
gin. ATab. kbajhir, plebs. Moft Irifh Writers 

confound this word with Gafrai. 
Geili, Geilis, traffic ; giilmor, a capital merchant. 

Arab, gbafy, negotium. 

Geillios, comtnonalty. Arab, jahil khulk. 

Gall, a foreigner, a migrator. ff?3 gala, inigra- 

vit, populi tranflatio. 



Gormac, prote&ion to mac kindred. Arab, ek* 

boor, prote&ion. 
Gait, Gaitin, Keaitin, a brief, a writing. Chald. 

63i git* Arab, kbutt. 
Gurrav, tanning, -drab, garf, garfin y a fpeeiea 

of tree ufed in tanning. 
Grais, commonalty* mob, vile men. Arab, gu* 

Grafare, arable ground, rede Crafare, whence 

the Machares in Kerry remarkable for agricul- 
ture, unn char at > aravitj tlTOO macbaras, 

Greis, needle work ; Greafai, a fhoemaker. Arab. 

kbaraz 9 confuit, futor } P. khurzet, fewing a 

Greus, embroidery of various colours. Ar. ni+ 

Gais-nim, Cais-nim, to paint, facere Cats. Arab., 

nakajhy to paint. 
Guragan, Garagan, Gragan, a manor, village, &c. 

Arab, kurargab. 
Goch-aire, a matter of ceremonies. Egyptiace 

gho 9 anunciare. 
Grioth, the fun. Arab, ghawret. 
Gris, knowledge, {kill, ftudy. Chald. D*)) gris 9 

legit, ftuduit, didicit. 
Gudh, ftudy ; gudbbin, a ftudy, a library. Arab. 

gudb 9 ftudy. Bafq. goadia, kauw ledge. 

Guil, the evil fpirit. Arab, gbul, a demon. 

Gui, Guidhe, a prayer, a hymn. Egypt. gbo 9 a 




Groch, a (hanger. Ch. *f0 gour. 

Greis, a warrior. n*tf £"*£, praeliari, unde Gra- 
vidic nomen Mart is. Arab, kars, pugnavit. 
Syr % krafaly bellicofus. Ch. \*yp g karats, vel 
bar at s, violentia uti, violenter exagitare, tyran- 
nus, ind6 Ape, Mars. 

Greis-cill, a fanltuary, the kill or church that re- 
ceives and prote&s the repudiated. urtf garajb 9 
repudiavit, expulit. 

Gqirme, an inn, an houfe of entertainment. Ch. 
O^ girim, habitatio in folitudine, caravanfera. 
Hindoftanice ger 9 doraus publica. 

Irs, heritage j leabhar irfe> a book of genealogy. 
- Ar. irs 9 meras, wurs 9 tar as, heritage ; un 1 * iarajb 3 

to inherit. 
Iris, a chronicle, defcription, record. Ar. arij f 

defcriptio temporum, an aera ; an* 1 iri/h, fuccef~ 

fion of time, as one day fucceeds another. 
Iris, a bride, a fpoufe. Ar. arus, a bridegroom; 

yrs, a fpoufe ; urns, matrimony. 
Irifeach, lawful. Ar. roui/h, law. 
Irial, a reply in court. Ch. rPffll bora* Syr. aori f 

Ioc, local, rent, tythes. Ar. akal, ykal. 
Imeith, fences, guard, prote&ion. Ar. bumaeut. 
long, a mother, nurfe, child at the bread. Ch; 

py> inak y fugere, fugens, la&ens, infans \ inakutb, 

pueritia; minika, nutrix, la&atrix ; ///?#£, puer, 

puellus, fugens. 


ayi law oLdftsAftv* 

Inghin cheile, a daughter in law. 

Iofda, a houfe, an habitation* compounded of tot 
and dae. Ios fignifies a tent or covering j iofda 
nambochd) the poor's houfe ; ios-ddn, a college, 
i. e. habitation of the learned, Arab, ajooz* a 
tent or habitation. The Indian deity, prefiding 
over houfes, is Gan-efa (Sdnnef at) \ perhaps the 
Irifh word gaoin, good, may be the firft part of 
the compound. See Dae. 

SL Se* Letter C. 
Keifh, a meafure. Hindoft. kejaza, &c. &c. 
Keafla, iron ore ; keas-luatdhe, lead. Arab. aU 

kufus, the iron mines of Armenia j kee/hin, lead. 

Hindoft. cijfe^ lead, 
Eaor, Ankaor, a berry, a gtape. Hinduft. ungoer. 

Perf. kerya 9 a goofeberry, a curraftj kttruhi, 

r Kenlis, a ctfu i*ch, a fyAod ; Kenlis, the old natae 

of Kells ; the words are fynonymous. Arab. 

henefa et kek/a, ecctefk. See Daiirt. 

Leis, a compaft, covenant, agreement ; r*%im a lets, 
I confent, compafl:, covenant or agrtt to it. It 
is a peculiar form of expv.».:on in the Irifli 
language, fays O'Brien, ufed to fignify a perfon's 
confent. Arab, lafc, faedus, focietas ; lafak 9 
confederates — hence probably the Englifli leafe. 

Linn v Alinn, an age, a period. Arab. Alum. 

Lafc, a chieftain j liachd, a multitude ; luchd, the 


\ ' 


people* Ch. ^ legi, fie vocatur una perfona, 
pluribus tamen prsefe&a. Dux exercitus. Legi 
eft J*?a "Dy fervus regis ; )*ft kgin* legio. 

Luchd, Slucht, relations. Ar. alaket. 

Laibr^ach, Luibre, a coat of mail. Ar. ieleb, 
corium, s. tergum ferae, pec. ex quo conficitur 
galea, fcutum, aut lorica. Chalybs & ferrum 
fincerum (Caftellus), a fhield or any defenfive 
armour made of leather fluffed with honey and 
fand ; good iron ; fteel. (Richardfon). 

Luimdar, a ftandard-bea^er. Loman y a little en* 
fign, a banner. Ar. alum, a ftandard, enfign,, 
colours, banner, cornet, guidon j alum-dart 
enfign bearer. 

Luimhneachda, a cornet, ftandard for the cayalry . 

Lachd, Laghd, Lagh, the law, cpfopaQ, cove- 
nant. The Chaldaean word l^b Head, accipere, 
I think is of the fame import as JTP lob 9 lack or 
lava b y which fignifies a mutual giving and re- 
ceiving. From the holy fcriptures we learn, 
thajt the fupremacy of government among the 
Hebrews was by drawing lots, and to whichever 
chief of a tribe, this lot fell, the others did enter 
into a federal com pad with, in token of alle- 
giance and fubje&ion. This drawing by lots is 
expreffed in Hebrew by *D*? lac bad, which Jo- 
fephus expreffes in Greek by *«Jx*»». Thus when 
Benjamin was ele&ed ruler i Kings ch. x. the 
Hebrew is *15*? lacbad, eft tribus Benjamin, and 
the Hebrew word for a tribe is \23tojhebet, that 
is, a rod pr ftick, a word common to the ancient 

T Irifo 


Irifh and the Jews to fignify a tribe, Vta. fiibU % 
whence the Englifh fept r which Dt. Johnfon 
fays is of Irifh origin. Scacchus, in his Arca- 
norum facrae Script. Myrothecum, I. 3. p. 831, 
well explains this paffage : lachadjhebet Btnjamin y 
literally means, fays he, capta eft tribus Ben- 
jamin, vel fi magis rigorem Terborum tenuere 
velimus, dicendum erit, & capta eft virga Ben- 
jamin ; — becaufe the lot was drawn hjjhebet or 
(licks, on which was written the name — and 
hence Jhebet fignifies -not only a tribe, but the 
chief of that tribe, becaufe he carried a flaff as 
a token of his office— eodem igkur pafto in in* 
ftitutione regis fortitum fuiffe dixerim in quae- 
rendo tribu, cui regnum deftinandum eflet. 
So, in Irifh, crann fignifies a flick, and crtnnas^ 
or cratmadh) or crann ctr, is to draw lots by 
fticks. In Chaldee, DT9 kranas, is explained 
by for s, but which is the root I pretend not to 

Lugha, Luighe, an oath, from the above, as a/7, 
an oath, from Ar. al, jus randum & fcfcdus. 

Leas, a caufe to be tried. Ar. Uj 9 lajaf. 

Lamh, war; lamhac, warlike manouvres. CSff? 
lahhem y pugnavk. 

Libeadan, a dowry. Ar. I abas, a fpoufe. 

Lomain, a great coat, a coat of mail. Ar. kmut. 

Lot, rapine. Hinduft. teeth. 

M. Maoin, 



Maoitt, chattels, worldly fobftaoc*. At. #tt*#, 

utenfile omne dornus. 
Mile, protefiiofc, Ar. ;«*#. 
Mai, money, rent, tax. Ar. mal, money ; Idmal, 

tribute j mata+d&wm, mala metre, taxes. 
Mal, a writer, a poet. Ar, /710&V feriptor, qui 

aliquid componit. Gr. ?**, carmen. Ar. 

malab, rem fcitam & elegantem protulit poeta. 
Mal, a king, prince, fiobfe. At. mela, nobility. 
Maol, a fervant* Ar. maula, dominum fignificat 

& fervum. (Pocock H. Arab.) 
Malchadair, Maladair, as farmer* P. mulkadar, a 

great land holder. 
Malair, a merchant. Ch. •*>*?» millai> mercatara. 

Ar. mula-befet) commerce j amai, a fradeftnart. 
Moid, a court, judgment feat, convention* Ch. 

*WIB- mated* converitus, folemnitas. Ar. mvdbal, 

convention ; mujlis, a tribunal. 
Mir, a portion. Ar. mehir> a marriage portion, 

P. mitj an equal (hare. 
Mirin, the neck ; muinkt y a collar, bracelet. Ar. 

manaky with a fine neck ; maneket* a collar or 

neck ornament. Ch. NpD**JO miinka, inomle, 

brachiaie ornameiitum. 
Macaire, a market. Ch. ^!3B macar, venditio ; 

macora* commercium. 
Mite, a mile. Ar. mile ; fib meul, a league, a pa- 


T a Meidhe, 



Meidhe, (lock, trunk ; maide 9 a (tick. Ch. ntDD 
mat ah> fcipio. 

Moghadh, a flave, a peafant. Ar. wagada, fervice. 
Mexican^ mayeque, adfcripti glebae. 

Mallachoir, a failor ; mallachad, the art of naviga- 
tion. Kx.mellah, a failor ; melabet, the art of 
navigation — all from melyb, fait water, fea water. 

Marcac duaine, Maorac duaine, i. e. Radaire 
gabhas duan, a taxgatherer. Ch. ywo mabrac, 
a taxgatherer. Ar. rabdar, a tollgatherer ; de- 
vane, taxes, from the Ch. "py arak, taxavit. 
See Earc. 

Meas, a tax, tribute, tyo mas. 

Meifi, a judge j tneifitb, rules, laws, rffiSp mitfutb % 

Meidhfi, the fame. JTl^JD mejada, judex. 

Meafar, a fofter child, "fte mazar, fpurius, nothus 
a lit zar, peregrinus. 

Meifhi, painted. Heb. nWJO me/bub, hence Af^£- 
£*/# or Pidi. 

Mias, an altar. Hindoftan. miz-bechab. 

* * 

Mathas, Mabas, good, benevolent; almabafan, 
alms, eleemofyna. Arab, bafan, bonus fuit, 
bonum fecit ; mabafan, benefa&a ; atmabafan, 

Meathagh-linn, fweet linn or leann, i. e. drink, ale, 
&c. vulgo Metheglinj a liquor made of honey ; 
it was a liquor ufed by the Chaldaeans, p\Pto 
rnetkok dulcis ; ttpftTKO metbitakim dulcis potus. 
(D. de Pomis). 



Magh, Mogh, a pried, a druid — apud plurimos 
lego, Perfarum lingua Magus eft qui noftra fa:- 
cerdos. (Apuleius). n:»n haga , meditari, eloqui, 
(Irifh eagadb, whence eag/i 9 wifdom). mno 
mahge, qui meditationi & fapientiae vocat, quod 
id ipfum eft sc Be nomine M*y* Perfarum. 
(Thomaff.) The Chaldaeans had their Magi zs 
well as the Perfians, See Philoftratus in vita 

. Apollonii. 

Muireadach, a fovereign, corrupted tibw to Mur- 
togh, as Muf togh O'Brien, &c.~ This is a very' 
ancient title, the fame as ^pN*vb Merodach, king 
of Babylpn,: (Ifai. xxxix.) who in Kings is called 
Berodach. It is a title our Stythians carried 
with them into Scythia Limyrica, in India, 
whofe king Mafoudi, an Arabian. author tells lis, 
bore the title of Mehradge y which he miftakes 
for Maha-Rhaja* . Merodach, (rqx Babylonio-. 
r^m) amara contrition vel my rrha con$rka ; aut 
ex Hebraeo & Syrp^ myrrha puriffima $ this is 
the. interpretation of the name by Stephanus. 
[The Irifl) is a compound of tuaor> dominus, and 
deach, bonus. In Arabic and T?er VJ *+-?neer f do- 
minus ; £jj. adakb, bonus, elegans, altus. 

Muirean, a woman that returns to her friends at 
the death of a hufbancL Arab;- Murdja. 

Mtfan, a man ; muireatban, a woman: ' Ar. maran % 
a man j maraton, a woman. • . * 

Motluc, quaere Ar. mutluk, a race ground. It is 
the name of a town in Ireland. . 

N. Neimidh, 



'N, .. . 

New»<&, *sdefiaftic$, but of what degree is not 
plain* fa. nib amy, c^nobita, monachus. 

IjFeijmdh, aabiU#, 

JJea*, a Brtteiriw. Ch. Ntttt nafa. At. nefs, 
kjjgh ii> office under a prince, all from neas, ele- 
vation, whence in MOi it figaifies a hill. 

Nifeir, pl4 8&»bita&t$ of a country, original 
flock* Ar. nijar, root, origin ; alnijar, an old 
Arabiaa tribe. 

Natfar, a foreigner. Ch. nazeur, from-^ 30#r, 
alkjiari. P. *<j/&/a, a ftranger. 

Hbs, law ; tufaigbim, to enaft Ar. ngf}, mahi- 
fefUng, an appeal to the king ; nefs kareem, a 
mandate j»r text of the alcoran ; 'nezer, a judge. 
P. nijbandm y to conftitute \ nejb kirdm 9 to 


No$, c^ftom, taj&it, mode. Arab, nharh. 

N&J, aft affembly, council; Ch. ^ nod. t ¥L&>. 
awmEU, a congregation. Ar. /*?$r. ; * 

Nobar, a royal feat, a tribunal. iEthiop. adtorr ' 

NaMghairroam, to repeal a law. Ar. nefikh^ abro- 
gating a law. . . j 

O". • - * • '•' * ' 

Oin, any ibfog teat, money otointeseft. Ar. oin* 
Oil$m» mftru^^m fciimce, knowledge. Arab'. 

Alem^ ylma. 
OUapih^p, a profefibr of a collage. Ar, *kmm> 

fcientia. Ch, Oulphana, doftrina. 


* * 


Ollamar, Allamhair, a ftandard. Ar. alam 9 fignum. 

Oire, Oireas, an heir, Ar. iras, inheriting, 
making one an heir. 

CHara, Ollamh, QUaman, learned, a do&or, &c. 
as Ollambdn re lagh 9 do&or of laws. Ollamban 
re leigbeas, do&or of. phytic, &c. Ar. alim 9 
learned ; alam 9 fcience ; alemon % fcientia pnedi- 
tus ;' allam, omnifcience, (God as knowing all 
things). Hebr. jr^ alapb, didicit, docuit; 
alhupby doctor, dux, du&or. Chald. oulphana, 
do&rina ; bet o.uipbana 9 domus dodrinae j in 
Irifh beitb oUarnbafo, tyuir oUambain. 

Org, Ore, homicide, ym berg. 

Oithre, an heir. Ar. aratb> heritage. 

Oigibh, heirs. Ar. ukbet, pofterity, offspring. 

Oide, a witnefs. Hebr. and Chald. *\y ad. The 
Reubenites and Gadites called the altar od or 
ed, for they faid, it fhali be a witnefs between us 
— Jience rM2 "Ty ad berit, the altar of the co- 
venant. Irifli iod-beart. 

O, Ou and Ua, prefixes to the eldeft fon of the 
family. Hungarice O vel Ou, nobis antiquum 
fonat. (Otrpkocfus de orig. Hung. p. 35). ■ 
I have elfewhere derived this from the Egyptian 
article 0«, becaufe Qfiris, in Egypt, fignifies 
the fon of Siris. 


Fofadh, matrimony. Perf. pbawz, matrimonio 
fibt junxit faeminam citra dotem, confors. (Gol. 



Painachas, bail, fecurity. Perf. panauab, punch- 

Piofa, money, i. e. cut off. Perf. pe/bez, fmall 
money. Hindoft. pay/fa, money. nDD ffiffa* 

Peti, the young of beads. Ch.'4$g peti. . Arab. 
fetiy animal parvum unius anni adbuc fimplex, 

Pheorna, and Bhiorna, the men of the game of 
chefs, from Bior, an elephant, fynonimous to 
Fil, and ana y men. See Cuibe, Fil, &c. 

Phichill, Fichill, chefs. P. phikh, pikh. 

Phen, a wheel, a carriage with wheels, a waggon, 
cart, &c. Phenoir, the driver of a cart ; pben- 
tan, ?• fpiniring wheel, the fpool, &c See Ta- 
nam. Ch. J3N apian, a wheel-— hence the' 
benna of the ancient Gauls, and the Greek 
a *w, ciirrus, rotis vefta ; combennones y ajpud 
veteres Gallos, qui in unzheme vehebantur* 


Radaire, a judge. Ridire, a knight, a king's coun- 
fellor. Chald. NTl rada. Syr. rata, domuit, 
praefuit, doftus, pcdagogicus. Arab. radi 9 
juvit, auxilium, confilium, Vicarius fuit regis, 
fecundus a rege, ejufque abfentis locum tenens. 
See Aire. Ar. rida> a fword, honour, dignity. 
See Sealtur. The radi or ridafet, was the 
next perfonage to the king in dignity, among 

. the Pagan Arabians ; he fat on the right hand 
oof the prince, afted as his regent when he was 




upon any expedition, and received the fourth 
part of the plunder. 

Riodail, a parliament, a houfe of ftate coun- 
cilors, from the preceding. 

Riadh, corre&ion of the law; riadblann, a houfe 
of corre&ion. 

Riadh, a place for the execution of criminals. 
Ch. vn radiy caftigavit. 

Rea&aire, a judge ; reataire, the fame, nun 
regbuty cogitatio, confilium ; racbats, confi- 
dere, ab taha pafcere, hinc rex. (Thomaff.) 
Bafc. Lena-ragoa, an ordinary judge. Arab. 
nrtt, a governor— whence the evr$*» r$tbr* 9 or 
laws, of the Lacedemonians ; rachat, efpece de 
droit en Perfe. ( Anquetil Legis. Orient.) 

Reachdaire, a dairy man, one who abounds in 
niilk* Ar. radat % laftis copia. 

Rai, Raith, judgment, counfel. Chald. reout. Ar. 
rat. •"•■''-■. ' 

Roiiceal, a fentence or decree of the cburt. Ar. 
rufum 9 written laws; rafal 9 epiftola legariybte- 
vis fcriptum. P. ravifoy law. 

Rae, a (heep walk. Ch. rahi, pafcere. . 

Reidh, a plain field, a meadow. Ar. riadh. 

Riatha, hire, hired fervants. Ar. rubt 

Reafatn, to plead at the bar. Ar. refnt, law, pre- 

. cept, rule. 

Rioftal, an inftrument for digging, a plough 4 tal 9 
aninftrument. Ar. rg/}, digging ; rezm 9 plough- 
ing; ares 9 a plough, 




Reim, fupretae power, Arab. rebmn 9 God, om- 

Reacara; to buy and fell ; reacadb and ruacbadb 9 
a merchant, An rukahe* a merchant. 

Radai-real, a ft roller, belonging to no tribe.., An 
redy, a droller ; rabyl 9 a traveller. 

Raflaide, a woman hired to cry at funerals. Ar. 
re/fat, a hired female mourner. Ch. ntl razab, 
lu#us, convivium funebre, &c. 

Rabhagh, i. e. Rab-bacch or Rabbagh, fentegice 
of a judge. Bafc. erabaquia. Heb. flpB.pbeka 9 
judex. SeeFioch. 

Reacht, a dowry. Hr. awrakt^ pecuniae, nummi, 
opes. P&Lrekbt, furniture; rekbtarus, what- 
ever a bride carries from her parents to her huf- 
band's houfe. See Siqrbhai. 

Rifcineach, the flayer of thoufands, a Valiant fol- 
dier, a title given to many chiefs. CbtikL ]T$£ "l 
ritfcben^ occifor, interfe&or. , 

Rath, the feat of a chief, a village, fortrefs^ &c. 
Reatibhy the uppermoft clafs of plebeians j it 
is an ancient Scythic name for a town, village 
or city, fignifying a fettiement round the feat 
of a rath or chief, who was a land-holder and 
original proprietor, his rank was figriified by a 
Rat h y or circular entrenchment, and the laws 
fet forth what property entitled him to this rank. 
We learn from Berofus, that this word was 
ufed by the Armenian Scythians in the fame 
fenfe — nam & ad hac tempora Scythe Armeni ur- 



bet habent Olybama y & Arfa Ratha. (De Antiq. 
jani, lib. 3).— This clafs of people ftill hold 
the name of Raaiet, in Hindoftan, les premiers 
poffeffeurs font les Raaiets, i. e. propriUaires 
reels 9 qui cultivent lettrs /ends, £sf fayent tributs 

. en efpece $u en rfeflrfiw.^^Anquetil Legi6. Orien. 
P* 259). See Amar, Buadhaire, Ceanru 

Rtatan, Reataire, a magus, druid, clergy* See 
Aire. NUflJtt ]t3*l raten idem eft quod magus. 
(Bpxtojrf ex TahnudO See Taib-ret. 

Siocan, peace. Ar. fakena % qoies, tfanquilitas, 
. .fggurims aninii. X^sujhican y qulevit. 
Suaithre* a ceaturicwa. Ar. zubat^ the number 

1 op j Jhaet, fignurn* whence 
Suath chiontas, a ftandard to every xoo pran. 
Suarith-clontas, a coat of arnj$. Wr\0 'Jir.ehn, 

Jerem. li. 3. 
' Scqtj a foldier. P. Jhakary, a foldier, idem q. 

Sioj-bhai, a marriage portion. P. Jbirheha, dos 

& veftimenta ftrafcave, quae fecutn duxit i« do- 

inum fponfi. 
Seinfeire, a pedigree, literally old feed, Heb. 

JTR zardf femen \ " arid they could wot fhew 

their, zara, (pedigree), whether they were of 

Ifrael ." Ezra, ii. 59. per fynechd. jrft zara, 

foboles, poftcritas. Ar. zara, femen ; funha, 


Shea r da, 


Sheafda, a place of defence, a commanding fili- 
ation from feqfdam, to command ; it is of the 
fame root as the Shzxtfcrit Jhq/lar, fignifying to 

Seannacus, i. e. Beafchna, Oral or traditionary 
law. Ex. gr. Diretldr do each alanamnus a Be- 
afcbnu infe Eirin, i. e. The law of fornication 
and adultery is (direnar) manifefted (a Beafch- 
nu, i. e. Seannacus, fays the comment) in the 
Beafchnu or good Oral law, (tradition) in the 
ifland of Ireland. Arab, debir, manifeftus. 
P. dawer, adminiftration of juftice. Arab. 
bebs. Shanfcrit bhajba, fpeech, a fpoken dia- 
led. Arab. Seni and Sonna> the Oral Law. 
It is common in the Brehon Laws to meet this 
compound Beafchna in the margin $ the word 
is Beajh \ the termination cna, fignifies good, 
gracious, bountiful. 

Seanachas, the law of covenants. At. fan, a law; 
ikbazj a feod. ]Q fan, i. q. Torah, lex — hinc 

Saor, a prince ; feargfaoir, a king, from Arab. 
fergbj amplitude, andyir, a prince— -hence the 
Surena of Ammianus, a title of dignity among 
the Perfians. 

Saodh, a prince. hx.faide> principem egit. 

Saor, a trade, art or myftery, as faor-crann, a 
carpenter; faor-clocb, a raafon, &c.' Arab. 
Jirr, a myftery. P.fpramed, matter of any art. 
Ir. farmaith. 



Saob, infatuated, led aftray, doing any vicious 
a&, either againft.the law or eftablifhed reli- 
gion— hence the compounds 
Saobh-chrabhadh, hypocrify. 
Saobh-chreideamh, heterodoxy. 


Saobh-dolbha, enchantment. 
Saobh-fgriobhadh, a libel, &c. &c. 
Aizb.feba, changing ones religion, that is, be- 
coming a Sabean. This is one of the moft an- 
cient religions w.e have any traces of, being fup- 
pofed to be that which prevailed in Perfia pre- 
vious to the reign of Kijhtajp, when it gave 
way to the Magi, then introduced by Zerduji. 
(Ricbardfon's Arab. Di£t. p. 1125) — Arabibus 
communiter Saba a religione ad reiigionem 
tranfire ; unde Muhammadas Saby didus eft, 
quod reiigionem Koraijhidarum Iflamifmo com- 
mutavit, qua notione nomen hoc (Sabit) illis 
competere vult Bidawius y quod a veri dei cultu, 
ad falfos cultus defciverunt ; inde dicti afhaB-aP- 
Afhakbasj cultores fimulachrorum. (Pocock 
Spec. Hift. Arab. p. 139) — and this would be 
exprefled in Irifh by faobb-aifhic. The origin 
of the word is in the Chaldssan, viz. 2ND fab 9 

Seimloir, an advocate, counfellor. Egyptiace chem y 
confilium ; loir, Hibernice abundantia. 

Sibte, a judge. Bgttf faphat, judicavit ; fop bet , 

judex i.fuffetes fummus Carthagini magiitratus, 

feu judex ; — neque leges tantum adminiftrare 

folebant judices, fed (fi res exigeret) bellum 


4B6 LAW 6L0SSA&V. 

gerere. (Spencer* Grottos, &c.) Egyptiaci 
fthihep at fikap, to judge. 
Seibte, a general, fee the preceding. Perf.Jtpabe, 

the lord or feudal chief of a towa or village. 

See Siphe. 
Sei}>t, a clan ; fept, a *6rd of Irife origin. ( John- 

fon). r£Dl& febet, virga, baculusy feeptrum, 

ftylus, trtbus. kr.fakib, focius yfckattat, focium 

fe alicui adjungere. . 
Sibte, a city. See Schtbat in the preceding. 
Siol, feed, jffue, tribe, clan. ^XB JhlU fetus, 

proles, Alius ex utero excra&us uncte j-ft^ 

Gen. xlix. 10. (Simon). Ar. fatU, fetus 

mafculus y ftl-Jiky genealogy, fomify, progeny. 

Egyptiace JhliL 
Slainte, redemption, freeing, wfoeacejlanaidbeacbd, 

a paffport. Hinduft. falamti. 
Sidhe, hunting ; Jidbean, vemfon. Ar. Jbad. 

Saltaireac, a chronicle, from the Perf. and Arab. 

fal, a year ; /ale, years, and tareek, a chronicle. 
Somaine, lands held on payment of tribute in cattle. 

Arab, zayrn, a feudal chief ; ziyamet, a fief. 
Siphe, Sibhe, i. e. Taoifeach, a chief, a lord. 

PerLJtpabe. See Seibte. 
Shed, a milch cow. *|!&j(W, efiufio la£kis . 
Suibhe, a trial upon oath, a feflion. JT$2W febouab, 

juratus. Abraham ad puteum ber-fabe tarn fo- 

lemniterjutavit, unde ber-fabe puteus juramenti. 

Suibhte, certified on oath. See preceding. 



Said, Flr-faid, a cubit, ulna brachialis (fir, i. e.) 

hominis. An faed, cubitus. 
Saor, a freeman. Chald. tt*nft Jbaria, liberum, 

Saorgal and Soirkeal, a feudal tenure* Pert fty- 

Seod, a jewel. Tit zod> fplendor. 
Sealtuir, a fword ; Sealtoir, a fword bearer, an 

armour bearer. Ar. Jileby arms j ftlebdar, an 

armour bearer. 
Samhas, an inn. 
Sama, a futler; Samhafachan, a Aider's houfe. 

Ttf{.Jhum f a houfe for the accomodation of tra- 
vellers, a caravanfera. yjwfacan, habitare. Ar. 

fakin, an inhabitant. 
Sealbh, goods, chattels, inheritance, poffeffions. 

Suanach, a garment, a highland plaid. (Shawe). 

Ar. /una, a garment, a turband, tiara. 
Samhar, a mantle, a plaid ; brat fambra, the fame. 

Ar. femma> a fpecies of upper garmetit worn 

by the Arabs, refembling the Highland plaid. 


Suadh, Saoidh, nobles, men of letters. Arab. 

Seidte, Seiteac, a lady, a queen. Ar. ; feyidet, a 

princefs, the wife of a Seid. 
Sheaghlan, a king. P. Jhah. Ar. Jhab, a king ; 
agalon, rex, quod percipit, & quafi edit, refti- 
gal, tributum, &c. vel peculiariter intelligitur 
Tyranfius, qui devorat exhauritque fubditas. 



(Gol. p. 133). Sclavonice Saklanidge, a king 
(Mafoudi an Arab, author). 

Saeghlann, a judge. Arab. Jbaglon, Jhagalan, ne- 
gotium. Qu. 

. Sheanachus, learned in the law. Arab. Jhinas, 
learned ; keaus, the law. See Cuis. 

Seanaca, an antiquary. Chinefc Suon-ku. Ar. 
kbahy an antiquary ; funha, old. 

Seanachas, genealogy. Qh. tttTTD nuchas , genea- 
logfa ;fean, anceftry. 

Saoirthi, Suirthi, nobles. Ar.fuaret, $\*fara 9 no- 
biles, proceres, fummates. 

Saith, an eftate, immoveable pofleffion. Arab. 
zeyat. ] 

Seragh, a leathern bottle. Ar. zira, the leg, a 
fmall bottle made of the leg-fldn of an animal 
in which they kept wine. 

Sail, a guard, prote&ion. Ar. zyll. 

Seiric, puiflant, a chief. P. Jirkar. 

Sreath, Seanachus Sreath, a code of civil and cri- 
minal laws. Ar. Jhreraaet. — Sheraet-al-Eflam, 
la loi & religion des Mufulmans. (Herbelot). 
See next Chapter. 

Sraid, the way, the road, a ftreet. Hindoflanice 


Tana, a compaft, covenant, &c. Ch. N3n tana. 
See Bealtaine. 

Tanaifti, is ti Tana ; qui eft Tana, the heir appa- 
rent to a prince, the fecond perfon of a princi- 


jfcHty Hekt the 'king or prince. The word to* 
tutijte, in Irifh, figiliftes the fecond^ as in Chal- 
4#an and Arabic ; as in the following paffage, 
is giorrara mhoir an eld tan^efie don ledradh 
fmnd an ted toifinac, i. e. the fecond hundred 

• • champioM Hvere fooncr killed than the firft hun- 
dred. > gib'^anay & Tunay, fecundarjug, fc. 
fecufcdu^prittdpe, primo domino, feu magif- 
tro* (Got l p. ^44^8); : Suna or Sum, the fubfti- 
tute of ; a-$king, < chief magistrate ; Sunyan, fe- 

* eondariesy-ttte'ilext in rank o? fubftitutes to 
princes, : ft^Heads of a family, fecond in dig- 
nity, authority* or excellence. (Richardfon, p. 
659). Jtf-flW^f iiumenis orcfinalk, a Than&et 

: Thaniya^ du}>licaVit, cbnveoiunt ^ejam Heb. rftU/ 

fana, iterari et *W)fani 9 fecund us., Syri etiam 

per'h erfferuilt abf hoc themate orta, ut Njjfl tana 

-itdravit, ^«rftoratio~hinc g*S to«y, ft prin- 

t cipefetufrdtis,' "ttiTanah & Tbonan & SThonyanon. 

(CI. Pocockius f Garmen Tograii, p. 121)* The 

IriflrTariai or iTanaifti, when of age, was at- 

r ways made governor of a diftritt, which, in 

frith; is tak" When I publifhed^the Hluftration 

of the Tanijlry .'Laws of Ireland, I derived the 

' name Tanaifte from tan, a region or diftrift, a 

' miftake I Was led into^by M. Bullet j but here 

is full evidence, and good authority, that the 

fame title exifted with the Arabians and Syrians, 

and for the fame reafon, becaufe the perfon was 

pext to the king or prince, the heir to the 

V crown* 

« r > » 


* ^rown, which clearly proves- the crown was not 
ele&ivfe.. Iti the.dynafty of the Perfian kings 
who reigned in Egypt, we find that the Egyp- 
tians, revolt^ ag^inft the Pqrfians* apd fet up 
Jnarus a Libyan, who defeated the Perfian army ; 

.. but afterwards wh#* Megs^byzu* defeated ina- 

. rusj (whom the Perfians crucified), the P$rfians 
made Than-Inarus or ITbannyruj, fon of Inarus, 
king of Libya. Herpdpt. L; 3* C, i^^bseamfe 

. he was the Famifti ov Thane, being the fon of 
the king < . I& tfee ancient Scythian language, 

~ fays Strablenberg, fauna/is ftgnified a> prince. 

Tainam, Tuinttam, to dwell > , taint, an inhabi- 
tant— *hence thft town of Tawjaey. Ar, taw* 

jhabitayit, (in aliquid oppido) j tanaP f manfio > 

• taun, tana,, the. fame. \. ; 
Tanam, Toinift#v Teanam, to twift, to we^ye, 
to fpin ; %anaidhe aoideacb, the; *£9<>f of cloth 
—whence triniain, a long thread' in fpinning j 

: . tointef lin, a fpindle of yarn, and : 

T$ir r tan, the weaving of the Scythians, a name 

; ; given to the (luff of which the plaids are made, 
and Tonach, a fquare wrapper worji by the wo- 
men like a (hawl ; fenntdn, the fpool of a gin- 
ning wheel that receives the threap. -Ch. jgy* 
opban, a wheel, rota y pBN ettm,fwm$ t Prov. 
vii. 16. Intexiji, ^k» le&ulum meum— diftin&a 
etun Egypti ; hoc eft, parata funibus lineis faftis 

. in Egypto. (Schindler). Arab, tahin, a weav- 
er. P. ten?, a fquare piece of cloth, a web; 



UnwMiden, to- twift, to weate. Arab. *»», 
panniculus quadrat um fupra qucjd luditur pilis 
laneis. (Caftelltis); ; » Perf. I Tatar, a Scythian; 

' T^fjry, a kind of flatbed doublet open . at the 

~fide&, ufually worn by the Tartars and Scythians 
•^—fctence our • Tar-fan, that is; the, Scythian 
mode of weaving. In a former "volume of this 
work, I have fhewn that the Hiberno Scythians 
were famous for weaving of linen; from a. very 
remote period of antiquity, a»4 that all the 
'implements ufed in that art by the modem Irilh, 
ftilL hear their oriental* names.; But this art 
was pra&ifed by the -Southern Scythians oply, 
/who introduced > this manufa&ure ^rhereyet 
they went. See Introdu&ion, p. 16. (j). 

Teibi, a phyOcian. Arzb.tabib. Hindu, tabkb* 7 

Topni a hide, (kin, pelt** Ar. tun, coriwiu Per£ 
tun, a leather chefs board. ,_ -\j\ \ 

Toine, TbineaiQh, i monument of the dead. Ar. 

. aata, tfama bona,,laus mortui. . 

Toin-eolas, the aft of fpeaking, profpdy. Chald. 
Tftf) tana, meditatus-eft, docuit, locutus eft. 

Ttig, Dig, a fword. Perf. tigb, a fword or dag- 

\ - 


(x) At the battle of Cnocnandos, before the troope engaged, 
they demanded of Alaftetf Mac.Donald, cait abfacfam na brca-> 
rain ? where {hall we leave our Plaids ? to which he anfwers 5 
Fagaig na brcacain ar na cnocain 
'fpe 'ge 'mbe na tallain bi aige na Tartan. 

Leave the phuds on the hills ; whoever obtain* 
The heights, let him e'en take the Tartans. 

Teanadi, Deajistm* to dye cloth, to colour. Ar* 
tenwy%\> idfyihg doth. 

TtioHran, a hired foldier, Ar. at&llavmt> 

Tugar^a merchtoc, ik«« ctannaiche feachtvmt a 
ftrolliilg canaanite or tnerthaat, a pedlaiv Foe* 
nif. -MiJVfl tugn* comtnercinro. Ar» mthak y 
fcedua, pfc£tutn. 

Taigaire, a hireling, a^fervant; tajj%> wages. 
An tuxv&yf, a ftipend, a daily, pay, 

Torcharkh, inheritance^ legacies, from ft/itfa/r, 
he died. Ar. ttrikat^ things left after death, 
inheritances; the Iri& Gigbteireabkl, inheri- 
tance, k of this derivation. 

Treachd, Ukreachd, ofEee, employment. Arab. 
teryk. ' : - - •• v v.'.: 

Tola, a church officer. Ar. tawlyet, thtt.prefe&ure 
or fuperintendaacy of the a|ffair« of taoafqijes, rir 
other religious foundations. 

Tora, trade, buying: and idling - r tombibwubi^ 
commerce. Ch,-*f9 tani, negotiant; :tu*un y 
mercator ; tarija, commerciura-^iade Terias> 
Sicilian ftumen ad quern Leontimrum tft frumwti 

Tora, Tuirrea, weeping over the dead, a fdJemn 
dirge ; torramhuil^ an elegy. Ar. tarab, triftis 
fuit, animi angor ; taraz 9 morttfus ; terfil, an 
elegy, a fpecks of verfe. Huqgarice tor, exe- 
quiale convivium. Ghakl. $h\T\ tera> agitare. 
" Tor, nimirum (quod alias etiam exequiale con- 
vivium denotat) vindiftam, feu retaliationem de- 
bet fignificare e noftri idioraaxis proprieiate. 



,Jajbtocfenfu, pqt^Tor^ codem tnodo, quo La- 

. tinum viadicfcre, ptefer tt&Wxa, trifle iftfetre, 

etiam bono afficere, v, grj vindicate henorem, 

tliquandonotet, in benigworem partem accep- 

turn fiiiffe a noftris tfiajortbus, ut fignifiearet, 

. hoooris ac memoriae defondi rcdintcgrationem. 

4 [Otrokoefus Orig. Husgar* p. 13.] 
- Radix eft Chald. tr& ""?, agiure, cftneutere — 
inde Tros, Toros, Toro, a quo Trojae nomen, 
, teftigias avi foi Dardani fccutus > magmis terras 
illius extitiffe reftaurajtpV* & tahquslm Aviticse 
aeProaviticas poflei&otus Vhfttat J xjvram nt eft 
valde probabile, eju* majqres Scythse longc ante 
Dardantim, adhuc in prirnqfuo ex Armenia pet 
Afiam minorem in Europam tranfituty .pro fe oc- 
dtif^areran^^ ,,, ffetem).,: . . ^ ; : . f 
ilW, a thicket— Jifcnce firy, a name given ^onhe 
/ fri&by th* Englifr, frdm their flying to. the 
tfbods and mountains. Ar, frf^fihreftris, mon- 
taina, avis, /h>^w, & utrumque M«arihaad ibi eft. 
: (Got 14%). ' ' . 1 ; ; '. ' ; •• 
;Torc, a prince, archipf* t&rwchon, taYchdn± dux, 
princeps, lingua Chorafanica, (G0L) 1 ; tor*, 
' Aifc mneris; tJT&wgmtbsmzn^tort, a king. 
Triocba^ a canthred of tribes coHe&ed unctet* par- 
ticular chiefs. Arab. Taraka, agniina, cat us 
* pec. nobiiibres, meHores & praeftantiores, mag- 
nates, qui atiid quafi pro exemplo font ; tdrakat, 
fatnilia, tribus viri. 
*Taith, fome iriftrament to throw ftones or darts 

with ; 

£94 LAW glossary; 

with j tailh-bheim> a mortal blow from this in- 
strument. Job xli. 20. Sicut ftipula rtputabi- 
tur 7]ir,r\ totba, bombarda (Schirtdl.), fome 
inftrument to deftroy with. (Bates). JVtn **- 
thah, ballifta, lapides balliftae, vox nullo auxi- 
lio nobis declarata— res debet effc dura ac firma, 
ut patet quia earn reputare pro ftipula, mira- 

• - eultira eft roboris crocodiio divinitus dari. (Guf~ 

"Taval, a fling/a machine to throw darts. Ar. 

tavol. Gh. VitO tovplj ja&atus fuit. 
Tus-miodh, a fervent bound by oath, a bond Have. 

• Ar, iaivzit* binding by oaf h. 

Truidam, Druidam, to diftiil. Ar. iwawedun. 
■•- S&e Gudaire; 

Trom-bhuidhann, a tribe,, a clan of vaflals, living 

. Separated from their caft or tribe, ixombuidbtiriy 

« :a tribe, compaiiy, troop ; whence aqf4twban, 

communities/ or people living in feparate tribes 
. ' — htpE/txh^Osfiromnydes of the Silures, aod-? 
Tromthura, a tribe of vaflals fcatterfcd: here/and 

there. Ch. 0*10 taram, feperare; ;Ar. butin, 
. a tribe. : ^: ,<;;:*' . ' >. :. .<; 

Tobtha, the chieftari ©f a tribe; fear* tobhtba* or 

toba, the ele&ed n&n. ,. »Arab. tobba, chief t^n 

of a tribe. 
Tobar, puteus, a well, ht.ytabar^ foditputeum. 
Treid, a fpear, a probofcis, an elephant, from 

freidim, to pufti at, to pierce— whence treidiol, 

£ foldier jarmejd with a lance ; traideach % a war 


law glossary: 295 

* ; horfe. Ar. iyrad, to pufli, to drive, a lance, a 
fpear, or javelin; perhaps the French iirer de- 
rives from this. 

Troiach, a (Held, a helmit, from- the Ar. taruka, 
duplicavit, obduxitve rem corio ; tara&> plica 
congeftis coriia conftans clypeus. (Gol.) 

Tairc, a prophet. Ar. tarik 9 vates, - fortilegus, 
(Gol.) a divine who prognofticates event$ by 
throwing pebbles into water (Rich.) 

Troim-chill, a fanttuary, from trtm, devotion, and 
r///, a church. Ar. tdreem, deo fupplex, hu- 

'. militer devotus. 

Trom-mathar, a lady matron. P. tirem 9 a great 
lady, the wife of* ? 57r, prince, chief, head of 

* a family. 

Tamhra, another ,name of Tarab, where the tri- 
ennial aflembly of the dates were held, and the 

; provincial laws compared and recorded, Arab. 
tarnara, fcrfpfit in volumine. The name Tarah 
derives from rnin torah, lex — whence 

Tuiri-ghim, to judge , fo tor akfrovci -fin tor, fcru- 
tatus eft, inveftigavit, ordo* 

Teallach, a divorced woman. Ar. talak, a divorce, 
repudiation, a follower of women — hence 

Teallachog, a concubine. 

Traftalladh, trade, negotiation. Ar. terket. 

Tread, a flock. Ar. tarada % compulit et ex diver- 
fis partibus in unum coegit camulos, equos, &c. 

Tiagh, Tiaghan, pledge, fecurity, covenant^ law. 
Ch. Mn tag*> corona, lex. Eflh. i. 3. 


$9<> J*** Ci.QSSAR.*. 

• » 

Tiiaha, Tuatha, the people, the laity, elanns* Ch. 
WTlVl *iuba 9 focietas, tribus, (D. DePom. Ex.) 

Toice, rich, riches* property. Prov. x&ix. 13. 
The poor and the CO^D IMt as taeeim, rich 
men meet together. 
Toiched, an arc eft, confiscation, fpoiled, plundered. 
Ar. Per. takbt, fpoil, prey. 

Taibret, a prieft. Taibret, i. e. Sac art y taibret 
i. t.facart acoibfina duit> cudiutu coleir. The Tai- 
bret or prieft £ball confefs to you (the Bilhop) 
without reservation. Old MSS. in my pofleffion. 
Again, Taibret ni gaba almfana irtabeat ditfeir, 
a Taibret or prieft fhall not take alms from a 
pauper ; this is the ancient Scytho- Armenian 
name for a prieft, viz* fear-Taibret or fearTai- 
bet ; the vir4abitts 9 or preaching priefts of the 
Armenians, are doftors, fo denominated, when 
they can understand the language of their an- 
cient manufcripts. (Un. Hift. 8vo. V. 9, p, 49a). 
The root is the Arab. taba 9 fcientia polluit — 
whence, tab, gnarus, folers, &c. The IrHh 
word is a compound of taib and reat. See 

Tuath and Tuava, the people. Ar. taifc, a people, 
nation, tribe, family. 

Taibhleoir, an ambaffador, mediator, &c. from 
taibh and labhar, to fpeak. Syr. teba, fermo, 
res, negotium. Ar. ataba, reconciliavit ; mu- 
taba 9 mediator., 

Tagar, to plead, to contend j iagra^oir, ah Advo- 



Ch. linfitpr, cpatetttio) Wl t*ck*f, 
lis. • . 

Tcallamach, a paricide. Ar. telU+ blood (h&L 

Tuis, a nobleman. Ar. atez, nobili ftirpe natus. 

Tuis, origin, nature— hence Tuifde, a parent. 
Ch- imn /«f, origo. Ar. tus 9 origo, nature 

Tomarin, Somann, fertile land. Ar. zemeen— 
whence %imender 9 a farmer. 

Time, dignity j Tinuire, a king's minifies agent 
royal. Ar, temou 9 elevated ; tir 9 a prince ; turn- 
turak 9 royal grandeur. 

Teim, a fervant. Ar. trim. 

Taileafc, literally the old tables, drafts, backgam- 
mon, chefs. P. tawlly a kind o/ trick-track, 
drafts. Ar. iula 9 a chefs-board. 

Tathal, Taval, a fling, a caft, or throw. Ch. bltO 
toval, proje&us fuit. Ar. iavoL 

Tachmang, the confines of a country. Ch. onn 
t*cham 9 terminavit. . Ar. takhamon, coiifines, 
limes, pagi aut provinciae. 

Taibhjj attendants, followers — hente Taibh-ftdh^ 
the genius that is fuppofed to follow Ififh fami- 
lies wherever they go, Ar. tuba, attendance — 
hence the furname of the kings of Arabia-fe- 
Hx, as having many followers. Ar. tuba 9 fami- 
liar fpirits fuppofed to accompany men wherever 
they go. Ch. itojhed, daemon. 

Teibe, nature ; teibidh 9 phyficians. Ar. iyba 9 
nature j tabib % phyficians. 



Teoran, a mark, limit, boundary. Ar. tahrtn, a 

mark, Mercury the god of boundaries. 
Tel, fertile ground. Ar. tyla. 


Ugha, war. Ar. wugha. 

Uachad, a will, teftament, any written agreement. 
Ar. aked. 

Uachdar, a government, prefidency ; uacdaran, 
a governor. Ar. ukdet, a praefe&ure, govern- 

Ur, Uor, noble. Ch. *yin hour, horr. Arab. 
bar, n obi lis, illuftris. 

Uaill, grandeur, greatnefs, power. Ar. bawl., omnipotent. n»lj^?w Jf»* ela a leu ma, 
dea invi&a ; Dlp^N ~*?f0 melic a/cum, rex invic- 
tus. Prov. xxx. 31. Ar. alchum^ validum fo- 
nat — hence the Irifh Dia ulcumhach, God Al- 

Ulla, a place of devotion where facrifices are of- 
fered. N^y ola, holocauftum. 

Ulamuts, Olamuts, Ulmuts, a facrifice for the 
dead. The peafants of Ireland ftill colleft for 
this feftival on the eve of Saman, or All Souls, 
by the name of Ulmuts. Saman was the angel 
that prefided .over the fouls of the departed, ac- 
cording to the Pagan Irifh, and his feftival is 
now that of All Souls. He is the Afuman 9 of 
the Perfiahs. — Afumqn, felon les mages de Per- 
fe, le meme que Mordat, Tange de la mort, 



ou celui qui fepare les antes d'avec les corps. 
Les auteurs des paraphrafes Chaldaiques de l'E- 
criture fainte, le nomment Malaka cFmouta, ou 
Tange de la mort. (Herbelot). See this Irifh 
feftival explained in No. XII. Vol. 3. of this 
work. UlamutSy is a corruption of the Chal- 
dsean Nty ola, a facrifice, and nto mut> death ; 
N*?y olaj emphat. Nffty olta, holocauftum. See 
the infcription, PI. III. - 

UUach, a burying place. Ar.alak, alook, death. 

^emigration des peuples eft prouve par Tiden- 
tite de mots conventionels, mais non par celle 
des mots neceffaires & naturels. (Prefid. des Brof- 
fes. Mechan. des langues, p. 272). 

> » 

Une fcience eft iffue du pais, ou les mots tech- 
niques dont elle fe fert y ont pris naiffance ; c'eft 
un principe inconteftable. 

(Bailly Lettres a M. Voltaire, p.293.) 


■» * . 

I 3°° 3 


L Ricapituktim. II. Origin if the Feudal &yfiem 

;. ■ . tf Government. 

• * * 

I. W E have (hewn from good authorities, quoted 
in the preceding pages, that Armenia was the feat 
of the fouthern Scythians, in the mod early ages. 
* c Their origin," according to Diodorus Siculus, 
** was near the Jraxes 7 but Palus and Napas, two 
44 brothers of Scythes ', extended their dominions 
** to Caucafus, and to the Tanais ; their p<>fterity 
" became famous and eminent for valour ind 
" martial affairs, and turning their arms the other 
€i way, they led their forces as far as to the river 
Nile in Egypt, and having fubdu&t many nations 
lying between, they enlarged the empire of the 
Scythians as far as to the eajiern ocean (that is, 
the Indian fed) one way, and to the Cafpian fea 
and the lake Masotis another {a). This nation 
profpered (till more and more, and had kings 
that were very famous, from whom the Saca, 
the Majfageta, the Arimafpi, and many others, 
called by other names, derive their original.'* (b) 


(a) Diodor. Sicul. lib. 2. ch. 3. 

\bS Parthaei gens olim Scythica. (Steph. Byz.) Parthos 
Seforcridis Egyptiomm regis tempore, & Janduii Scytharum, 
ex Scythia in eum, quam nunc tenent locum, demigraQe. 
(Arrianus ap. Photium). 



. Of tbefe nation called by other names, were 
the Parthtans, Amazons an4 White Hunns (V). 
Tfcbfe &vage Scythian Amazons who i>uik fo many 
famous- cities, and amongft others -the city of 
Ephefus* and its famous temple, in which they (eft 
inscriptions, written in the facred and myfterious 
char afters, called Phrygian -and Ephefian, which 


Clemens tells ns, were thofe ufed by the Id»t 
Da&yli, as defcrifced before, p. * 79. 

'We have fhewn from frilh Fragments theorigiHl 
of the Scythians from Lamia, whom the Greek 
and Latin poets Tiave fabled (from the name) to 
have been half a woman and half a ferpent. 
Neu pranfe Lamife vivum puenim extrahat alvo. 

(Hor.: Art. Poet.) 

Afpafilis, in fois Remarks on Ariftorie, gravely 
teJfe us, ** that there -certainty was a woman named 
** Lamia, who dwelt in the neighbourhood of 
* Pontns, and having destroyed her own children, 
** devoured the young ones of other women." 
And fttnloftrattts, in his life of Apotlonms, fay$, 
lie. was inclined to think this Lamia was rather a 
odapmon.-^-I would aik the opponent of Iri(h hit 
tory, did the Irifli monks of the 9th and 10th 
<centuries forge this ftory of JLamia, or wore they 
So learned as to read Ariftotleand foift it into Xrifli 
hiftory (d). 

Thefe Parthians, Amazons and Hunns, cut off 
at length from their brethren of Pontus by the 


(c) Pliny Hift. Nat. lib. j6. ch. 19. 
\d) See ch. 1. ' ' ' 


intervention : of. cither nations, formed the foutforrt 
Scythians ;, who ravaged Iran, Egypt, and India, 
By.aff^iauiag, with thefe eafterri people, they he- 
came acquainted with all tfcs.fdiencea of theeaft : 
and after aipng emigration from place to place, 
the colony Jitat reached .thefe iflands brought 
with th?in?tber debris, the wreck only of the. fai- 
ences they had been formerly mailers. :H?nse we 
find all their original terms of grammar, of ciyX 
government, of arts and fciences, and of mytho- 
logy, are Oriental ; terms not known, to other Scy- 
thic or Celtic nations, or even to the Greeks and 
Romans.. Thefe are ftubborn fails, and fuch as all 
the opponents of Irifli hiftory can never fubvert. 

Thefe Scythians brought with them not only the 
manufactures of the Eaft, but the very names of the 
implements ufed therein,: as we have fully explained* 

They wrought in gold, vcifilver^ in copper fcnd 
brafs ; the ftames they gave to; thefe mefels are att 
Oriental, unknown to the other weftern nations, as 
aphos y gold ; aphos-ait or aphq/l, the place (uif} of 
fmelting the gold. Phcenice TDTN ophaz, gold, (*). 
£im> kir, kirjn, ankir^ ktarb, /River, Arab. Jim, 

nukreb, kurinj> ghurb, filler {f). 
No/hi -crocumha, umha, unga> ir^ iris, cruan, ban, 

copper or brafs. Chald. iyn3 nahjh. Arab, nu bus > 

rui, eyer. Ch. NEfO-Q carcuma, brafs, copper. 
\Ceas, Ceafluaidhe, lead. Hiftduftanic6 ciffe, lead. 


(e) See Vindication of Irifti hift. p. 148. 

(f) Cim, i. c. airgeaty Cim, that is, filver. Cim ainm each 
Kiofa f Cim is a name for all kind of money. (Cormac's Gloffary). 
Arab. A*»A«iC keefeh f money. .. . 


When they mixed with the Celtic nations, in 
the weft* and. not till then, they adopted the. Celtic 
names of thefe metals, as or, for gold, airgead, 
for filver, pras, for brafs, and copar, for copper j 
but let the reader turn to Lhuyd's Irifh Lexicon, 
and he will find aurum explained by aphoji ; cim 9 
by a\rgead y &c. &c. Yet 1ms a modern dabler 
in Irifh antiquities had the hardinefs to quote thefe 
Celtic words in a late publication* as an authori- 
ty that the ancient Irifh were unacquainted with 
thefe metals, but afcribes the ufe of metals in this 
Ifle to the Belgae ; " and their terms," fays he, 
" are living evidences at this day of this truth (£)." 
We refer this author to the old and prefent name 
of the copper mines now working in the County 
of Wicklow, not 30 miles from this metropolis j 
they are at this day named Cron-bdn or Crtum-bam, 
that is, red capper. Pana and Phana Ailana, 
were towns in Idumaea, remarkable for copper 
mines, 4 miles from Dedanv Phana ville ccl6bre 
par fes mines de cuivre, auxquelies elles dut fin 
nom. (h) 

If the ancient Irifh had not money, whence 
came thefe words into their language, viz. cim 9 
kearb, kearb-clodh, (L e. damped filver) kiojh, uin % 
mal, all fignifying money, and all to be found in 
the Arabic, viz. Jim y mal, ghurb, ain 9 kijh : and 
what was the fang of the old Irifh, which all the 
Lexiconifts tranflate, a coin of the Irifh, of gold 


(g) Antiq. of Ireland, No. V. ^ . 

{b) Gcbdin,.T. 3. p. z6. 


or ffaeri with great fubmiffion to thfc very learn* 
ed Irtfh antiquary, we will tell him it was the 
fjune *s tjie £hinefe y^i, a coin worth about 
eighteen pence of our money. (#) 
. All chat this author has written ooM and- 
qataiefr k buUt on the Tame fondy foundation ; ag 
weH mig^it he write the hiftory of the EftgJiih co- 
lony fettled *t New York, and call k a feiftory of 
the North American Savages. 

That a few Belgic and fome Latin words have' 
crept into the Iriftt language, by the invafions of 
the Danes,- and by the chriftian miffionaries, is 
not 4o be denied ; .but they are exotics, andfo- 
reign to the idiom of the IrHh language, fuch as 
anm, the foul ; corp 9 the body ; holm, ! an ifland, — 
whence HUm Patrick near DuWia. The Irifl* 
have rucfy 'the foul* At: and Chi rub. And for 
the body, <*&, cblban; gabb, truaii, sr4f 9 .arf df* 
eur&fb> acht+ tun, .crochar, tutnh^ jith+ fitbesi t 
lumba, fixate fkeAtoach^ ian 9 in which*! qatjdogue 
wfll be found the .Arabic tunj kamut±. xat^ kalub, 
and the Chaldsan gava, &c. &c. ' ■ 

Berofus fixes the iettdcrtient of the&eythtitns in 
Jta&ri&a, * ajad in India, on the Indw and Qanges 
rkers, in the 40th ycar:of Btlu$« JJhe unfortu- 
nate and ingenious finger Aram %&, they took 
£offeffion of Armenia 950 ysars after the flood, 
under >their .leader Alcon. 


(#) All money pafled by weight with the old Iriftu In China 
the ounce of filver called bang or tad is divided into 10 tfiim ; 
the tfim into 10 fen; *ktftn into 10 & ; the/i into 10 too. 


Belus was certainly the Nimrod of the fcrip- 
tures, and the Titanus of the Armenians. In the 
Chaldsean annals, tranflated into Greek by order 
of Alexander, we find the Scythians contending 
for power with Belus , under their leader Haic, the 
great great grandfon of Japhet. Haic is overcome, 
and accepts of his fettlement upon certain con- 
ditions ; this we look on as the firft dawn of that 
feudal fyfiem which was fo general in the Eaft, 
and which was brought to the weft by our 
Southern Scythians (£). 

Thefe Scythians .fettled in India, received the 
name of Hoons> or (J) Huns \ they are mentioned 
in an infcription written in the old Sanfcrit lan- 
guage, on a pillar near Buddal in India, lately 
difcpvered and tranflated by the learned and inge- 
nious Mr. Wilkins (m), yiz. <c Trufting to his 

wifdom, the king of Gowr for a long tifne en- 

joyed the country of the eradicated race of 
44 Ooktal, of the Hoons, of humbled pride », of the 
" Kings of Dravier and Goorjar, whofe glory was 
" reduced, and the univerfal fea-girt throne/* 

The Hoons of humbled pride. This paffage plain* 
ly (hews, our Scythians were once in great power 
in India, who poffeft the fea-girt throne, that is, 
all the fea coaft of India, which was called Scytbia 
Limyrica r GT maritime Scythia, as we have already 
jhewn in the Introduction, p. 16. 

X An 

(i) Mofes Choron. Hift. Armcniae. 

(/) The Arabic byru, obedience, inay perhaps point out the 
origin of the name. 

(m) Afiatic refearfhct, Vol. I. p. 136. 


An Arabian author AbouUUaffan^Aly, com- 
monly called Mafoudy, in his work entitled the 
Golden Flowers, mentions thefe Hunns under the 
name of Zinge (n), \ iiame the Perfians give to 
the Egyptians, but it is probably a Scythian term, 
viz. Sion-gao 9 fynonimous to Laimric, i. e. round 
about the fea coq/t. Mafoudy fays, their king 
'bore the title of Mehradge, which appears to be a 
corruption of the Hiberno-Sc) thian Muireadach, 
a king, from the" Chaldaean "pN'nJD merodoch. 
Mahredge, according to Mafoudy, was alfo king 
of the Ifles ; by which, (fays Monf. D.e Guignes 
his. commentator), he means the penirifula of In- 
dia, .and adds, this Arabian author fpeaks alfo of 
a Scythian king, who Tent to take pofleflion of all 
the countries that lie in the northern part of India ; 
it'is'fliofe Scythians, fays De Guignes, who are 
called Indo-Scythiahs, Sirabo fpeaks of them \ Cofmo- 
Indo-plaflas mentions them alfo, and calls them 
white hunns {p). They are frequently filled 
Ugri, by Procopius, and Ugre, in' the Sclavonic 
language, fignifies living near the water (Univ. 
Hift.' V. 19. Ch. 28.); fo that Ugre was fynoni- 
mous to Limyrica, or the Peninfula of India. 
- Cofmas mentions them, and calls them white 
Hunns j and fliers they were called Zinge, from 
their dwelling on th£ fea coaft. " Arabicus, Ery- 

" thraeus 

(n) Hornius has miftaken thefe Zings for the Chinefe : olim 
quidem, Ptolemaei adhuc aevo, Sinenfes auftraliores fuerunt, 
ubi hodie Bengala, quam Arabes etiamnum Sin appellant ; pro- 
grefli poftea longius in feptentrionem. • 

[o) Extra&s of MSS. in the French King's Lib. V. 1. 


(C thrapus di&us & Perficus (Sinus) qui ambo esc 
u Z/flgw prodeunt ad auftrales &t>rientales. terrae 
€ \ partes, a terra qijje bdrbaria dicitur, quo defi- 
" ,nit;vSJthiopiae regio. Zingyan autem ? ut no- 
" runt quotquot in Indico mari nayigant, fitum 
" eft extra thuriferam terrain, quae* barbaria dici- 
" tur, quar/i circuit oceanus, in ambos inde funis 

" influens. Cum autem aliquando ad interio- 

" rem.Indiam navigaremus, pene ufque ad bar- 
" bariam tranfgreffi, ultra quam Zmgium fitum 
" eft ; nam ita vocant Qceani ojiium. Cum ad 
u dexteram dec 1 in ar em us avium volantium. con- 
" fpexi, quas vocant Stjfphp" (Nota, Zingium 
ea; aevi fui ufu vocat Cofpnas., non piodo fretrum 
Arabici finus, f<gd etiam.pram maritjmam Africa- 
nam ultra fretum, itemque mjare. adjaceps)*.*^— r 
" Inter, haec jam i^emorata empork aUa^ei^ njul- 
" ta funt, tarn maruima quam mediterranea, ac per- 
*' ampla fane regior— fuperiprem feu feptentrioni 
" viciniorem partem occupant Hunni, candido 
" corpore, quorum rex Gollas di&us, bis mille 
" elephantos equitatumque multum ad bellum 
" educit : hie India; imperat, & late tributa exi- 

Hence I conje&ure cam the Indian, n*m£ of an 
elephant into the, Irifh language* viz, borr or 
boiffi and many .other. Indian. woj;^ v t It is well 

:-. • ; <; .X) a - .-. •• *> :, • known 

(/) Colle&io nova patrum 8c fcriptorum Graec. Eufebii, Atha- 
nafii & Coftnae Egyptii. Tom- 2. p. 132 & 338. Zanguebar, 
the modern name of that coaft, is certainly derived from the 
Scythian Singaobchra, or the Arab. bchr y the fea. 



known that the Hibernb-Scythians did apply the 
name of Gattuh> or Gallamb, (fignifying white 
hand), to fome of their kings > and Goles was an 
ancient name given to Hercules. Milefius, their 
leader of the colony from Egypt to Sicily and 
Spain, and from thence t6 Ireland, was named 
Gollamh (q). Mr. Brute, in his travels in Egypt, 
met thirty Turks from Caramania, who told him, 
they efteemed the Englijh as their countrymen/ be- 
caufe they had a tradition in their country, that 
the Englijh firft drew their origin from a place be- 
tween Anatolia and Caramania (r). And on his 
return, Mr, Brace met fome Arabs, who told him 
the fame. " I law, fays the Sherife (chief) a num- 
ber of his countrymen in large (hips from the In- 
dies, when I was at Jidda ; they are called Inglefe ; 
they are brave men, and came firft from Turkey ; 
their country is called Caz Dangli to this day/' 
(Vol/ 4. p. 361). - Sir William Jones, in a letter 
to me, dated Cbrijbna riegar, Sept. 11, 1789, does 
me the honour to fay, " Your Vindication of 
the Ancient Hiftory of Ireland gave me great 
pleafure, and I read it twice through with frefli 
delight ; not without a difference of opinion on 
a fome points, which you will not wonder at, if you 
" confider what Juftinian calls naturalem homini- 
" bus diffentiendi voluntatem. If Dr. Vieyra is 
cc convinced (and there cannot be a bet tter judge 

" of 

(q) Sec Vindication of Irifh Hiftory, p. 291. 
(r) Bruce's Travels to difcover the Source of the Nile, Vol. 
i, p. 172. 



« of the fubjed) of the affinity between Iri{h> 
u Perftan and Arabic, it is a demonfhative pi oof* 
" that the Iriih were* (a& I believe my anceftore the 
" Britons, to have been) a mixed nation ; and if you 
" find Turkifh or Tartarian alft>> in Irifh^ it wilt 
" be a. demonftration that the fans of Shem y Hani 
" and Japbet % fettled in our Brttifh Hands." (x) 

To return to the White Hunns. The Arme- 
nians had their king Gilam, and according to> 
Gofmas's tranflation of GoiIos 7 the Armenians. 
might call turn ntpb-t*lh % that is > white body., and 
this might bave been the- origin of the name 
Nepbthalitey which,, according to Frocapius and 
Agathias* was (he name of the Hunn* wha inha- 
bited a rich country to the north of lrai\ or an- 
cient Peifia* (that is, Ascaenia and Anatolia}^ 
they observe, they were at a great diftance from 
the Sarmatian Himns or Scythians, with whom 
they had no intercom rfe, nor the teaft relembtance 
either in perfons or manners t they did aot wan- 
der Kke other Huitnsy from place to place, but 
lived under a regular government, firbjett to* one 
prince, governed by their own laws* and dealt 
uprightly with one another^ a& well as with the. 
aeighbouring people (/}. Thcfe Scythians; once 


(>) See VfcyraV Anfmadverfibaes* wJkseik ace. many Iriflk 
words collated with the Arabic 

(t) See Orig. Hiaagarkc F. QtrokocfiiK-Extra&a, of MS&. 
inr the French kuig'*. Library, VoL h p> ^3,7^— |qukij*. des; 
Scayans, N>. 23* p. £42- — Univ. Hi&. 8vo^ V.. e©>. Clw z8* — 
See- aHb the character of thefe Scytha>, 6y Baoayiius* IiHtckL 
j* 12- — Po& haec Perozea. Ftiiasun^ rex* Iftigejcdunii afeerum* 




inhabited Arabia Felix > according to the Chaldaean 
paraphrafe ; for the people of Arabia (tiled Gada- 
rent, in the Syriac and Arabic verfions, in the 
Chaldsean are called Hun-gari, or the foreign 
Hunns j fo that there feems to have been a fluctu- 
ation of this great body of people to and from 
India to Iran and Arabia, and probably jbme of 
them might have joined the other Hunns* and 
have got with them into Hungary, and may have 
brought with them ^ many Hindu words, now com- 
mon with the Zingari, Bohemians and Hungarians, 
whom we call Gypjies, and fuppofed to come to us 
from thofe countries. The ingenious Mr. Marf- 
den has proved the language of the Gypfies is 
moftly yindoftanic and Bengalefe (/). 

Ammianus Marcellinus, who wrote fome cen- 
turies after Herodotus, defcribes thefe Southern 
Scythians dwelling in India ; he thinks they ex- 
tended from the Don over the vaft defarts of Scy- 
thia as far as the Ganges ; . he calls them Alani* 
" proceri autem Alani paene omnes font, et pul- 
" chri, ,> which anfwers to the description given 
of the White Hunns of India — " parte alia prope 
" Amazonum fedes, Alani funt Orienti acclines, 
" diffufi per populofas gentes et amplas, Afiaticos 
" vergentes in tra&us, quos dilatari ad ufque 

" Gangen 

Vararanae filium excipiem, iis Hunnis bcllum intulit, qui Ep- 
thalitae & condidi nominantur ; funt enim albi colons : utque 
cgrcgia fpecie, fie & catcris Hurmls dtffim'tles ; neque Numida- 
rum ritu vagantur, vcl agreftes funt ; fed civilcm inter ipfos fo- 
cietatem legibus tuentur, regibufque fui« fubjiciuntur hi ad bo- 
ream Perils finitimi funt. (Pocqp. apud Phot. p. 66. 
(/) Archseol. V. 7. p. 252. 




" Gangen accepi fluvium." Thefe, therefore, 
were the fame with the Albani. The only people, 
' I believe (fays the ingenious author of an account 
of the Caucafian nations) who can anfwer this de- 
fcription, are the Aghvans or Affgans^ who pretend 
their founder removed from the mountains of Ar- 
menia to thofe of Candahar. ' Colonel Gaerber 
takes it for granted that the Affgbans, whom, he 
found near Derbent, were defendants of the Al- 
bani ; and Dr. Reineggs contends, that the names 
of the two people are in fatt the fame. The Ar- 
menians (fays he) cannot pronounce the letter L 
in the middle of a word, but call the Albani Agh- 
vans, as they call Kalaki Kaghaki. 

The name of Alani 9 however, is feldom ufed in 
the extenfive fenfe adopted by Marcellinus, but is 
generally applied to thofe nations only who inha- 
bited the northern flope of Caucafus, from Mount 
Be/h-Tau to the Cafpian. 

The Emprefs of Ruffia has had a general voca- 
bulary compiled of all the languages fpoken be- 
tween the Black Sea and the Cafpian Sea. The 
vocabulary confifts of 130 words ; it has been 
publifhed in 14 different languages or dialefts, all 
of which were originally Scythian. There is no 
affinity between thefe languages and the Irifh, or, 
between th&n and the Arabic and Perfian ; yet 
nine words out of ten of the Irifh, are pure Ara- 
bic, Chaldaean, or, Hindoftanic ; can there be 
a ftronger proof of the v Hiberno-Scythians being 
defcended from thefe Southern-Scythians, who in- 


habited Arabia, Iran and India ? The affinity be- 
tween the Hiberno-Scythian language and the 
Arabic is fo ftrong and {hiking, that I am much 
inclined to the opinion of Father Georgius, viz. 
that the Armenian Scythians who penetrated into 
Iran and Arabia, were of Arabian defcent, and in 
no manner conne&ed with the Scythians of the 
Palus Maeotis, and thofe weftern parts. 

Father Georgius, who refided long with the 
Tibetans, and was mailer of their language, and 
of their hiftory, finding them to be defcended from 
thefe fouthern Scythians, cannot be perfuaded, but 
they had one common origin with the Arabs : his 
argument is ftrong, and tends to prove thefe Scy- 
thians penetrated at an early period from Armenia 
into Iran, Arabia and India. In his Alphabetum 
Tibetanum, p. 35, he fays, " narrat Herodotus in 
Melpomene, genuit Hercules tres filios, Agathyr- 
fum 9 Gelonum & Scytham^ — a Gelone, ut eft apud 
Stephanum, nomen accepit Geloni urbs Scythias 
in Budinis. At Gelon, inquit Suidas, nomen 
proprium ; Gelon autem rifum defignat. IHud- 
que Sara impofuit filio fuo Ifaac, quia rifum, 
ait, fecit mihi Deus ; & Jofephus 1. 1. Antiq. 
Abraham Ifaacum nominavit tSto y*\vr» *qp»M« 
hoc rifus fignificatur. Idem vero Gelos eft, qui 
et Agathyrfus & Scytha nominatur. Dii enjm 
fabulares, ii prasfertira, qui unico partu editi 
confinguntur, wdwuwpM plerumque funt, & voce 
tenuis multi, quemadmodum Huetius inter ce- 
teros copiofe demonftrat." 

M Crediderim 


44 Crediderim ego tamen Agathyrfum, & Scytham 
duos feciffe Ethnieos ex una Ifmaele fratre Gelotis 
Ifaaci. Poft Ifmaelem natus eft Ifaac Gelos; 
Gentiles quoque Gelonem fecundo genitum Her* 
culis filium dixere. Rurfus Gen. xxi. fit quidem 
mentio filii A gar is > fed illius nomen reticetur. 
Quura autem v. 20. de hoc ipfo Agaris filio le- 
gatur ; crevit, & moratus eft in folitudine, faduf- 
que eft juvenis fagittarius ; tertium Herculis 
filium Fabulatores Ethnici efEnxerunt, eumque 
Scytham appellariint ab Hebraica voce nyp 
Cbafath, Sagittarid. • Ex rwp Chafath per 
metathefin factum eft JlpQ) Scetb & Scith aut 

44 Quod tamen noftra cum primis intereft illud 
eft infigne Gentilium fcriptorum commentum, 
quo Ifaacum ab Hercule genitum tradiderunt, uti 
jam a Plutarcho audivirtius. Ifaac igitur Scy- 
tharum antiquiffimis cognkus erat in Gelone filio 
Herculis adumbrantis Abrahamum. 
" Eum ipfum Jebid appellari ab Egyptiis Duce 
Sefq/iri in Scythiam ufque duftis refcire facillime 
potuerunt. Batumi filium Jebid, aliorumque 
falforum Numinum cultum, quo praefertim aevo 
ab Egyptiis fcire potuerint Scytba. Scythicorum 
Deorum nomina Egyptiaca funt — et ut refert 
Euftathius, non folum Egyptiis, fed etiam Scythis 
impertiri dignatus eft* 3 
Georgius then quotes the ftory of Anobret, from 
Sanchoniatho, and (hews that the Jeud of San- 
choniatho is the Jid of the Tibetans. Jid a Tu 



betanis Butta tributum. TVl* 1 Jebid Ifaaci epithetum 
eft. Gen. xxii. 2. Et y#rf Tibetanorum idem, ac 
Jehid Phanicium^ & Egygtium. 

In the vindication of the ancient Hift. of Ireland 
we have (hewn, that the ftory of Anobret was well 
known to the ancient Hiberno-Scythians. We 
have there given the original and tranflation. There 
cannot be wanting ftronger proofs than thofe we 
have produced, of the Hiberno-Scythians being 
defcended of thefe Southern-Scythians. 

Sir William Jones, in his third difcourfe to the 
Afiatic Society, obferves, that " the Hindus had 

an immemorial affinity with the old Perfians and 

Scythians, with the Egyptians, Phoenicians, 
" Greeks and Tufcans, and with the Chinefe, 
" Japanefe and Peruvians. " Sir William cannot 
mean they had an affinity with all that great body 
of Scythians about the Palus Maeotis, &c. ; the 
learned gentleman mud point to fome particular 
body of the Scythians, in the vicinity of Hindoftan, 
and that can be no other than that colony of Scy- 
thians who are recorded by the Chaldaeans by the 
name of Hun-gari or foreign Huns (*Ttf £0tfr, Arab. 
ghurub) y and who, according to Apolionius Tya- 
neus, did covenant with the king of India to fettle 
there. (See p. 179, note /). We find them men- 
tioned by the Hindus under the name of Hoons % the 
Hoons of humbled pride. They are defcribed by 
Pliny under their Chaldaean name, viz. Megari^ 
or foreigners : " Accolunt Indum Amatae, Bo- 
longas, Migtni'" Ch. "1*030 mager, cohabitator, 





vicinua. Syr. trftiio megira, vicinus. Heb. *ytf a 
magur, peregrinatio, habitatio : but all thefe words 
are derived from ^i peregrinari-r-hence the Magari 
yel.Magaride Iadise intra Gangem civitas, of 
Ptolemy. Otrbkocfus, the Hungarian author, 
fpeaking of thefe Buns, obferves, " Non hoc volo 
" hinc elicere, quad Hungarorum primi progeni- 
" tores, in India nati, educati, & adulti fuiffent— * 
fed turn ex hoc turn ex aliis fcriptorum locis, 
jure hoc coligo, quod pars aliqua (faltem exigua) 
primorum Hungarorum, five coar&ata ab aliis, 
" five melioris caufa vi&us, poterat e Scythia eo 
commigrare, & ex inito cum aliis vicinisyfo&r*, 
illic habitare — quis enim nefcit, veteres Scythas 
" & Indo fuiffe quam maxime finitimos ?" 

That thefe hdo-Scythian-Huns did migrate from 
India to Iran or Pcrfia ; to Egypt, arid the iflands 
of the Mediterranean j to Spain, and at length to 
the Britannic Ifles, about fix centuries before the 
birth of Chrift, we have taken upon us to prove, 
from hiftory, in our iaft volume. 

We now offer to the public collateral proofs of 
the truth of that hiftory, by various quotations and 
by language. . 

The antiquities of Ireland fliould be divided 
into three periods, viz. .1. Thofe of the original 
Indo-Scythian Irifli. . II. Of the period of their 
mixing with the Norwegians and Danes, by their 
invafions in this country. And III. of the con- 
queft of this ifland by the Englifh. Thefe dif- 

tin&ions can be . made by thofe, and thofe only, 



who will take the pains of learning the Irifh tan* 
guage, and of ftudying the fragments of ancient 
htftory (till preserved in Irifh manufcripts, and of 
collating them with the hiftories of thofe countries 
through which the original Irifh colonies migrated. 
In what other manner fbail we account for the 
names and attributes of the deities of the ancient 
Irifh having been the lame as thofe of Hindoftan, 
fuch as 

Sanfcrit* Irifh. 


Buidh-dha, fupreme beings Buidb % Ruaidb> u&ory, 
God of mercy, &c. virtue, divine attri- 

bute, fupreme* 
Budb> the world and its 
Cri/hna i Apotlo, Cri/bean* the fun. 

Capiat* theMufes^ Gubc. 

Syon> God of fleep* Suatu 
SurLa, Phoebus* . Soire~ 

Baraan* Neptune, Brain. 

Kefe& t the evil fpirit, Ki/e-al* 
Bhrto y a fecxifiee* BearL 

&c. &c. &c 

The Srythian and Hyperborean doctrines; and vt$~ 
tbdogy (adds. Sir William Jones in his third dif- 
com fe} may be traced in every part of tbefe eajkvn 
regions- 1 far India comprehends the Jhtpendmu bill* 
rf Tibet \ and ail the domains of the old bula-Scy^ 

1L Nor* 

C "7 ] 

II. Origin of the Feudal Syflem of Government 

Now all the countries wherein thefe Hiberno 
or Southern Scythians have refided before their 
arrival in thefe iflands, have, time immemorial, 
been held under Feudal tenure ; and from the great 
number of Oriental terms of the feudal fyftem, 
ftill exifting in the law books of the ancient Irifh, 
(a few of which have been given in the preceding 
pages) it is evident, we think to a demonftration, 
that the Hiberno Scythians brought thefe terms 
with them from the EafL and introduced the feudal 
government into Europe, which was adopted by 
the Celtic nations with whom they mixed in their 
migrations. It may be afked, why did not the 
Celtes adopt the terms as well as the government ? 
The only reafon >fre can aflign is, that the Celtes 
having a priori, a government of their own, they 
rejected the foreign terms, and applied thofe beft 
fuited to the idiom of their own language. 

Mr. Richardfon has fo learnedly and fo clearly 
proved the feudal fyftem fo have originated in the 
Eajl, we fhall give his own words on the fubjeft. 

" The Feudal Syjfiem, which was introduced and 
diffufed over Europe by the conquerors of the 
Roman power, produced in a civil light an altera- 
tion in laws, government and habits, no left im- 
portant than the difmemberment of the empire by 
their arms. Our greateft lawyers, hiftorians arid 
antiquaries, whofe objeft has been lefs to trace its 
origin than to mark its influence, have uniformly 
attributed this great foundation of the jurifprudence 



of modern Europe tp the military policy of the 
northern nations ; and feem in general rather to 
have confidered it as a confequence of their fitua- 
tion, after their conquefts, than as exiftihg pre- 
vious to their irruptions. It appears not only to 
have formed, however, their great, fyftem of polity 
before the grand invafion, but t<J have flouriftied 
in the Eaft with much vigour in very early tithes. 

<c In Perfia, Tartary, India, and other eaftern 
countries, the whole detail of government, from 
the mq/i ancient accounts the prefeiit hour, 
can hardly be defined by another defcription. 
We obferve in general one great king, to whom a 
number .of fubordinate princes pay homage and 
tribute \ all deviation from this fyftem feeming 
merely temporary* and accidental, Poffeffed .of 
every effential power of royalty, the degree of de- 
pendence of thofe fecondary kings, \ye find, has 
ever been proportioned to the vigour or imbecility 
of the paramount fovereign ;. for where no folid 
code of conftitutional l#ws prevails, the brilliant 
or difgraceful periods in the hiftory of a peoplfe 
.will generally depend upon the genius of one man. 
A great monarch will give to the component parts 
the appearance of one defpotic whole, whilft the 
approaches to difobedience will ever be propor- 
tioned to tfye weaknefs of adminiftration. Con- 
ftantly recurring, however, to firft principles, every 
variation of Oriental rule prefents only to pur 
alternate view, an overgrown empire, feebly go- 
verned, crumbling into independent kingdoms ; 



and independent kingdoms again uniting to form 
the empire of fome more fortunate and eriterpriz- 
ing fovereign." 

" A general- view of the hiftories of eaftern 
nations would, perhaps, " fufficiently fupport the 
above pofitions, but I fhall venture to offer a few 
particular authorities. The more ancient fafls, it 
may be obferved^ like every remote events will not 
admit of pofitive proof but in tracing manners or 
modes of government, abfolute hiftorical or chro- 
nological precifion is by no means requifite. The 
a&ions of one prince may be imputed to another ^ 
anachronifms and mifnomers may abound ; and the 
atchievements of twenty warriors may fwell the 
renown of one hero ; but no writer will attribute 
to his nation, cuftoms and ideas of government to 
which they or their anceftors were ftrangers, and 
againft which the opinions, of his fellow fubje&s 
muft inftantly and loudly revoU. When uncom- 
mon and great innovations happen in the cuftoms 
of a country, writers are careful to trace their 
origin, to fix their introduction, and to obfervfc 
their influence. But when, circumftances, how- 
ever interefting, are fimply mentioned, without 
particular obfervation or commentary, we may ra- 
tionally conclude, that fuch. cuftoms are of high 
intiquity, and no more deferving of fpecial ani- 
madverfion than the general complexion, configu- 
ration, or temperament of their countrymen. 

" The rife and progrefs of the Feudal Syftem 
in Europe is marked j it was an exotic plant ; and 



it has, of confequence, engaged the attention of 
our ableft antiquaries. But, in the Eaft it is in- 
digenous, univerfal and immemorial ; and the eaftern 
hiftorians have never dreamt of inveftigating its 
fource, any more than the origin of regal govern* 
ment. Both have long been to them equally fami- 
liar ; and thefirjl extenfive monarchy gave probably 
a beginning to thejirft dependence of feudal chiefs. 

" The Tobba, or king of Arabia Felix, was the 
acknowledged paramount fovereign in very old 
times of a number of tribes («) ; moft of the pro- 
vinces of Arabia on the Perfian gulph, with thofe 
ftretching towards Babylonia, held of the Perfian 
kings of the Saffanian dynafty,,who often appointed 
feudatory princes on the death or mifconduft of 
their predeceflbrs. 

" This fyftem prevails to the prefent hour in 
HindoJlan y through a regular gradation of Subahs, 
Nabobs, Faujdars, Killandars, and other fubordi- 
nate chiefs, who all confider the great Mogul as 
Lord paramount of the empire. 

" In Tartary we fee the Feudal Syftem ftrong. 
Jengiz Khan was the fon of a chief, who had feveral 
feudatories, yet he himfelf held of Thogrul, the 

Khan of Cara-cunu 

" In 

(u) The Tobbtba or Tobha of the ancient Irifh. Fear 
tobbtba, i. e. ftar tpgbtba, i. e. vir ele&us, the chofen fovereign. 
Tobba and Tobbai, a tide born by the ancient kings of 
Yemen. This title was peculiar to them, as Khofroes was to 
the Perfians of the Saffanian dynafty, or that of Khan to the 
Scythians. (Hcrbclot). '" . 


" In the above outlines we can obfefve feveral 
ftrong traces of Gothic government.. We can 
perceive the ruder draughts of States General > of 
Parliaments, of Juries ; and in the circumfbnces 
of the electors and ele&ed, fome ftriking features 
of that fyftem which ftill unites the great Ger- 
manic body/ 9 Thus the learned Mr. Richardfon* 
In the government of the ancient Irifh we find 
this Feudal Syftem invariably, carried oh from the 
moil remote hiftory ; and we find the terms of this: 
government exa&ly the fame, in letter and fenfe, as 
thofe ufed by the Arabs, Indians .and Babylonians, 
terms the northern and weftern nations of Europe, 
were unacquainted with. We mud therefore concur 
with Sir William Jones, " that thefe weftern 
iflands were peopled by colonies from Iran, and 
that their languages, their cuftoms, and their 
religion, was the fame both in thefe iflands, in 
" Iran, and in Hindoftan." For a more particular 
account of the laws of the ancient Irifh, wherein 
the whole Feudal Syftem is explained, I beg leave 
to refer my readers to my Differtation on the Laws 
of the ancient Irifh, Colle&anea de Rebus Hiber- 
nicis, Vol. i. No. III. 

Great obje&ions have been made to the anti- 
quity of the Brehon Laws, becaufe of a reference 
to a trial by a jury of twelve men. Mr. Richardfon 
ihews us the origin of it in the Eaft. It was 
common to the Chinefe, and to the Mexicans, 
which made Grotius fay, the Mexicans mult have 
been from Scandia. Quod vero Grotius infert, 

Y *x 


4x Scandta ortos Mesicaaos, quia Gotti & Saxoftes 
dim duodeceravirale tribunal habuerunt* id levi- 
Culum eft y nam apud Mexican** & Sinenftt folum 
regium confiiium ea numcro conft aba t (#)< 

But there are two ftriking features in the Feudal 
Syftem of the ancient Irifh we have not been able 
to trace to fatisfa&ion in the Eaftern government, 
vizw Tuarafdal and Emclann. i • The Tuarafdal, 
wages or fubfidies paid annually by (he fovereigfc 
to his feudatory chiefs, for which he received from 
them a certain fupply of military forces, or fome 
other ftate contributions tending to the common 


The Leabhar na Keartai (y), or book of im- 
pofts, exprefles the right of the fovereign, and 
ttifct of the federal princes, in thefe words : 
Ata fan Seanchas fuairc Sreath 
Ni hainbhfhios da gac eolach, 
Tuarafdal Righ Caifil coir 
Da Riogaibh caomha an cheadoir. 

That is, 
The Seanchas Sreath is a kind and civil law, by 
which the kings of Caftiell ftipulated to pay the 
Tuarafdal to the federal kings or princes (*), 


' (x\ Hornius de Orfg. gent, p. 270. 
(y) Arab. Khuraj, an impoft. 

(a J Tuarafdaly or iavaruafdal, and fometimes written tabhar- 
tmjf^r/y i* a compound word of t abhor, a gift, payment or fatfs- 
fa&ion ; uais or duals, perquifite, fee, reward, and da/> a chief. 
Arabic* lufer> fatisfa&ion, payment ; i*va%, fee, reward) per- 
quifite, hire; JaBI, a chief. Sanfcrk uhfahul, a prefent, a 



Hore we have two powerful Oriental terms, viz. 
Kaomha and Sreatb. We have already explained 
die firft by the Ghaldacan Dip kom 9 fignifying the 
fame as berit, a covenant (a). Sreatb is here 
joined with Seancbas 9 which fignifies a code of 
laws. Sreatb is of the fame conftruftion and fenfe 
as the Sheraaet of the Arabs and Perfians, fignify- 
ing the civil and criminal law. " Leur gran^l 
livre de droit, eft FAlkoran ; les juges y recou- 
#< rent d'abord ; mais s'ils n'y trouvent pas de d6- 
w cifion eclaire & nette fur le cas contefte, il$ re- 
" courent au livre des dits & faits de Mahomet, 
" puis au livre des dits & faits des Imam j & en 
cc dernier lieu a ce livre de droits le sheraaet, 
c< qui contient les loix de leur droit civil & cri- 
" minal." (*) 

2. The Tribute for Prote&ion. It is called in 
the Irifh laws mal 9 mile y eid 9 eid na-clann 9 and ene- 
clanriy (i. e. prote&ion of the clann) fal 9 diodan 9 
&c. (Arab. milh 9 ed 9 &c. prote&ion), It does not 
appear that thefe vaflals were originally obliged to 
furnifh troops for their chiefs, but to pay a certain 
import or tax for their prote&ion (r). 

In Germany and in Italy we find this kind of 

voluntary import did exift ; princes gave great part 

of their conquefts to their faptains, on condition 

* of military fervices ; this was the military fief. 

Y 2 But 

a) See the Law Lexicon in the preceding pages. 

] b) Chardin, p. 668. Legislation Orientate, p. 65. 

[c) See Eii % Ed, and Encclann, in the Law Vocabulary. 
The Arabian Ed was a tax paid in lieu of military fervice, but 
we know not the nature of the tenure. 


But in time of troubles the weakeft voluntary put 
themfelves and effe&s under the prote&ion of the 
moft powerful, and did them homage for their pre- 
fervation. Thefe fiefs are very different ; one came 
freely from the lord, and fuch muft have implicitly 
fubmitted to his will ; the other is the property of 
the vaffal, which he only puts under the prote&ion 
of the lord ; and thefe fiefc were not fubjeft to the 
rigour of the Feudal Laws, as thofe which arofe 
from real conceffions of land on certain conditions. 

The principal difference was-— i. That in the 
mile fief thief e was originally neither reunion or re- 
verfion in favour of the lord, becaufe he had never 
been mafter of the foil. 2. Thefe fort of fiefs 
paffed equally to male and female, becaufe the 
objefl: of their fervice was not originally military, 
which is the fole motive of preference in favour of 

It is certain, that in length of time moft of thefe 
civil or mile fiefs became military fiefs, and were at 
length fubjeck to the fame laws ; and it is very 
probable, that the Scythian word mile, which ori- 
ginally fignified this kind of protedion (in Arabic 
milh\ might at length come to fignify a foldier or 
military vaffal. This law will account for the re-, 
verfion of land to females, which frequently occurs 
in the Brehon Laws. 

The reader may find thefe fiefs clearly Gated in 
Annotationes ad examen feudale Strykionum, ex in- 
terpreiibus accuratiffimis congejia a J. Vinzogero, 

I U. D. 




Much hiftorical matter is here compreffed into 
a fmall volume, in which every page and almoft 
every line, contains a confutation of all that 
has been written againft the validity of Irifli hiftory, 
by its opponents. 

We have proved that the ancient Irifli originally 
ufed the old Chaldaean or Phoenician letters, and 
the Ogham or myfterious chara&er ; and although 
we have not yet found any compleat MSS. in 
Phoenician chara&ers, the infcription given in 
PI. III. is a convincing proof they were in ufe in 
this Ifland (d). 

We muft here repeat, that the ancient Irifh 
made ufe of Oriental terms in grammar, in legif- 
lation, in the clajfes and ranks of men, in manu- 
factures, arts andfcienees ; and we have feledted a 
few words out of hundreds, as we think, which were 
not known to the Northern Scythians, or to any 
weftern nation, civilized by communication with 
the Greeks and Romans : we have proved fuch 
words did exift in the Egyptian, Chaldaan, Pha* 
nician, old Perjian, and Hindq/ianic diale&s. 

If we refer to Topographical terms we (hall find 
them alfo Oriental, fuch as 
Sliabh, a mountain with proje&ing fides. Arab. 

Selif. Heb> ^w fal&b, prominentia. 
Carn, a fmall hill or mountain. Ar. karn. , 
Cad, the prominent part of a mountain. Arab. kaid. 


(d) The Phoenicians and Carthaginians were in poffeffion of 
Majorca and Minorca ; yet no inscriptions, no monuments of 
thofe great people exift in thofe iflands— i^Sr per'nre ruins* 


Eafcafr, (mail hills, pry ozii, arazak. 

Mullach, mountainous* Cb. \s6tn Jnafcf* 

Crufhin, a great mountain, coarfe hard ground. 
An kburijbunj mons magna, terra crafla ac dura. 

Seaph, a mountain, the name of a great moun- 
tain in the County of Wicklow. 

Fiond or Find, a great mountain, as Sliabb Find, 
Sefind, or Seffind* &c. Ar. find, a mountain. 
Ch. iQttf fepbiy locus eminens. 

Nedeen, the declivity of the mountains, near Ken- 
mare River, through which pafles the road. Ar. 
nedb, declivitas montis ; nadaen, via per mon* 
tern continuis, & invicem propinquis fcrobibus 
conftans. Naidon is the name of the higheft 
part of Arabia towards Babylon. 

Cufliery, a mountain. Arab. kefery> magnus mons. 

Sleite, an even mountain. Ar. fulutah. 

Niph-find or Niphin, a very high mountain. Ar- 
meniace niph, fhow. The Nif bates mountains 
in Armenia were fo called from their fnowy 
tops. Pliny. See Find. 

Maol, a hill, a mountain, a head land. Ch. (**?£ 
milla> aceryus, cumulus. See Mullach. 

Adab, rocky mountainy ground. Ar. hadab. 

Arran, high land, rocky ground. Ch. )^^r/«— 
hence a diftrift in Armenia is So named ; it was 
alfo the name of a town in Parthia, and of 
another Jfi Meibpotamia. Ar. arron y ftony 
ground. %T 

Aran-ifle, joined -hy an ifthmus to the main land 
at low water. Syriace araai*> an ifthmus. 



Art, a Hone. Artia» ftonjcygrouod. At.h*rton 9 

ftoney ground. 
Bear, u»cutoi«a«ed barren grdimd, iuoh i* the 

country of 0' Sullivan Bear. Ar. berah, a wide 

extended defart. 
Bog, fofijgrouad- Ar, tog&& 
F«ris, a plaindriithoiit movtlWaii** hx.fnrz; 
Fad, level groafld. At, fid. ^ 
Gatehwtfi, COalway), * rpplqy teen country. 

SyAw* gfilmitha* Qh* TlEfa. gtimgdhy ;4uru$ 

fi^x,%ura^eprofterUitat^.foUtudiae. . 
Macharies, fertile, ploughed fond. Ph. & Ch. 

macbartfi' *' > ' 

Fatih ifland, which is often overflowed. ;A?rf*tib % 

a tra&,PY*rilowed>y- water. \ 
Fahan, a valley, a fcite )##mew mpuptttps. Ar. 

Curragh, a plain. Ar. 4^ and ibaur* hence 
the Irifh Gorey, a fiw plain in the Cwsty pf 
Wexford:. Ar. i«ra, a farm. 

Mallo. At. jtelya, m cxtmX pf level grppajt 

l&anooth caftle, Ar. im*fih % a fortrefs. 

Kima, the channel of a river ; kimog* a fmall chan- 
nel Ar. kima, 

Eaman, a plaia, a meadow. Ar. mtnafy hamit^ 

Beinn, a mountain ; beendhyo, name of the Jttptm* 

tains on the. continent near Ceylon. 
Cordubh, the name of many places in ^Ireland, 

Wfrv^iy called Gordqfc but always written 
. 'Cordubh in ancient M§S. forduba, on the 



Bcetis in Spain, wys a fettlement of the Phoeni- 
cians, and afterwards of the Arabians. 
Neoidecus aurifera? ceflavit Corduba terras. 

Sed inclaruit maxime fub imperio regum Ara- 
bum quorum regia erat Corduba. (Bochart). 
There was another Corduba in Portugal. Cor- 
duba urbs Hifpaniae Beet, clariffima ad Boetim 
fluv. — item M. Lufitaniae, qui Cordeuan vulgo 
dicitur. (Ferrarii Lex. Georg.) The Turduli 
inhabited the! territory of Corduba, part of the 
diocefe of Granada and of Caftilian Eftrama- 
dura, their chief city was Corduba. (Du 

Turin, a wild mountainous trad. Ar. turani. 

Burrin, in county of Clare, formerly a defert. Ar. 
berron— hence barrein, the provinces adjacent 
to the white and black feas. 

Skib-barn or Skibbareen, fo called from a gap in 
the rocky hill adjacent, through which the road 
pafles to the fea fhore. Arab. Jhkyb, a fiffure 
in a rotk or mountain, a pafs between two 

Teid, a hill, a mountain. Ar. taud. 

Feart, a hill, a tumulus. Ar.furut. ; 

Tora, many high hills fo called. Ar. toor, a moun- 

Cnoc or Cahnoc, a hill. Ar, kehan. 

Tulla, a hill. Ar. full. 

Coi, a hill ; Coike, a mountain. Ar. kooh y a hill ; 



hook, a mountain j keik, a mountain (uppofed 
to furrolmd the world. ' Perf. coucou, altiffimus 
mons. " • • " ■: 

Cloike, a ftoney country: Ch. pftyclakk. 

Clais, cold fterile ground ; claifmor in Co. Water- 
ford. Ch. tf?n chilas. 

Mount Nebo, or the - mountain of the moon, in 
Co. Wexford. Solem Chaldaei Baal dixerunt, 
cultum eo nomine etiam Edeflas fiiifle, al Nebo 
et al Bel 9 ut Belus Sol eft, ita frebo eft* Luna.. 
(Bayer Hift. Ofrhoenae). Hibernice beal, fire, 
whence Beal 9 the Sun, the God of fire. 

Gibara river, Co. Donegal!. About two miles from 
Laodicea there is a river called Gibere or nahr 
Gibere, that is, the great river, a deep ftream 
but not wide. (Pocock). 

Drumlis. DVaBPYl drumlis, fylva, nemus. 

Melic. Ar. melyk, a level country. , 

Aghel-lis. Aghel, urbi Armenian 

Main, a haven ; as Caftle main harbour. Ar. ma- 
in a, navium ftatio. 

Dingle, town and mountains. The Nile has its 
fource at the foot of mount Dingla in Goiama. 

Bulloc, a traft of land near Dublin, remarkable 
for its .quarries of coarfe granite, but very hard. 
Ar. buluk % marble, granite. 

Rabhac Caftle. Arab, rawak, a palace, a tribunal. 

Gort. About this town are great caverns into 


331 T O FOGK A P H Y. 

which a river fells, and runs under ground for a 
cohfukrable ipace, Ar, gart 9 fpelunca. 

Glac, a narrow valley. Ar. gbaJak. 

Cong, an a&cieat city. Chal* HJOTI change sum. 
• dinse. 

Crom, a fortrefs, Cr^m cattle, Crumlin eaftle, &c. 
In the Tartar language Crimm fignifies 4 fortrefe f 
Cnmmelin is the name of the Czar's palace in 
Mofcow. Precopcnfian Tartary is called (?r/>«w 
by the Tartars, becaufe of a .rampart: and ditch 
which was there in ancient times, and is called 
in Sclavonian Procof. The Tartars call the 
Chinefe wall Zagm Crimm, or the white for- 

Dorali and Doralin, an expanfion into the fea, an 
ifthmus. Ar. dara, expandit ; /i/, mare.^ 

Car-mala or Carmoy le ? a part of Belfaft Lough 
remarkable for its abounding with fifh, Ph. •j'tO 
cauri y fifh ; ^a mala^ abundance. 

Murroch (of Wicklow), a hare, fandy, level ground 
Ar. muhrak. 

Defies, pafture ground in Co. Waterford. Ch. 
NttH deefa y herbafcere. Spanifh dajf <z, herbage. 

Kifh, a fand bank (off Arklogh) in the bay of 
Dublin. Ar. kejh, a fand bank in the fea. 

Ark*logh, the place of the dangerous fands. Ar. 
arkuwetj dangerous hills of fands. 

Ruiike, many places fo called, I think from the 
Scythian name of Mars, from ruifg, battle ; — 
whence ruifgam, to fight, and ruifgineacb y a va- 
Jiant foldier. The Thracians named Mars Ares 



and Arefkoni* The Huron*, in N. America, 
name the God of. War Arejkoui, the Impuls 
call him Agrifloiu. (JLafitav Moeurs<tes 8avag»&> 
V. i/p. 206). 

Macroom or Maghar-crora, name of adiftriftia 
the South of Ireland, fo called, from its abound* 
ing in Crom, or poppies, or, as fome Irifli Ety- 
inftlogifts will ' have it, from €rom, a worm. 
The Irifli Magh, a field or plain, a mead, is a 
corruption of the Arabic murgh ; and in Ara- 
bic kirm is a worm, and kurunj a poppy. !W<f- 
crume, a name of a pariih in Portugal between 
the Rivers Douro and Minho. De Sou/a derives 
the name from the Arabic Makrume, a parti- 
ciple of the verb karama y fignifying to honour 
or efteem. 

Sleat, devotion— hence Slat art ^ a church in Co. 
Waterford. Ar. felat, prayer, a church, a 
mofque, the firft chapter in the Alcoran. 

Adair, where there are many abbeys and churches. 
Ch. Tin bedar, conclave. 

Affadun, an old palace in Co. Waterford. Ch. 
1*13** apbidun, palatium ; aphadana, urbs Mefo- 

Ban, copper, many places fo called as Cr6n-ban y 

the copper mines of Wicklow. n5D Ptw** a 
town in Idumasa, famous for its copper mines, 
to which it owes its name, it is four miles from 

Cumar na trl uifce, the much water of the three 
rivers, a place fo called at the meeting of the 



rivets Suir, Noir, and Barrow. At. ibtmir, much 

Garagan, Gragan, a manfion, manor, village* 

Ar. kurargeb. 
Gorke, Cuirke, a city fo called ; Al-Corcba> urbs 

quae trans Tigrom eft. (Itin. Ben. Jud. Tudu- 

Corcumromh, a traft fo called. Corcburamia in 

Nobber, an ancient city in the Co. Meath. Anti- 

quiflimis temporibus metropolitans ecciefiae 

erant Naubahar & Azur-Gufhtafp. (Hyde Relig. 

Vet. Perf.) 
Fearn$j the ancient feat of the Kings of Leinfter. 

Ch. ng phararij iEdificii regii genus. (Talmud. 



Keannas, now Kells ; Cadas Ke annas, facred Kells, 
in Co. of E. Meath, where a national council 
of the clergy of Ireland was held towards the 
year 1 152, in which Cardinal Papyrongave the 
firft pallia to the four Archblfhops of Armagh, 
Cafhell, Dublin and Tuam. iEthiopice Kanas, 
fynodus, congregatio; cadas fotf<w,fanQ:umfyn- 
hedrum. (Ludolphus). 

Rafs, Roffes, Rus, many harbours fo named 
round Ireland, from 1 the goodnefs of the an- 
chorage. Arab, raja, ad anchoram ftetit navis, 
anchora, &c. &c. &c. 


From the names of places, let us defcend to the 
names of men and families. In a former volume 
of this work, I have {hewn from he Brun, that 



the Guebres or fire worfhippers of JPerfia were well 
acquainted with OJhin, or OJfian y as Mr. Macpher- 
fon writes the name. 

In Arabia we find the family names of Guary, 
Anaft* Mad ami, Cbalacan 9 Kajfti> Caabi, Labyan, 
Shabanfhah. (Pocock Hift. Arab.) In Ireland we 
find the families of Guary, Hene/y, Madan, CaU 
laghatiy Cafey, Cabe, Ley ban, Sh ana/hah, &c. 

Here we conclude this Volume in the words of 
Berofus Cbaldaa Cbaldaica, or Berofus the Culdee, 
or Prieft of Babylon. 

Necejfe eft igitur nos ex pramiflis conjheri, quod 
et Cbaldai et Scytba fcribunt. 

Non folum Egyptiis> fed etiam Scytbis impertiri 
dignatus eft. (Euftathius). 



[ MS 3 

A P P EN D I X. 

1 T has been the opinion of many learned men, 
that the Britifli Ifles were firft colonized by an 
Oriental people, led by the Tyrian Hercules. It 
has alfo been the tradition of the inhabitants, that 
the firft fettlers therein were of Eaftern extra&ion, 
and the Saxon Chronicle confirms this tradition. 

I have endeavoured to prove by documents ftill 
exiftirig in Ireland, by language, by cuftom$ and 
ancient monuments, that thefe firft Eaftern fettlers 
in the Britannic Ifles were the Erfe and Irijh, the 
defcendants of the Indo-Scytha, who were driven 
from England to Ireland, to the North of Scot- 
land, and to the Ifle of Man, by the ancient Britons, 
or other Celtic nations. 

This has been oppofed by two reverend authors, 
who have affumed the comfortable claim of felf- 
fufficiency, and who, without the knowledge of 
a fiiigle word of the language in which thefe do- 
cuments are preferved, or of any oriental language, 
to make the comparifon, have prefumed to criti- 
cife an my tranflations and obfervations in lan- 
guage unbecoming the decency of fcholars, or the 

candour of writers. 



Ridicule, the afliftant of all who labour under 
poverty of argument, has been plentifully dealt 
about; for, 

All fools have ftill an itching to deride, 
And fain would be upon the laughing fide. 

But although ridicule may imprefs the mind 
with the idea of apparent fal/ehood, it can never 
be a deteftor of felfehood, or a teft of truth, 
whiift reafon remains the fuperior and corre&ve 

To the writings of fuch men no ferious reply 
can be given. 

Thefe learned reverends, too lazy to learn the 
language of the people whofe hiftory they were 
about to write, and in which all their documents 
are written ; and knowing that Danes and Norwe- 
gians did once fettle on the coafts of this Ifland, 
which they never conquered, refolved to make 
Ihort work of the matter, and at all hazard to 
adopt the maxim of fornandes, viz. that Scandia 
was the vfficina gentium of all the weftern world. 

The authors of the Univerfal Hiftory found 
Jornandes to be an erroneous writer, on whom 
there was no dependance j and the learned Goropui 
Becanus his countryman, declares, quod Jornandes 
dixit, Scanziam, quam falfo infulam putat 9 gentium 
ejfe officinam. 

In the year 1778, when one of thefe reverend 
authors publifhed his Philofophical Survey of the 
South of Ireland, (in a feries of letters to John 
Watkins, M. D.) under the character of a tra- 


. * 



veiling Englifiiman, he was of a contrary opinion j 
all the learned Divine then faw in Ireland was 
Phoenician or Carthaginian : but he tells us, more 
plentiful reading bad made him retraft his error*; (a). 
Now as more plentiful reading has confirmed me in 
the opinion of the Oriental origin of the ancient 
lriih, I am afraid our reverend author is likq the. 
ftudent of Trinity College, who was thrice a can- . 
diidate for obtaining a fellowship, and, was thrke 
rejected : at the laft examination a fenior fellow, 
one of the moft learned men of this age, exQlaipi* 
ed, " I always knew that this candidate's anfwer- 
mg would be in an inverfe duplicate ratio of his 
time and application — it is eafier for a Camel to 
" pafa through' the eye of a needle, than forMirm 
" to; obtain a fellow/hip." . ., ' , 

When the learned Divine bad prepared: his 
Southern Tour for the prefs, he paraded 
amongft the; literati of London. Some wzgor 
other, who had perufed it, fliocked at the daring- 
impudence of a man, who, ignorant of the fir&l 
principles of mathematics, fhould prefume tok»*-.' 
reft Sir Ifaac Newton, and call his Principia & 
mathematical romance t publHhed the following 
prophecy in one of the London prints, from 
whence it was copied into the Hibernian Journal- 
of 1 3th May, 1778 (b). 

% To 

<a\ Striaures on the Ecclefiaftlcal and Literary Hiftorv of 
Ireland, p. 258. ' ' 

■\l r ThC Sa * ba *. J our •* «« the library of Trinity CoU« E e,- 

b , 1liXui l !,r OUS notC8 ia thc ***** ** ^^ "°' 



To the Conductor? f the Hibernian Journal. 


IN -rummaging -fome old papers, which were the 
property of a whimfical Irifli gentleman, lately 
deceafed, I fouhd the Following prophecy. As 
this fccond-fighted Irilhman's reveries feem to have 
been realized by a late publication, called A Phi- 
lofophical Survey of the South of Ireland, and as 
the reading df them may prove entertaining to 
th6fe who havef perufed that work, I requeft your 
insertion of them.* 

TSaftradaHiut Hibemieus. 

-:•* ANDinjthoIb days of public calamity, among 
other fopperies, a fafhion fhall migHtiiy prevail of 
writirfg bookq of tiavels into Ireland, and many 
learned men {hall vifit the Ifle of Saints, and flmll 
compote inftru&iv* ddcription* of its Noddies 
and: Wheel-cars ; and prove, nonjint Jlupore totim 
Eur op a > the exigence of a wonderful Vegetable, 
wbidvthe wild Irifli at this day call a Bog. And 
fnndry Engliihmeni fhall publish their tours through 
Ireland, imd the infe&ion fhall Catch the Irilh 
themfelves, and an Irijh perfon fhall metamorphofe 
hLmfelf into an Engltfh phitofopber, and he fhall be 
a ftranger in his native country; and what the Irift 
call Turf he (hall denominate Peat, and think him- 
fclf #n Englijhman \ and he fhall praife the happy 
effe&s of the writings of one Voltaire, and think 
himfelf a moral phitqfopher. 


a p p £ n t> I x. 339 

u And he &*U put onjhis phildfbphicAl fpe&acles, 
and po*e over Ntewtotfs Principles, and by dibt of * 
hardihuty he ftall diftover it Jo be a Romance ; 
and having ihcwnthat he dotrfto^uiwkrftand *A* 
jizfi.ljemm&t and fhaft therefore it muft be a Ro~ 
manec? he fhaU i clip hirofelf -on tftg* back, and 
cttwpatei Him/elf to Berkeley^ AriJtotk> and £ir<£ 

".And Jie (hall, be a .great aftronomer, and he , 
fhaXlJUruej an old Mafs-houfe at Cafliel fbilofipk*'- 
c*tyi'imd>hc (hall prove that (tie" Vftrfifcl Equttieft: v 
is r tiie Edft, dndthdttuftimnal'' Ecfdihbx the Weft f - J 
and- that fche wall of the otd Mafs*houfe is the in* ; 
t€tf<*&fen of Aid Equator and Ecliptic, and hi* 
ftfeB ffen'ho^WJ^^aft and weft iriade their efcapt 4 * 
one morning from the two eftd&erf the Mafs-houfcy r 
andhoW they* left-it in the hirfch ;' and he fliatt be 
aN'^b/agtr; fcnd he ffifaU 4a4 a ; figure for tlre ;: 
nativity oif trie- WWsiWmfe, ami-he lhall find out ; 
itfs gddfather: \ 

" And he fliall underftafid genealbgies, and be a ' 
deep mythologift -j-arid hfc ftifll- prove that Apolfc 
GtttHUs was gpahditttrther to Mr. Mdirpherfon, arid" 
own toother tb Tihmacm or Fitigai, and he fhall 
fliew you the vet y tfcbin wherd Apolld was brought 
to bfedor him,* which is to this day called after 
thefaid Granie dpttlh, Granted Bed. 
- vrfi Ahd he fhall be a great legislator, and he fhall 
lay a plan for furthering the civilization of Ireland 
by encouraging the propagation of Whiteboys; 

Tut and 

i * 


34° APPEND J X,. 

and to this end, and for the better rtttimenance of 
the rights, of; the eft^bliflifed .Church,, he fliall pro- . 
pofe that a Romttn. Catholic femirtary (hall be eft a- . 
blifhed in Ireland, ta encourage the Homen&abu- : 
fadare of ; Pppi(li ! Prjefts, and. to free their minds , 
froin. native, imperfection., which he {hall pi^ove a 
fdrtign education dHppfes them to. /And he (foall • 
be a mighty politician, and he (hall furvey thexon* \ 
Jlitntim if. Ir^and.with his philofophiilaLf])efikatctes, 
aijfl he fhall jiifoo^e? it to ' Wid inonfter with [fix 1 \ 
heads, and he fhall,p*ove incontf frably thatoow i»i 
the proper, timeto cut them ,sdl piV y and to; ftick 

thp: trunk, j|?y,.>yay/af:W^o>:;o^ th<*/ ppfterirfrs &f \: 
Great. Britain; wd he (hail djop^lhrewdiJufH^ 
that, he and a namefake of his have laid their heads 
together for the purpofe. .,.,-, „..,;. ., .\ r „ i::z r;: .» 
..*' And be (hall offer himfqlf .three fevera) $B(fs;a$.-; 
a .candidate for the U%rihip at the great fefcpol. 
of Dublin, and the School-mafterand ,U(hers iball 
three feveral times examine him publicJy andrejeft^ 
him 5 and he fhall be very ?ngry, and call the 
School an old whore, and fwear that, the Uftie^ had 
a particular inter *ejl at heart, , au^.that they aflaed' 
him fuch damned crabbed queftiops, that Sir ^^ 
Newtqn himfelf could not have anfvvered them T 

" And he, (hali prove himfelf* an Engliflunan by 
adopting the prejudices of a Cockney, and he (hall 
call Ireland an infamous Ifland, and ferioufly pro- 
ppfe.that its very name fhall be expunged out of 
the Englilh language, and that it; & henceforth 
called Weft England or Little Britain. 

c « And 


-' w And he ftnUftiidy men and manners, anddif- 
jcover that Irifli cabbins are built, of the Cejfei of 
the Latines ; that poor women, when they have no 
(tools, fit upon their hams ; and that old people, 
in fpite of their adhefion to the ground, are fome- 
times blear-eyed." 

In this Southern Tour, this learned Divine, 
this ardent fon of Apollo, who in his fplendid 
and ambitious courfe, Phoebus like, put the Zo- 
diac^ to the rout, and diflocated the conftellations, 
thus exprefles himfelf, p. 68 : <c Col. Vallancey 
" has furniftied a decifive proof that literature was 
4i very early introduced into Ireland by the Ty- 
u rians.. Mr. O'Connor brings a reinforcement 
" of arguments from Newton's Chronology, which 
" wonderfully corroborates this matter ; he 
<c gives you a table, where in one view you may 
c< fee the coincidence of the Irifli accounts with 
" the Newtonian fyftem — the parallel is finking. 
c< P. 69. He agrees with Spencer that Ireland 
" had the ufe of letters very anciently, and long 
" before England, but why they are now fo un- 
cc lettered^ he fhall perhaps in future rifk fome con- 
cc jeftures." 

I will tell him the opinion of a man much 
wifer than his reverence. 

" Je me figurais, qu'une nation pouvoit avoir 
** 6t6 autrefois trh-inftruitt> tris-indu/lrieufe, trh- 
iC refpeftable, & etre aujourd'hui trh-ignorante a 
*' beaucoup d'egards, et peut-etre aflez m6prifa- 

" b!e, 


54* A P F E n a I X. 

" ble, quoiqu'elle eut beaucoup plus d'ecoles qu*- 
" autrefois*' (c). This is the real ftate of Ireland, 
and had the primitive inhabitants of the Britifh 
likes fat for their pi&ure, the refemblance could not 
have been more ftriking. 

To follow this author through his Stri&ures on 
the ecclefiaftical and literary hiftory of Ireland, to 
mark the difference of opinion to his former 
writings, his fpleen and cool derifion, his bilious 
and atramental caft of temper, is not my inten- 
tion : I fhall only obferve, that he confefles him- 
felf no glofTologift, yet prefumes to contradi& my 
etymologies, and this he does in language unbe- 
coming a fcholar (^). 

In p. 2, he defignedly mifquotes Dr. Johnfon's 
Jetter to Mr. O'Connor relating to the ancient 
ftate of literature in Ireland. Dr. Johnfon fays, 
" Leland begins his hiftory too late j the ages 
" which deferve an exaft inquiry, are thole times 
*' (for fuch times there were) when Ireland was 
" the fchool of the weft, the quiet habitation of 
" fan&ity and literature." The author of the 
Striftures has altered the fenfe of this learned man, 
and written " if fuch times there were." This, I 
Iky, he muft have done with defign, becaufe the 
paragraph had been fairly copied by Mr. Walker, 



(<?) VoJiair a Bailly I-ettrc* fur lea fcfettcca, p. i i*->— and as 
monfr. Bailly replied to that great philofopher, " quand je dU 
4t que les peuples de Tartarie ont et£ eclaires, j*ai en veue 
M ceux qui exiftaieat trois a quetre miUe ans avant tes barbares 
dont vous parlez." 

(J) P. 308, Ignorance made drunk, &c. &c. 



in his Hiftorical memoirs of the Irifli Bards, long 
before the publication of the Striftures. That 
Dr. Johnfon did not intend to exprefs himfelf in 
the dubious manner our author has made him, 
is evident from another letter from Dr. Johnfon 
written twenty years before that above quoted. It 
is addreffed, as the former, to Charles O'Connor, 
Efq. " I have long wiflied that the Xrifh litera- 
** tttre were cultivated. Ireland is known by tra- 
dition to have been the feat of piety and learning ; 
and furely it would be very acceptable to all 
*• thofe who are curious either in the original of 
4C nations, or the affinities of languages, to be 
" further informed of the revolutions of a people 
" fo ancient and once fo ilfuftrious. What rela- 
" tion there is between the Welfh and Irifh lan- 
guages, or between the language of Ireland 
and that of Bifcay, deferves enquiry. Of thefe 
principal and unextended tongues, it feldom 
happens that more than one are undeTftood by 
any one man, and therefore it feldom happens 
that a fair comparifon can be made. I hope 
f< you will continue to cultivate this kind of learn- 
" iftg, which has Iain too long negledted, and 
" which, if it be fuffered to remain in oblivion 
M for another century, may perhaps never be re- 
" trieved. As I wilh well to all ufeful undertak- 
ings, I would not forbear to let you know, how 
much you deferve, in my opinion, from all 
" lovers of ftudy, and how much pleafure your 
<c work has given me" (e). 


(e) Thefe letters are in my poffeflion. 




Mr. O'Connor's works have given our reverend 
author no pleafure, but the pleafure of abufing 

Stri&ures, p. 61. He allows the probability of 
the Phoenicians having taught the ufe of letters to 
the people of our continent, and, fays he, " if the 
" alphabet of this people exprefled the vowels, it 
" was an improvement upon the Chaldee." The 
learned divine is yet to be informed, that the old 
Chaldee, like the old Hebrew, had the vowels ; 
but as he confeffes himfelf neither an Orientalift or 
a Gloffblogift, we pronounce him a Pfychrolo- 

gift C/J- 

The learned author aflumes the chara&er of a 

critic on ftyle : before he had commenced critic, 
he fhould have been careful not to expofe himfelf 
to criticifm. I do candidly acknowledge, my 
ftyle is open to the attacks of the poorefl critic ; 
but I fubmit to the reader, if the author is him- 
felf free from error. 

Stri&. p. 162. " To difplay thefe fairly and 
a fully, nothing fhort of the hiftory of the times 
" will be found requifite." By requifite, I fup- 
pofe, if the author had any meaning, he meant 

P. 248. " Unable to withftand the lightning of 
4C ecclefiaftical thunders, now ready to buj*ft on 
" bim," &c. The lightning of thunders ! a moft 


(f) Pfychrologi, liomines dicuntur, qui boni proferunt nihil 
Sc fcrmo ejufmodi vocatur re£t:e pfychrologia. Lud. Carf. Rhod. 
y. 1699. 


elegant figure and very new ! To praife our author, 
in his own ftyle, we may truly fay of his argu- 
ments, that they burft on us with the illumination 

of noife. 

P. 251. *' The Danes and other northern ro- 

<c vers, their/elves^ &c." Theirfelves! — Soul of 
Dr. Johnfon!. does this introducer of barbarifrns 
claim the honour of having been thy friend ? — But 
another barbarifm follows in the fame fentence : 
<c that predatory life, to which the natives were 
" before Coincident" Natives incident to a life ! 
Dr. Johnfon's black fervant would not have ufed 
fo grofs and vulgar a folecifm. 

P. 259. " If by the Irifli language I could be 
" cured of my native propenfity to blundering, 
" I ihould not yet think it too late to learn it, 
" though my teachable difpofition for word? is 
" nearly over." 

P. 302. " But had the great conqueror of the 
" fcene of Plautus feen the Dublin Chronicle of 

Thur/day la/t, he would not on the preceding 

Saturday have boafled of thofe numerous cap- 
" tives, &c. which followed his chariot-wheels 
" through the ftreets of Paris, &c." 

This bull calls to my mind a couplet made by 

an honed. Lieutenant, who had been employed by 

Marfhal Wade in making roads through the road- 

lefs highlands of Scotland, viz. 

Had you feen but thefe roads before they were 

You'd have lift up your hands, and blefs'd Mar- 
fhal Wade. 




We therefore recommend to the learned divine 
to fet about learning the Irifli language without 
delay: perhaps it might cure his propeniity to 
blund ering. 

P. 64. The learned divine does allow w that 
" a Scythian nation, coming laft from Spain, did 
" fettle in Ireland, at a very early period; becaufe, 
« Orofius, who flourifhed in the 4th century, fays, 
" that the Scythians, expulfed from Gallicia in 

Spain by Conftantine the Great, took Ihelter 

in Ireland ; where they found the country under^ 
" the dominion of their countrymen the Scytbs or 
«< Scots." 

We defire no greater conceffion from this very 
learned author, this critic, and no gloffologift. 
The Scoti of Spain were from the country between 
the Anas and Beds rivers ; thev were the Turde- 
tani 9 the learned people of Spain, whom Strabo 
(who lived not many centuries before Orofius) 
has reprefented as a mod intelligent people. See 
Introduction, p. 25. 

Another Reverend author, like the former, 
ignorant of the Irifh language, pretends to write 
of the Antiquities of Ireland. This learned di- 
vine commenced his literary warfare againft us, with 
pofitively denying, that a colony ever came from 
Spain to Ireland. 

At the end of the very famous Topographical 
description of Ireland, (£) which we permitted to 


[b) Of this work Mr, Charles O'Connor gives the following 
chara&er : " The author goes en ground, never trod before 



be printed in our Colle&anea, No. XL 19 a letter 
from this author to Governor Fownal, on the Ship 
temples of Ireland (which temples by the by never 
did exift) at p. 432, this learned divine feys, 
" we are preffed with the Hifpanian origination of 
" the Irifli, as the fource from whence fprung our 
" letters, learning and religion. The Spaniards 
" muft be very fenfible not to feel the infinite obli- 
gations they are under to the Irifh who have 
made their anceftors, of alt the Scythian or 
" Celtic nations, the moft martial and free, the 
" moft humanized by letters, and the moft con- 
" verfant with the Egyptians, Phoenicians and 
" Grecians— The fabulous chronicles of Spain 
" indeed vouch thefe things, and we may perhaps 
u be allowed to doubt their authority.*' 

Thcjirm of thefe learned divines was not efta- 
blifhed at the time of the publication of the above 
paragraph* The partnerfhip has been ftrongly 
united fince that period, and with the addition of 
a pauhry fnnd arifing from the hire of a few more 
fcribbling ignorant divines, they have fet up an 


€i by any writer ancient or modern, and I am very confident he 
*■• will be left alone in it — his conduct is extraordinary, and 
" cannot be more fo than his confidence in etymologies, when 
" it appears, with certainty, that he has obtained but a very 
C4 fuperficiat knowledge of the ancient language of this ifland.** 
(CoBe&. No* XII. p. 675 . " He publimes his ignorance, 
44 and through the far greater part of his Topography of Irc- 
44 land, he publHhes his dreams, without any mnfk of pfeuiible 
44 argumeat, to fet off the ignorance or the dreams If, in* 
44 deed, it be a merit, that he cuts out the leail labour for an 
44 adveffety, he doubtlefs enjoys it, beyond any writer ancient 
" or modern." N CoIka. No. XIII. p. 132 . 



Hibernian Critical Review, in order to monopo- 
lize the little literary trade carried on in this 
country. Here encomiums are laviflied on their 
own performances ; and all others, not coinciding 
with their Scandian fyftem, and Scandian igno- 
rance, are damned. Some of thefe reviews feem 
to be written before the Eflays have been publiflied, 
and fome Eflays exprefsly written for the review. 

This very learned divine, and author of Irifh 
hiftory and antiquities, has difcovered, that when 
Ireland was the feat of piety and learning (to ufe 
' Dr. Johnfon's words) the pious and learned pre- 
lates of this country, did perfonify fountains and 
rivers, made them Saints, and worshipped them. 
In his learned publications he has repeatedly af- 
fured his readers of this very important fad ; and 
this he has done, not with defign to widen that 
breach, which has too long fubfifted between the 
different religious feels of this kingdom ; not with 
intention to infult our Roman Catholic brethren 
— but, from mere conviction, from his great 
knowledge of the Irifli language. Poor Saint 
Shianan (or Joannes illuftris) had unfortunately 
once fixed himfelf in the Ifland of Scattery, in 
the river called Shion-an, or the broad and ex- 
panded river. Arabice Shunan iUi diffufa ac 
fparfa aqua. (Gol.) (/). Our learned divine and 


(c) From Jb'tcnam, to flretch out, to expand ; and an, water. 
Sionan, or Shionan, the river Shannon. (O'Brien's Di&.) 
This river runs through feveral lakes, from two to three miles 
broad, as Lough Ree, Lough Derg, &c. whence its name, 
the expanded river* 


antiquary, not being able to diftinguifh between 
the proper name of a man, and the defcriptive 
name of a river, without hesitation concludes, 
that no fuch perfon as Saint Sheanan ever exifted ; 
buty that the river Shannon was perfonified, fainted^ 
and folded into the Irifh kalendar. 

At Killaloe, a few -miles higher up this rive*- 
(more facred than the Ganges) our learned author 
finds i! another River-God foifted into the Irifh ka- 
lendar. " Kill-da-Lua, fays he, Signifies the 
'* church of the water (a very Jignificant appella-' 
^ Hon) and the patron was Saint Molua, or with a ' 
pronoun of endearment (half Irifh half Englifh) 
My-Molua. St. Molua is an ideal perfonage, 
" and niay be added to the other Saints of ima^' 

< » • » • » » 

M gination. / > .^ 

Our great Irifh fcholar is equally happy in* the' 
etymology of the name of Cafhel. Caifial is a* 
rock, fays he, and O'Brien tells me fo in his Dic- 
tionary— he does indeed tranflate the word fo and : 
falfely — but he firft gives the true meaning of the 
word, viz; a bulwark, a place walled in, a for- 
trefs, a place of ftrength and fecurity. * y: ' r 

In the fragment of Cormac's gloffary (Oh that 
our great Irifh fcholar could but get a peep at tfiis^ 
faid fragment ! it is in the hands of almofl every * 
Irifh fcholar). In this fragment Cormac tells us, 
that . before he fortified the hill on which the 
church ftands, the name of the place was Sith- 
drum, or the Daemons Vault— but when he had 
made it a place of ftrength, he named it Caiffal* * 




- No two nations or people differed more, in re- 
ligion, language, cuftoms, &c. than the Scandi- 
navian Goths, and the Hiberno-Scythians. There 
was a remarkable difference alfo between them, in 
features and complexion. When the Hiberno- 
Scythae were in Iran and Indian they were diftin- 
guifhed by the appellation of White Huns\ or 
white Scythians (b), becaufe of the whitenefs of 
their (kins, for which they are ftill remarkable. 
When thefe White Scythians; at length fettled in 
this Ifland, their complexion diftinguifhed them 
from their neighbours. The Scandinavians called 
them Hvitra manna^ or Whitemen, and Ireland 
they named Hvitra manna landi, or the White- 
men's land (c ). There cannot be a ftrongefr proof 
of the Irifh having been the White Scythians of 
the Eaft. The Irifh called' the Scandinavians and 
Norwegians, Dtibh Lochhnnosb> that is, the black 
maritime people. 

Our learned divine and antiquary, aflifted by 
the fame excellent Irifh fcholar, who favoured the 
public with the ancient Topography of this coun- 
try (d) has engaged in a periodical work on the 
Antiquities of Ireland. In one of thefe monthly 


(b. See p. 305. .« 

tc) Fragments of Irifh Hiftory, tranflated from the. Icelandic 
by the learned profeflbr Thofkelin, part. 2.' p. 65. 

{d At the time of the publication of that performance, I 
was affured it was the work of an Irifh ■ priefl, and had only 
been prepared for the prefs by Mr. Beauford, who did not pre- 
fume to underftand Irifh. 


produ&ions, he has attempted to treat of the Og- 
ham writing of the ancient lri(h, in order to anti- 
cipate my labours. Let the public judge of his 
abilities to explain any remote antiquities of this 

Thefe authors are labouring ftrong for oblivion ; 
and, refolved to take^ no further notice of their 
produ&ion, I leave them to that oblivion, and fay 
with old Erafmus, 

Tuti funt fuis tenebris. 

I (hall always be ready to accede to the truth, 
in whatever fhape it may appear, and (hall always 
mod gratefully accept of inftru&ion from any 
hand, that will vouchfafe in any manner to pre- 
ferit it j 1)ut the infult of ignorance, conveying 
the opinion of a fingle perfon, will be disregarded. 
Every body has a right to judge as may feem beft, 
and to pafs a cenfure where he thinks that he is 
authorized from the fubjed, but I conceive it is 
an infult offered to the public, to deliver fuch cen- 
fure in language unbecoming the decency of a 
fcholar. I am much too deeply engaged to be 
able to carry on a literary warfare, (or rather as 
the authors of the Monthly Review of February 
lad properly exprefs it), a perfonal warfare ; and, 
encouraged by men of known learning and abili- 
ties, am refolved to proceed in thefe refearches, 
whenever leifure permits* 


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r'fTf^l p*. .•» n 

OINCE the Appendix wafc at jsrcfs, I barBrfad 
the Gentleman's Magazine for April 1790, in 
which is a letter ,to, l^|r. .IXrbM^ figned K. T, con- 
taining an eulogium on the writings of Dr. Camp- 


vattoAi on nty Vii^i^t^rfv of ihellfcifc-Hiftojjy d)hl 

^d : conftitati^ ^ l^ft^iaalfifa^^et w g«n§fftl 

thor either did not fee, or would -Hot jfcftiiltft 
what I have advanced, is with a view of illuftrating 
the hiftory of the rtfirit vd\bnhi& of the Britannic 
JUIe^^om dflf^n^qls (lillpr^y^d^the wi^yigs 

,an4 ^were ^^^^pJrel^nd^ScptUwd, j^ncijMw,* Cuipjig ox..^l/h^^ui; ; wiH..haYe »t, ( t}#t 
.jtpy^ritio^s ^re.inten4ed tp ^jtj^r ^cMh^Aip 

fefs, fuch a' motive has been a great fpur f#, my 
Iftbgure, .b«^ih#n0y*r leafJr.m^tQraffert a.fal- 

• • t » ♦ 1 f ; ,. - f 1 

A-a''^"- -'■'■■■ ■' ■ ' ■'■ To 


To filence fuch filly bablers, once for all, we 
will here make a fhort parallel between the Irifti 
hiftory, which I have fupported and explained, 
and the writings of Mr. Pinkerton and Dr. Camp- 
bell ; and on an impartial view it will be found, 
thefe authors do agree in the principal points of 
Irifti hiftory. As to Mr. Ledwich, we leave him, 
and Jornapdes, to make the beft they can of their 
Scandinavian materials. 

r « t 

PA£ : ALL£i?. 

• « 

• »» <"> »f- f t • ■ 1- »» . 

Jrijh Hi/iory kw forth, that the anceftors of Ac 
Irifti were Scythians, who originated ipn Itdh <x 
Per/ia, in Armenia -and Mefopotcrmifry and from 
thence fpread themfelves to the Edxim Sm aftl'to 
the'todian Qteah^ ~*that thfcy ckm^ttefced Egyfr 
^om-whence they migrated xo Spcnhi and fc* the 
Britannic Iftetf* 

•> 1 ■ r 

' f / -fi • • < » » ■• * r ri'r 1 

V a . * * A 

.P. 22. Jbrtiandes was £ Weak wf iter : he puts 
Scandinavian the ancient ScyVhia,; from whence 
he makes them poor down to the 'Etikine, fti&itfe 
ittto Afia, which they fubdue cfcStfii to. Egypt, 
wh£re they conquer 1 ; Vexorer^as^ifeeient writers 
fay the'Scythae did; about; 3660 'years .before 

•• • ..,1. ... 

P. 23. Jornahdes was blindly followed by Ifi- 
dorus, Beda, Paulus Diaconus, and by innume- 
rable other authors in jhje flark ages. Nay fuch 



P' & ft r s a ft i p r. 357 

fin effed may even a very weak writer (for ftrch 
Jornandes is) have upon literature, that one fen- 
-tends of Jornandes has overturned the very b!afis 
of the hiftory of Europe. This famous fentence 
is in his fourth chapter. Ex hac igitur Scandia 
hftfni quqft OFFICINA GENTIUM, aut cert* 
-velut VAGINA NATIONUM, cum rege fa no- 
mine Berig Got hi quondam memorantur egrefli. • ■ > ■ 
Upon this fentence have all modern hiftorians, 
nay fuch writers as Moitfefquieu, Gibbon, and 
- others of the firft name, built ! . Now it can clear- 
ly be {hewn, that Scandinavia was down to a late 
period,, nay/f, at prefent 9 almoft oVef-ro'n \vitji 
enormous forefts, where there was no room for popu- 
lation. Adam of Bremen, who wrote in the ele-. 
venth century, inftru&s us, that, even in Denmark, 
at that timfe, the fea-coafts alone were peopled: 
while the inner parts of t;he country were one 
vaft foreft. If fuch was the cafe of Denmark, 
we may guefs that in Scandinavia even the fhores 
were hardly peopled. 

P. 24. The Scythians came from AJia. From 
Juftin it is apparent that the Scythians, fixt and 
refident in prefent Per/ia, (perhaps 2000 years be- 
fore Ninus) carried on a war with Vexores 1500 
years before the time of Ninus, and, fubduing the 
weft of Afia, made it tributary, till Ninus deli- 
vered it by eftablifibing the Affyrian empire on the 
ruifts of the Scythian. 

P. 26. It is the line of Shem down to Serug, 
and not of Ham or Japhet, who are marked as 

Scythians ; 

358 p. o. s> r a c; r i f. T. 

Scythians; iaaxLSbem was the reputed father of 

P. 27. The Scythian empire .wa* fh<* firft of 
T»hich any memory has reached ti$. SaWrn, Ju- 
piter, Bacchus, &c, were MAonardba of this, firft 
empire, whole iglorifaos a&ioni procured them di- 
vine honours after, chek death. : CftftJfettr emigra- 
4iea, . vgtf number* remained in, Perjifi, and were 
ever known by the name -of Ferfians, as at this 
day. They *wet>e inpt* in their feats tin the Enxine, 
in the time of Herodotus.; he- is himfetf a fnffi- 
cient witnefS) that the Scythians did not xwigihalie 
from Scandinavia but from ptefeiu Perfia., - - 

P. 29. Dk>dor*& Siculus confirms the aoconnt 
of Herodotus, telling -us, that the ^Scythians were 
a nation on the A'rtxes^ whence they fpread to 
Caucafus and -the Pains Maotis- .And had not 
Juftin, Epiphanius, Eufebius and the Chronicon 
•Pafchate remained, we might to this hour con- 
found *wo vaft* events:, the inva&pn of Egypt by 
the Scythae from their original &xt,s^66o years 
before Ghrift, and their later invafian 640 years 
before Chrift :. fo uncertain is' traditional chro- 
nology i 

'■■*■" It 

(a) t Q hone ! »a Sctthianfugh agus na Iudaigbidh do aon hu- 
nadhfo; i.e. the Scythians and Jews -were of the fame flock. — Never 

* did I erpeel to find this aflertion wrified by fo g: eat « writer.— 
I had always looked upon this paflage in Iriih hiftory to have been 
the eJFe& of the vanity of Irifh writers, who produce the line of 

' Erettofn one -of their anceftors from Eafrugh, Son ofSrugh, or 
Stnigh*—" We may now go on collating the Iriftt language with 
the, Jiebrewj without more cenfurc ! 

P O ,S T^S p R,I P..T, 359 

, J| |s &er,efo*e Biftojic Truth, that {he Scythians 
;»roe ftom prefcnt Perfa into Europe by a Northt 
W«ft.»i#gfef$ » and that Scandinavia, inftead of 
Jbefeg; &e country whence they (prong, muft M 
fja$ have b,een ahjwft the hut that received them. 

tended J?m ggtft fo thf QM&f I 4*4. fm % 
pF*JW£#Ifi && f*4*W Sf<f> tAtfaCyfrtoi. The 
conquers of #ac,chi}$, reputed a king of this 
Sqythian dominion, in Ind)a, are famous in anti- 
m^L- . We ^nd in^o-Scythae on . tjie jndus, and 
other remains on the Erythr^an. S,ea, but none 
- beyond the Indo-Scytba;. On the north they ex- 
tended to the Cafpian, Due knowledge of t$s 
firaDJre woujd remove thofe embarraftrnents yrhich 
.the learned .haye faljen into, frpm anient accounjs 
of the wars bep^enthe Scythe a#d .Egyptians, 
vhifc ^eyihja.oin jhfi Eusane.js fo j-empte ijom 

£gyp*< •: • ........ 

JP, 35. Fnam Pionyfi^s yre Jearn that Pontjtft 
Arixwat Iberia, dlkm*, we.?? of tftgiScythae fcf.- 

.ttenents. Th* Mtfirwi M4 Sogdiwi w,exe 
i§cy|hfc. . 

. ?>. &' PT»« £« r fe» ns » who ?«fi?» nd ed itbe 
empire, 530 years before our -3£ra, feerri to have 
-. been the old Scythes of Perfia, ftrengtheneid by 
^o^ioas of the Indo-Scytha;, and from the Scy- 
thian territories on the eaft of the Cafpian (£). 

(£) This Is about the period Irifh hiftory makes the great 
emigration of their Scytbiao. aoct$#rft from £gyj£ to Qrete, 
$icaly, i>pain aad iteJfriftsjtfifc tilth ;¥?0« ^babal or j^fiiefiui. 

360 POST 8 C R ; I p *r* 

P. 45. They extended dowrt the fliores of Ac, 
Eiixine, about iiobo years before Chrift . Europe, 
ait that time, feems to have been thinly inhabited 
by a few wandering Celts; who were to the Scythes, 
what the favages of America are to the Europeans. 
The Celts from the Euxine to the Baltic were 
called Cimmerii, Cumri, Cimbri or Cumbri. 

The north and eaft of Britain were peopled by 
the Cimbri of the oppofite fhores. From the 
fouth of Britain the Cimbri or Cumri expelled 
the Gael into Ireland, as their own writers and 
traditions, bear (7) ; and the oldeft names in 
Wales as in other parts fouth of Humber are Gaelic 
(trilh) not Cumraig (Wellh). 

The Iberi (Scythas) had patted from Africa to 
Spain and feized on the fouth weft part of Gaul, 
where they bore the name of Aquitani. 

P. 76. It is hiftoric truth that the Pela/gi and 
Hellenes were Scythians. Diodorus Sic. and Pau- 
fanias in Afia, (hew, that the Greeks had letters 
before C&dmus : and that the Petafgic, or real an- 
cient Greek alphabet, differed from the Phoeni- 
cian. An antiquary will find refemblaftces in 
things wholly unlike : but the ancient Greek al- 
phabet is not Phoenician. The invention of letters 
fo ridiculoujly difiuffed^ is the tnoji Jimple foffMe : 
and at leajl *a dozen nations have all invented letters. 
It is the common ufe of letters that attends civilized 
fociety. The invention may belong to the rudejt (d). 


{«) Tfctt is alfo confirmed by Beda. 

{<?■ B*caufe thty were at firft on3y numerals. See Ch. IIL 

POSf SC RIP'T, 361 

Plato witneSes that the Scythet bad letters ; and 
the Pelafgic or Greek were furely Scythic. Of 
Scytbie letters, fee alfo Euftathius. 

P. 17. Not one of the ancients confounds the 
Scythae with the Celts. The Celts were, to the 
other races, what the Savages of America are to 
the European fettlers there. 

P, 68. Pelloutier liras fo ignorant as to take 
the Celts and Scythae for one people, infpiteof 
all the ancients who mark them as literally. Mo 
cab different, and in fpite of our pofitive know- 
ledge here in Britain, who know the Celts to be 
mere radical favages, not yet advanced even to a 
(late of barbarifm. 

Dr. Campbell. 


Stri&ures, p. 64- At the fame time, (till far- 
ther be it from me to deny my affent to the tra- 
dition, that a Scythian people, coming laft from 
Spain, did fettle here at a very early period. On 
the contrary there is firm ground for perfuafion, 
that a very confiderable intercourfe did formerly 
fubfift between Spain and Ireland. That the 
Goths, and other Scythian nations, had taken 
pofl'effion of different parts of Spain, at very dif- 
ferent periods, is well authenticated. We are told 
by Orojius, who flourifhed in the fourth century, 
that the Scythians, expulfed from Gallicia in 
Spain, by Conftantine the Great, took (helter in 
Ireland ; where they found the country already un- 

dat tip dmivwtf 4far {(Wfryamtii* %*V p* 

. ... .•'..„.. 

Afletfs the fofft/cdoBies.eaoia from Spam tpitte 
flrrtaantc tfles under the coadu<fr of //^ Of Ufa* 
baal % the Governor of Tyre, whom Fhceoiciw 
Hiftory fiieTOr'-wft? alfo called iWtfN ff?o Matab- 
\Afa' t whkk iqamp was written by xhe Into AO&r 
y7«rr. . They alfo. affirm that they came here, a letr 
*ewd and a learned people, and all the Irife fcig- 
Clients thai can becolie&ed tefiify ttie faure (/•)♦ '. 

• * ** 


Pref. p. viii. What applaufe of the juftice, of 
the fortitude, of 4he temper aft ee, of the wifdom 
of the Scythjans, iji the Qrecian page, from He- 
rodotus to ths la'tefl: period ! ^Vhat applaufe of 
the fame virtues of the fame popple', under the 
names, of Scythians or Goths, in {he Roman works, 
eveji after they had feized .the Roman empire] 
Dio calls them the wifeft of mankind. Herodotus 
fays, they were, both learned and wife — but their 
enemies hqve been their hijlorians. 

Irjsii History. 

The Irilb hiAory is therefore founded on trutb, 
in fpme places wrapt in allegory. 


(c) bwk nh>v Malab Afis, Nauta robuftua. 

P O. S- T: S JC R I^F T; j6§ 

•^ * 4 * 

: .'; . JMr, PUWERTOK. 

-• iP. i*i-" Odin irf the ScanditeViatt ^yAfahSi 
a*pa; never ia .tife-^Ddin the hero, Who fed . tfei 
Goths frpm Afcu, i* oaifcunded iri&iOdin : Jfe£ 
<&>£ df 'War. 33**btt>* Odin k a non^Kiftence. 
The wHoU affiut - & an atiegory.— This k ' «* 
■fbod^x't" • j v\m'. • ••••' * .'■ • • *** 

€^I. ^jlancey-fhewt<that Scota of foiftibiftor^ 
is alfo an allegory, J64&* -^grcat ^iverfiori of tfedfr 
reverences the Hibernian Reviewers (</). He will, 
notwithstanding conriaue to prove/ the hiftoric^il 
.fo&s ccmtained it* kift tuftary 5 by a coJlarien of 
languages : 

BECAUSE, Mr. Pinkerton affures us of this 
undeniable truth, p. 115, that in examining the 
origin of nations , language is an infallible criterion. 
P. 109. Language is a mojl permanent matter, and 
not even total revolutions in nations can change it. 

BECAUSE, we are affured by the learijed 
Monf. Bailly, it is an incontejlible maxim that Sci- 
ence originated with that people, in whofe language 
the technical terms are to be found (e). 

And was I to fet about the inveftigation of 

Northern antiquities, I would certainly begin, 

with collating the Northern diale&s with the 

Turkilh language 


[d) No nation more fond of allegory than the Irifh. Their 
ancient poets were celebrated for their Mstmeadh or allegorical 
poems : may I be permitted to fay no other language than the 
Arabic has a word of this fignification, viz. mamma, a verfe of 
occult myfterious meaning. (Richardfon. Golius. : 

(e) Une fcience eft ifiue du pais, 6u les mcts techniques dont 
ellc fe fert, ont pris naifTance ; e'eft un principe inconteftabie* 
(Lettr. fur l'Atlantide). 


BECAUSE, it is a general tradition, and the 
molt eminent northern hiftorian*, Torfem, Stur- 
laug, Sturlefon, and others, do aflat, that a large 
body of Turks did colonize Scandinavia (f). 

We i¥>w conclude, lamenting with the great 
author of the Sublime and Beautiful, that beau 
are kindled among wife and learned men, upon fub- 
je€ts y which* in tbemfelves+feem the Uqfl (fall others 
of a nature to rouze tbepafftons ( g). 

(f) Torfseus in ferie regum Danise p. 148. Sturlaogus no- 
tie Torfsi. Sturlaefon in rrolog. Eddae UpfaL 

(g) Letter from. Mr Burke to«CoL Vafiancey, on the pub- 
lication of Dr. Campbell's Strictures, dedicated to Mr. Burke* 

■* ■* k •»" 

C 3«S ] 

To Col. Charles Vallancey, Miltown. 

Dublin, Eccks-ftrcct, ipth May, 1790. 

'Dear Sir, 

YOU beg a copy of the pafiage refpe&ing 
Irifh literature in the letter with which Sir William 
Jones lately honored me from Bengal. I can deny 
you nothing ; b^C on this pccaftan, , t wjjt confefs 
it pains me to meet your wifhes. I cannot, with- 
out doing violence to my feelings, tranfcribe fo 
flattering a compliment, tp myfelf.— " , The literal 
" tiife of Ireland (fays .Sir William); is extremely 
c * interjfting ; and. I heartily rejoice ihat fucb men 
" as CoiVallancey andyowfelf arf labourers for 
" fh# fake of the fublic in fo abundant, a mine." 

: The anecdotes : concerning jthe hiftpry of Chefs 
in Ireland, which I mentioned to you laft week at 
Miltpwn, were originally colle&ed at tjie requeft 
of Mr r Twifs, .when he was. about to publifh the 
^d "Volume of his " Chefs." He was pleafed to in- 
fert fome of them in that work, but without any 
^onneftiop. I Jiave fince given them the form of 
a memoir, which I, have ijow the pleafure tp en^ 
jclpfe.^). ;,-•'•. '. 1.. • 

.., r . . . Believe- rge, 

Dear Sir,.. , 

Your faithful friend," J 
... And obedient fer.Ya.nt, 



(a) See the words Bruigh, Fil, Cubliaj, Pjicorna, Poic iM, 
in the preceding Law' Gloflary^. "' 

< « 


exiftencc was of (hort duratidn. In for about the 
year 1780 another Cheft-clab was fbm\ed in Dub* 
lift, and is ftill in bang ; but it is fo feebly ^port- 
ed, that the hour of its diiblution cannot be Jar 
djftant. !: ? :.-' [ 1 ■ .U 

.But Chefs was aot the only game on the. tables 
in ufe among the <arly Irifl* : the game of Fajlm*jl 
fometimes beguiled the leifure of our ancestors* 
Three perfoiis were concerned in_ this gamd, 
and each throw the dice by turns. AnditJrts 
been obferved, that the ruftics in Connaught play 
at Taibb-Iiofg, or Backgammon* remarkably i?eH 
at this day. u It is no uncommon fight (fays Col. 
Vallancey) to fee tables cut out of a green fodj or 
on the furfece of a dry bog (*)." Hie dice are 
made of wood or bone. I have obferved elfe- 
where, that Carolan, when blind, continued to 
play at Backgammon with eminent, (kill (f). 

(e) ColleS. <le Reb. Hib. Vol. 3; p. j$o. 

(/) Hift. Mcift. of Irifc Banls, Append, p. <$ 

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